Bolsheviks revolt in Russia

Bolsheviks revolt in Russia

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Led by Bolshevik Party leader Vladimir Lenin, leftist revolutionaries launch a nearly bloodless coup d’État against Russia’s ineffectual Provisional Government. The Bolsheviks and their allies occupied government buildings and other strategic locations in the Russian capital of Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) and within two days had formed a new government with Lenin as its head. Bolshevik Russia, later renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was the world’s first Marxist state.

Born Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov in 1870, Lenin was drawn to the revolutionary cause after his brother was executed in 1887 for plotting to assassinate Czar Alexander III. He studied law and took up practice in Petrograd, where he associated with revolutionary Marxist circles. In 1895, he helped organize Marxist groups in the capital into the “Union for the Struggle for the Liberation of the Working Class,” which attempted to enlist workers to the Marxist cause. In December 1895, Lenin and the other leaders of the Union were arrested. Lenin was jailed for a year and then exiled to Siberia for a term of three years.

After the end of his exile, in 1900, Lenin went to Western Europe, where he continued his revolutionary activity. It was during this time that he adopted the pseudonym Lenin. In 1902, he published a pamphlet titled What Is to Be Done? which argued that only a disciplined party of professional revolutionaries could bring socialism to Russia. In 1903, he met with other Russian Marxists in London and established the Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party (RSDWP). However, from the start there was a split between Lenin’s Bolsheviks (Majoritarians), who advocated militarism, and the Mensheviks (Minoritarians), who advocated a democratic movement toward socialism. These two groups increasingly opposed each other within the framework of the RSDWP, and Lenin made the split official at a 1912 conference of the Bolshevik Party.

READ MORE: The Russian Revolution

After the outbreak of the Russian Revolution of 1905, Lenin returned to Russia. The revolution, which consisted mainly of strikes throughout the Russian empire, came to an end when Nicholas II promised reforms, including the adoption of a Russian constitution and the establishment of an elected legislature. However, once order was restored, the czar nullified most of these reforms, and in 1907 Lenin was again forced into exile.

Lenin opposed World War I, which began in 1914, as an imperialistic conflict and called on proletariat soldiers to turn their guns on the capitalist leaders who sent them down into the murderous trenches. For Russia, World War I was an unprecedented disaster: Russian casualties were greater than those sustained by any nation in any previous war. Meanwhile, the Russian economy was hopelessly disrupted by the costly war effort, and in March 1917 riots and strikes broke out in Petrograd over the scarcity of food. Demoralized army troops joined the strikers, and on March 15, Nicholas II was forced to abdicate, ending centuries of czarist rule. In the aftermath of the February Revolution (known as such because of Russia’s use of the Julian calendar), power was shared between the weak Provisional Government and the soviets, or “councils,” of soldiers’ and workers’ committees.

After the outbreak of the February Revolution, German authorities allowed Lenin and his lieutenants to cross Germany en route from Switzerland to Sweden in a sealed railway car. Berlin hoped (correctly) that the return of the anti-war Socialists to Russia would undermine the Russian war effort, which was continuing under the Provisional Government. Lenin called for the overthrow of the Provisional Government by the soviets, and he was condemned as a “German agent” by the government’s leaders. In July, he was forced to flee to Finland, but his call for “peace, land, and bread” met with increasing popular support, and the Bolsheviks won a majority in the Petrograd soviet. In October, Lenin secretly returned to Petrograd, and on November 6-8 the Bolshevik-led Red Guards deposed the Provisional Government and proclaimed soviet rule.

Lenin became the virtual dictator of the first Marxist state in the world. His government made peace with Germany, nationalized industry, and distributed land, but beginning in 1918 had to fight a devastating civil war against czarist forces. In 1920, the czarists were defeated, and in 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established. Upon Lenin’s death, in early 1924, his body was embalmed and placed in a mausoleum near the Moscow Kremlin. Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honor. After a struggle for succession, fellow revolutionary Joseph Stalin succeeded Lenin as leader of the Soviet Union.

READ MORE: The Russian Revolution, Through American Eyes

The Russian Revolution: A New History

The Russian Revolution: A New History is a revisionist political history of the Russian Revolution written by Sean McMeekin and published by Basic Books in 2017. The release was timed with the 100th anniversary of the Russian Revolution. [1]


Despite occurring in November of the Gregorian calendar, the event is most commonly known as the "October Revolution" ( Октябрьская революция ) because at the time Russia still used the Julian calendar. The event is sometimes known as the "November Revolution", after the Soviet Union modernized its calendar. [3] [4] [5] To avoid confusion, both O.S and N.S. dates have been given for events. For more details see Old Style and New Style dates.

At first, the event was referred to as the "October Coup" ( Октябрьский переворот ) or the "Uprising of the 3rd," as seen in contemporary documents (for example, in the first editions of Lenin's complete works).

February Revolution Edit

The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and replaced his government with the Russian Provisional Government. However, the provisional government was weak and riven by internal dissension. It continued to wage World War I, which became increasingly unpopular. There was a nationwide crisis affecting social, economic, and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, and difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased. Gross industrial production in 1917 decreased by over 36% of what it had been in 1914. In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises in the Urals, the Donbas, and other industrial centers were closed down, leading to mass unemployment. At the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell to about 50% of what they had been in 1913. By October 1917, Russia's national debt had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles. The country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy.

Unrest by workers, peasants, and soldiers Edit

Throughout June, July, and August 1917, it was common to hear working-class Russians speak about their lack of confidence in the Provisional Government. Factory workers around Russia felt unhappy with the growing shortages of food, supplies, and other materials. They blamed their managers or foremen and would even attack them in the factories. The workers blamed many rich and influential individuals for the overall shortage of food and poor living conditions. Workers saw these rich and powerful individuals as opponents of the Revolution, and called them "bourgeois", "capitalist", and "imperialist". [6]

In September and October 1917, there were mass strike actions by the Moscow and Petrograd workers, miners in the Donbas, metalworkers in the Urals, oil workers in Baku, textile workers in the Central Industrial Region, and railroad workers on 44 railway lines. In these months alone, more than a million workers took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution. [7] Workers organized these strikes through factory committees. The factory committees represented the workers and were able to negotiate better working conditions, pay, and hours. Even though workplace conditions may have been increasing in quality, the overall quality of life for workers was not improving. There were still shortages of food and the increased wages workers had obtained did little to provide for their families. [6]

By October 1917, peasant uprisings were common. By autumn, the peasant movement against the landowners had spread to 482 of 624 counties, or 77% of the country. As 1917 progressed, the peasantry increasingly began to lose faith that the land would be distributed to them by the Social Revolutionaries and the Mensheviks. Refusing to continue living as before, they increasingly took measures into their own hands, as can be seen by the increase in the number and militancy of the peasant's actions. From the beginning of September to the October Revolution there were over a third as many peasant actions than since March. Over 42% of all the cases of destruction (usually burning down and seizing property from the landlord's estate) recorded between February and October occurred in October. [8] While the uprisings varied in severity, complete uprisings and seizures of the land were not uncommon. Less robust forms of protest included marches on landowner manors and government offices, as well as withholding and storing grains rather than selling them. [9] When the Provisional Government sent punitive detachments, it only enraged the peasants. In September, the garrisons in Petrograd, Moscow, and other cities, the Northern and Western fronts, and the sailors of the Baltic Fleet declared through their elected representative body Tsentrobalt that they did not recognize the authority of the Provisional Government and would not carry out any of its commands. [10]

Soldiers' wives were key players in the unrest in the villages. From 1914 to 1917, almost 50% of healthy men were sent to war, and many were killed on the front, resulting in many females being head of the household. Often—when government allowances were late and were not sufficient to match the rising costs of goods—soldiers' wives sent masses of appeals to the government, which went largely unanswered. Frustration resulted, and these women were influential in inciting "subsistence riots"—also referred to as "hunger riots," "pogroms," or "baba riots." In these riots, citizens seized food and resources from shop owners, who they believed to be charging unfair prices. Upon police intervention, protesters responded with "rakes, sticks, rocks, and fists." [11]

Antiwar demonstrations Edit

In a diplomatic note of 1 May, the minister of foreign affairs, Pavel Milyukov, expressed the Provisional Government's desire to continue the war against the Central Powers "to a victorious conclusion", arousing broad indignation. On 1–4 May, about 100,000 workers and soldiers of Petrograd, and, after them, the workers and soldiers of other cities, led by the Bolsheviks, demonstrated under banners reading "Down with the war!" and "All power to the soviets!" The mass demonstrations resulted in a crisis for the Provisional Government. [12] 1 July saw more demonstrations, as about 500,000 workers and soldiers in Petrograd demonstrated, again demanding "all power to the soviets," "down with the war," and "down with the ten capitalist ministers." The Provisional Government opened an offensive against the Central Powers on 1 July, which soon collapsed. The news of the offensive's failure intensified the struggle of the workers and the soldiers. A new crisis in the Provisional Government began on 15 July. [ citation needed ]

July days Edit

On 16 July, spontaneous demonstrations of workers and soldiers began in Petrograd, demanding that power be turned over to the soviets. The Central Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party provided leadership to the spontaneous movements. On 17 July, over 500,000 people participated in what was intended to be a peaceful demonstration in Petrograd, the so-called July Days. The Provisional Government, with the support of Socialist-Revolutionary Party-Menshevik leaders of the All-Russian Executive Committee of the Soviets, ordered an armed attack against the demonstrators, killing hundreds. [13]

A period of repression followed. On 5–6 July, attacks were made on the editorial offices and printing presses of Pravda and on the Palace of Kshesinskaya, where the Central Committee and the Petrograd Committee of the Bolsheviks were located. On 7 July, the government ordered the arrest and trial of Vladimir Lenin, who was forced to go underground, as he had done under the Tsarist regime. Bolsheviks were arrested, workers were disarmed, and revolutionary military units in Petrograd were disbanded or sent to the war front. On 12 July, the Provisional Government published a law introducing the death penalty at the front. The second coalition government was formed on 24 July, chaired by Alexander Kerensky. [14]

In response to a Bolshevik appeal, Moscow's working class began a protest strike of 400,000 workers. They were supported by strikes and protest rallies by workers in Kiev, Kharkov, Nizhny Novgorod, Ekaterinburg, and other cities.

Kornilov affair Edit

In what became known as the Kornilov affair, General Lavr Kornilov, who had been Commander-in-Chief since 18 July, with Kerensky's agreement directed an army under Aleksandr Krymov to march toward Petrograd to restore order. [15] Details remain sketchy, but Kerensky appeared to become frightened by the possibility that the army would stage a coup, and reversed the order. By contrast, historian Richard Pipes has argued that the episode was engineered by Kerensky. [16] On 27 August, feeling betrayed by the government, Kornilov pushed on towards Petrograd. With few troops to spare at the front, Kerensky turned to the Petrograd Soviet for help. Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, and Socialist Revolutionaries confronted the army and convinced them to stand down. [17] The Bolsheviks' influence over railroad and telegraph workers also proved vital in stopping the movement of troops. Right-wingers felt betrayed, and the left-wing was resurgent.

With Kornilov defeated, the Bolsheviks' popularity in the soviets grew significantly, both in the central and local areas. On 31 August, the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies—and, on 5 September, the Moscow Soviet Workers Deputies—adopted the Bolshevik resolutions on the question of power. The Bolsheviks won a majority in the soviets of Briansk, Samara, Saratov, Tsaritsyn, Minsk, Kiev, Tashkent, and other cities.

German support Edit

Vladimir Lenin, who had been living in exile in Switzerland, with other dissidents organized a plan to negotiate a passage for them through Germany, with whom Russia was then at war. Recognizing that these dissidents could cause problems for their Russian enemies, the German government agreed to permit 32 Russian citizens, among them Lenin and his wife, to travel in a sealed train carriage through their territory. According to Deutsche Welle:

On November 7, 1917, a coup d'état went down in history as the October Revolution. The interim government was toppled, the Soviets seized power, and Russia later terminated the Triple Entente military alliance with France and Britain. For Russia, it was effectively the end of the war. Kaiser Wilhelm II had spent around half a billion euros ($582 million) in today's money to weaken his wartime enemy. [18]

Planning Edit

On 10 October 1917 (O.S. 23 October, N.S.), the Bolsheviks' Central Committee voted 10–2 for a resolution saying that "an armed uprising is inevitable, and that the time for it is fully ripe." [19] At the Committee meeting, Lenin discussed how the people of Russia had waited long enough for "an armed uprising," and it was the Bolsheviks' time to take power. Lenin expressed his confidence in the success of the planned insurrection. His confidence stemmed from months of Bolshevik buildup of power and successful elections to different committees and councils in major cities such as Petrograd and Moscow. [20]

The Bolsheviks created a revolutionary military committee within the Petrograd soviet, led by the soviet's president, Trotsky. The committee included armed workers, sailors, and soldiers, and assured the support or neutrality of the capital's garrison. The committee methodically planned to occupy strategic locations through the city, almost without concealing their preparations: the Provisional Government's president Kerensky was himself aware of them and some details, leaked by Lev Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev, were published in newspapers. [21] [22]

Onset Edit

In the early morning of 24 October (O.S. 6 November N.S.), a group of soldiers loyal to Kerensky's government marched on the printing house of the Bolshevik newspaper, Rabochiy put (Worker's Path), seizing and destroying printing equipment and thousands of newspapers. Shortly thereafter, the government announced the immediate closure of not only Rabochiy put but also the left-wing Soldat, as well as the far-right newspapers Zhivoe slovo and Novaia Rus. The editors and contributors of these newspapers were seen to be calling for insurrection and were to be prosecuted on criminal charges. [23]

In response, at 9 a.m. the Bolshevik Military-Revolutionary Committee issued a statement denouncing the government's actions. At 10 a.m., Bolshevik-aligned soldiers successfully retook the Rabochiy put printing house. Kerensky responded at approximately 3 p.m. that afternoon by ordering the raising of all but one of Petrograd's bridges, a tactic used by the government several months earlier during the July Days. What followed was a series of sporadic clashes over control of the bridges, between Red Guard militias aligned with the Military-Revolutionary Committee and military units still loyal to the government. At approximately 5 p.m. the Military-Revolutionary Committee seized the Central Telegraph of Petrograd, giving the Bolsheviks control over communications through the city. [23] [24]

On 25 October (O.S. 7 November, N.S.) 1917, the Bolsheviks led their forces in the uprising in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg, then capital of Russia) against the Provisional Government. The event coincided with the arrival of a pro-Bolshevik flotilla—consisting primarily of five destroyers and their crews, as well as marines—in Petrograd harbor. At Kronstadt, sailors announced their allegiance to the Bolshevik insurrection. In the early morning, from its heavily guarded and picketed headquarters in Smolny Palace, the Military-Revolutionary Committee designated the last of the locations to be assaulted or seized. The Red Guards systematically captured major government facilities, key communication installations, and vantage points with little opposition. The Petrograd Garrison and most of the city's military units joined the insurrection against the Provisional Government. [22] The insurrection was timed and organized to hand state power to the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, which began on this day.

Kerensky and the Provisional Government were virtually helpless to offer significant resistance. Railways and railway stations had been controlled by Soviet workers and soldiers for days, making rail travel to and from Petrograd impossible for Provisional Government officials. The Provisional Government was also unable to locate any serviceable vehicles. On the morning of the insurrection, Kerensky desperately searched for a means of reaching military forces he hoped would be friendly to the Provisional Government outside the city and ultimately borrowed a Renault car from the American embassy, which he drove from the Winter Palace, along with a Pierce Arrow. Kerensky was able to evade the pickets going up around the palace and to drive to meet approaching soldiers. [23]

As Kerensky left Petrograd, Lenin wrote a proclamation To the Citizens of Russia, stating that the Provisional Government had been overthrown by the Military-Revolutionary Committee. The proclamation was sent by telegraph throughout Russia, even as the pro-Soviet soldiers were seizing important control centers throughout the city. One of Lenin's intentions was to present members of the Soviet congress, who would assemble that afternoon, with a fait accompli and thus forestall further debate on the wisdom or legitimacy of taking power. [23]

Assault on the Winter Palace Edit

A final assault against the Winter Palace—against 3,000 cadets, officers, cossacks, and female soldiers—was not vigorously resisted. [23] [25] The Bolsheviks delayed the assault because they could not find functioning artillery and acted with restraint to avoid needless violence. [26] At 6:15 p.m., a large group of artillery cadets abandoned the palace, taking their artillery with them. At 8:00 p.m., 200 cossacks left the palace and returned to their barracks. [23]

While the cabinet of the provisional government within the palace debated what action to take, the Bolsheviks issued an ultimatum to surrender. Workers and soldiers occupied the last of the telegraph stations, cutting off the cabinet's communications with loyal military forces outside the city. As the night progressed, crowds of insurgents surrounded the palace, and many infiltrated it. [23] At 9:45 p.m, the cruiser Aurora fired a blank shot from the harbor. Some of the revolutionaries entered the palace at 10:25 p.m. and there was a mass entry 3 hours later.

By 2:10 a.m. on 26 October, Bolshevik forces had gained control. The Cadets and the 140 volunteers of the Women's Battalion surrendered rather than resist the 40,000 strong attacking force. [27] [28] After sporadic gunfire throughout the building, the cabinet of the Provisional Government surrendered, and were imprisoned in Peter and Paul Fortress. The only member who was not arrested was Kerensky himself, who had already left the palace. [23] [29]

With the Petrograd Soviet now in control of government, garrison, and proletariat, the Second All Russian Congress of Soviets held its opening session on the day, while Trotsky dismissed the opposing Mensheviks and the Socialist Revolutionaries (SR) from Congress.

Dybenko's disputed role Edit

Some sources contend that as the leader of Tsentrobalt, Pavlo Dybenko played a crucial role in the revolt and that the ten warships that arrived at the city with ten thousand Baltic Fleet mariners were the force that took the power in Petrograd and put down the Provisional Government. The same mariners then dispersed by force the elected parliament of Russia, [30] and used machine-gun fire against demonstrators in Petrograd, [ citation needed ] killing about 100 demonstrators and wounding several hundred. [ citation needed ] Dybenko in his memoirs mentioned this event as "several shots in the air". These are disputed by various sources, such as Louise Bryant, [31] who claims that news outlets in the West at the time reported that the unfortunate loss of life occurred in Moscow, not Petrograd, and the number was much less than suggested above. As for the "several shots in the air", there is little evidence suggesting otherwise.

Later Soviet portrayal Edit

While the seizure of the Winter Palace happened almost without resistance, Soviet historians and officials later tended to depict the event in dramatic and heroic terms. [22] [32] [33] The historical reenactment titled The Storming of the Winter Palace was staged in 1920. This reenactment, watched by 100,000 spectators, provided the model for official films made later, which showed fierce fighting during the storming of the Winter Palace, [34] although, in reality, the Bolshevik insurgents had faced little opposition. [25]

Later stories of the heroic "Storming of the Winter Palace" and "defense of the Winter Palace" were propaganda by Bolshevik publicists. Grandiose paintings depicting the "Women's Battalion" and photo stills taken from Sergei Eisenstein's staged film depicting the "politically correct" version of the October events in Petrograd came to be taken as truth. [35]

In February 1917, the Czarist government's poor management of World War I had helped to inspire a popular uprising, known as the February Revolution. This first component of the Russian Revolution forced the abdication of Czar Nicholas II. It placed in power a Provisional Government of liberal and socialist factions, ultimately under the leadership of Socialist Revolutionary party member Alexander Kerensky. This brief experiment with pluralist democracy was a chaotic one, and in the summer months, the continual deterioration of the war effort and an increasingly dire economic situation caused Russian workers, soldiers, and sailors to riot ("The July Days").

On October 24–25, 1917, Bolshevik (left-wing socialist) forces under Vladimir Lenin seized key government buildings and stormed the Winter Palace, then the seat of the new government in Russia's capital, Petrograd (now St. Petersburg). The Bolshevik Revolution, also referred to as the "Great October Socialist Revolution," was the first successful Marxist coup in history. During this chapter of the Russian Revolution, the ineffectual Provisional Government was dislodged and ultimately replaced with a Soviet Socialist Republic under Lenin's leadership.

The Jewish-Led Russian Revolution

Note: This article was sourced from The Noble Protagonist’s 1,100 page E-book, “The Battle to preserve Western Civilization (European Folk Soul vs. Jewish Supremacy). Free E-Book available at:

As soon as the Jew is in possession of political power, he drops the last few veils which have hitherto helped to conceal his features. Out of the democratic Jew, the Jew of the People, arises the Jew of the Blood, the tyrant of the peoples. In the course of a few years he endeavors to exterminate all those who represent the national intelligence. And by thus depriving the peoples of their natural intellectual leaders he fits them for their fate as slaves under a lasting despotism.” -Hitler

Russia furnishes the most terrible example of such a slavery. In that country the Jew killed or starved thirty millions of the people, in a bout of savage fanaticism, and partly by the employment of inhuman torture. And he did this so that a gang of Jewish literati (intellectuals) & financial bandits should dominate over a great people.” -Hitler

The final consequence (Russian Revolution) is not merely that the people lose all their freedom under the domination of the Jews, but that in the end these parasites themselves disappear. The death of the victim is followed sooner or later by that of the vampire.” -Hitler

The Jewish international struggle… always end in bloody Bolshevization… the destruction of the intellectual upper classes associated with the various peoples, so that he himself will be able to rise to mastery over the now leaderless humanity.” -Hitler

This is the greatest crisis in which humanity has ever found itself, the greatest upheaval since the advent of Christianity. It may be unpleasant for democratic statesmen to concern themselves with Bolshevism, but it will not matter whether they will want to or not, they will have to deal with it.” -Hitler


The world revolution which we will experience will be exclusively our affair and will rest in our hands. This revolution will tighten the Jewish domination over all other people.” -Peuple Juif, February 8. 1919.

Communism is Judaism! The Jewish Revolution in Russia was in 1917.” -H.H. Beamish, British patriot and founder of the Britons

Socialism, Communism, and Bolshevism, in reality, are only links in the plan of world-embracing Judaism, with its final purpose of forcing the entire world under Jewish domination.” -Ernst F. Elmhurst, author of The World Hoax

According to the U.S. State Department’s documents, a group of powerful Jewish financial elites were planning the overthrown of the Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, in 1916. These plotters included Jacob Schiff, Mortimer Schiff, Felix Warburg, Otto Kahn and Issac Zeelman. They decided that Russia should be destroyed and a communist dictatorial regime would be implemented, subservient to the dictates of International Jewry.

The fact that is never taught in school, or talked about in the media, is that Communism was a Jewish totalitarian ideology invented by Jews, funded by Jewish bankers, and economically managed & brutally enforced by Jewish Soviet Bolsheviks.

Without big banks, Socialism would be impossible.” -Lenin

As a boy, the tsar, Nicholas II had witnessed the assassination of the Tsar Alexander II by the Jewish terrorist, Vera Figner, leader of a terrorist group called, “The People’s Will”.

Tensions between the Jews & Christian Russians erupted. Nicholas’ great tragic mistake was in failing to execute the Communists, before it was too late, after a failed 1905 revolution. Following the February Revolution in 1917, the Bolsheviks forced the Nicolas II to abdicate. The Jew, Alexander Kerensky was given $1,000,000 from the Jewish Wall Street banker, Jacob Schiff, to immediately free all political prisoners and lift the ban on political exiles, to permit them to return back to Russia.

The Jews have undoubtedly to a large extent furnished the brains & energy in the revolution throughout Russia.” -George von Longerke (US Ambassador to Russia)

Jewish revolutionaries quickly flooded in to any and all public offices. Anarchy began, as criminals plundered houses and people were murdered & robbed. The Jew, Jacob Schiff, was chairman of the Kuhn Loeb bank and an assistant of the Rothschild banking family. He took care of the communications between the revolutionary movement in Russia and the Jewish Masonic Order, B’nai B’rith.

On March 27, 1917, the Jacob Schiff and Max Warburg (Jew) sent Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Jew), better known as “Trotsky” and his group of Jewish communists off to Russia, to lead a revolution with no less than 20 million dollars in gold. Today worth billions! Some 90,000 exiles, mostly Jews & Freemasons, returned from all over the world to infiltrate Russia. Most of them changed their Jewish names to blend into the European society better.

Although officially Jews have never made up more than five percent of Russia’s total population, they played a highly disproportionate & decisive role in the infant Bolshevik regime, effectively dominating the Soviet government during its early years after the 1917 Red October Revolution.

Although Jews formed less than five percent of Russia’s population, they formed more than fifty percent of its revolutionaries.” -Chaim Bermant (Jewish writer)

With the notable exception of Lenin (Vladimir Ulyanov) who was a quarter Jew on his mother’s father’s side, most of the leading Communists who took control of Russia in 1917-1920 were Jews. Leon Trotsky (Lev Bronstein) headed the Red Army and was chief of Soviet foreign affairs. Yakov Sverdlov (Solomon) was both the Bolshevik party’s executive secretary & chairman of the Central Executive Committee, the head of the Soviet government. Grigori Zinoviev (Radomyslsky) was the head of the Communist International (Comintern), the central agency for spreading Marxist (Red) revolution in foreign countries.

Other prominent Jews included press commissar Karl Radek (Sobelsohn), foreign affairs commissar Maxim Litvinov (Wallach), Lev Kamenev (Rosenfeld) and Moisei Uritsky.

Of the 22 ministers in the first Soviet government, 17 were Jews. The few who were not themselves Jewish, often were Freemasons, had Jewish wives, and spoke Yiddish.

The Bolsheviks revolution in Russia was the work of Jewish brains, of Jewish dissatisfaction, of Jewish planning, whose goal is to create a new order in the world.” -The American Hebrew, 1920

It is not known for sure if Stalin was Jewish, but at least he spoke Yiddish and had three Jewish wives. The Los Angeles B’nai B’rith Messenger credited Stalin as being a Jew. He may have been a Georgian Jew.

The materialistic & mechanized state devoid from Nature was always Lenin’s dream.” -Willally (Renegade Tribune)

Vladmir Lenin was a dedicated “internationalist”. He viewed ethnic or cultural loyalties with contempt, and had little regard for his own White (Gentile) Russian countrymen. He once commented, “An intelligent Russian is almost always a Jew or someone with Jewish blood in his veins.”

Some call it Communism, but I call it Judaism.” -Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise

Well-informed observers, both inside and outside of Russia, took note at the time of the crucial Jewish role in Bolshevism. Winston Churchill, who would later ally with International Jewry, warned in a 1920 issue of London’s “Illustrated Sunday Herald” that “Bolshevism is a worldwide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilization and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of envious malevolence and impossible equality.”

Winston Churchill further noted, “There is no need to exaggerate the part played in the creation of Bolshevism and in the actual bringing about of the Russian Revolution by these international and for the most part atheistical Jews… In the Soviet institutions the predominance of Jews is even more astonishing. And the prominent, if not indeed the principal, part in the system of terrorism applied by the Extraordinary Commissions for Combating Counter-Revolution (Cheka) has been taken by Jews, and in some notable cases by Jewesses.”

The Communists are against religion (Christianity), and they seek to destroy religion yet, when we look deeper into the nature of Communism, we see that it is essentially nothing else than our religion (Judaism)… The communist soul is the soul of Judaism.” -Rabi Harry Waton

David R. Francis, United States ambassador in Russia, warned in a January 1918 dispatch to Washington, “The Bolshevik leaders here, most of whom are Jews and 90 percent of whom are returned exiles, care little for Russia or any other country but are internationalists and they are trying to start a worldwide social revolution.”

The Netherlands’ ambassador in Russia, Oudendyke, also warned, “Unless Bolshevism is nipped in the bud immediately, it is bound to spread in one form or another over Europe and the whole world as it is organized and worked by Jews who have no nationality, and whose one object is to destroy for their own ends the existing order of things.”

A leading American Jewish community paper in 1920, proudly declared, “The Bolshevik Revolution was largely the product of Jewish thinking, Jewish discontent, Jewish effort to reconstruct.”

Zionism is a political program for the conquest of the world. Zionism destroyed Russia by violence as a warning to other nations.” -Henry H. Klein (anti-Zionist Jew)

After a lengthy stay in Russia, American-Jewish scholar, Frank Golder, reported in 1925 that “because so many of the Soviet leaders are Jews, anti-Semitism is gaining, particularly in the army, among the old and new intelligentsia who are being crowded for positions by the sons of Israel.”

The Jewish role in the communist revolution was mentioned in many major Jewish publications, such as the “Jewish Encyclopedia”, “Universal Jewish Encyclopedia” and “Encyclopedia Judaica”. In fact, they are boasting about the essential role of the Jews in the Russian Revolution.

There is much in the fact of Bolshevism itself, in the fact that so many Jews are Bolsheviks. In the fact that the ideals of Bolshevism at many points are consonant with the finest ideals of Judaism.” -Jewish Chronicle

Alexander Solzhenitsyn was a Nobel prize-winning novelist, historian and victim of Jewish Bolshevism. He pleaded…

“You must understand. The leading Bolsheviks who took over Russia were not Russians. They hated Russians! They hated Christians! Driven by ethnic hatred they tortured & slaughtered millions of Russians without a shred of human remorse.”

“The October Revolution was not what you call in America the ‘Russian Revolution’. It was an invasion & conquest over the Russian people. More of my countrymen suffered horrific crimes at the blood-stained hands than any people, or nation ever suffered in the entirety of human history. It cannot be understated! Bolshevism was the greatest human slaughter of all time.”

“The fact that most of the world is ignorant of this reality is proof that the global media itself is in the hands of the perpetrators. We cannot state that all Jews are Bolsheviks, but without Jews there would have been no Bolshevism. For a Jew, nothing is more insulting than the truth. The blood-maddened Jewish terrorists murdered 66 million in Russia from 1918 to 1957.”

As an expression of the Bolsheviks radically anti-nationalist character, the Soviet government issued a decree a few months after taking power that made “anti-Semitism” a crime in Russia. The new Communist regime thus became the first in the world to severely punish all expressions of anti-Jewish sentiment. Thus, making reference to the Jewish takeover of Russia was a crime.


A bloody civil war between the Red Jews, led by Trotsky, and the White (Gentile) Christians via the White Guard (White Movement) (White Guardsmen), led by Admiral Kolchak, broke out before the Jews could grab full power to set up their own Bolshevik totalitarian system.

The White Guard armies in this civil war received not a cent from the West. Not a shell (explosive projectile), and not a rifle reached any faction of the White forces from the West. The West was not anti-Bolshevik! Furthermore, the Western powers actively supported the Red forces during and after the Civil War.

Western powers backed the Red forces consistently from 1918-1921. They made sure that no aid would ever be given to Germany from Russia and that assets owned by Western powers would not fall into the hands of Germany.

U.S. Army General, William Graves, was a firm backer of the Red Bolshevik cause. In an excellent article on the subject, Kerry Bolton stated that Graves and many others actively sought to destroy the White Guard movement. He refused to deliver 14,000 rifles ordered and paid for by Admiral Kolchak. Another 15,000 rifles were blocked from the White Cossack forces by this same General. Most of all, Graves, in full communication with the economic (Jewish) elite in the U.S., had the Japanese stand down from their attacks on Red forces in the east.

In November of 1918, the Allies signed an agreement with the Reds for full support in exchange for financial concessions. While the Allies initially sought only Russia’s continual action in the war, their attention soon wandered. Once the Treaty of Brest-Litivosk was signed, the West permitted the Reds to re-organized old Russian debts, open Russia to world grain markets and hand over the more industrialized parts of Russia’s west.

Both President Woodrow Wilson and British statesman, Lloyd George, recognized Trotsky as the “legitimate” Russian government. Since the Reds were the only alternative to the “tsarist” Whites, they were recognized. George stated that a unified Russia would be the “greatest threat” to the British Empire.

General Denikin, of the Whites, stated in his memoirs, that “their sole source of supplies were those taken after Red defeats.” Red officers had regular salaries and a full staff, with the help of Western aid.

The mission of U.S. delegation-member to Russia, William Bullitt, led to an agreement with Lenin and a total rejection of the Whites. The memorandum asked for the lifting of all embargoes on the Soviet government and for its immediate recognition. Full free trade with the Soviets was also demanded, with the final and most important proviso that all debts to the West be paid.

Western newspapers, the Jewish-controlled media, spoke harshly of the Whites, equating them with landlords & “reactionaries”, which was Bolshevik propaganda.

Even with their shortages of ammunition & basic supplies, the White armies fought the Reds to a standstill and began routing them by the Spring of 1919. However, the West had made up its mind. General Kolchak had to go!

The West did everything in its power to ensure the Red Bolshevik takeover of Russia. It had its tentacles into the major Jewish banking houses in New York thanks to Trotsky.

The Red army was falling apart in 1918. General Pavlo Skoropadsky, of Cossack heritage, was creating a prosperous Ukrainian government in Kiev, and Russian general, Vladimir Kappel had the belief that he could maintain the White forces indefinitely. None of this assisted the Whites. The American financial community demanded a centralized, materialist and Jewish Russia, and this is what they received, at the cost of 66 million lives from 1918-1957.

The victors write history! The White army has been historically demonized & misrepresented. They were even the victims of Western & Bolshevik propaganda during the civil war. The common myth is that they were royalist (tsarists), and served the “landlord” class. Few “royalists” were part of the White forces and the “landlord” class was the peasants themselves, mostly ethnically-White Christians, who by the start of the war owned almost 95% of all Russian land.


The Jewish Cheka was a secret police force created through the NKVD on December 20, 1917, after a decree issued by Vladmir Lenin and was subsequently led by Felix Dzerzhinsky. An immensely disproportionate number of Jews, 80 percent, joined the Cheka.

They Cheka rounded up all those (Gentiles) who were under suspicion of not supporting the Jewish Bolshevik government. This included Civil or military servicemen suspected of working for Imperial Russia, families of officers-volunteer, all Christian clergy, workers & peasants and any other person whose private property was valued at over 10,000 rubles.

The Cheka practiced torture and their methods included being skinned alive, scalped, “crowned” with barbed wire, impaled, crucified, hanged, stoned to death, rolled around naked in internally nail-studded barrels, tied to planks and pushed slowly into tanks of boiling water, etc.

Women and children were also victims of Cheka terror. Women would sometimes be tortured and raped before being shot. Children between the ages of 8-13 were imprisoned & executed. Cheka was actively & openly utilizing kidnapping methods and were able to extinguish numerous people, especially among the rural population. Peasant villages were also bombarded to complete annihilation.

The Cheka are infamously known as the murderers of the Tsar family. Yakov M. Yurovksy, the leader of the Bolshevik squad that carried out the murder of the Tsar Nicholas II and his family, was Jewish, as was Sverdlov, the Soviet chief who co-signed Lenin’s execution order #22. For his part, Trotsky defended the massacre of the tsar’s family as a “useful and even necessary measure.”

Trotsky also commented, “The decision was not only expedient but necessary. The severity of this punishment showed everyone that we would continue to fight on mercilessly, stopping at nothing. The execution of the Tsar’s family was needed not only in order to frighten, horrify and instill a sense of hopelessness in the enemy (White Gentile Russians) but also to shake up our own ranks, to show that there was no turning back. That ahead lay either total victory or total doom.”

The Cheka is a direct predecessor of the Russian OGPU, formed in 1922, the NKVD, formed in 1932 and the KGB, formed in 1954. All were agencies of Jewish terror!

Lazar Kaganovich was the Jewish head of the KGB and was well known for his purges of those who opposed Jewish control. It is argued the Stalin, whose second wife was Kaganovich’s sister, was a mere figurehead. Some believe that the numerous Jews below Stalin, in all significant positions, ran the show.

As proof, some point out that many of the churches were burned to the ground, while the synagogues were left standing. Many priests were forced to sweep the streets and others were murdered. The Jewish Soviet leaders held rabbis in high esteem. And those people who dared to criticize Jewish Supremacy were mercilessly murdered, as “anti-Semitism” became a crime punishable by death in the Soviet Union.

Kaganovich ordered the deaths of millions and the total destruction of Christian monuments & churches. The most intelligent and the highest achieving segment of the population was totally wiped out, which left the population of ignorant workers, peasants, and a powerful Jewish ruling elite.


The “Gulag”, was the Soviet system of forced labor (concentration) camps. They were first established in 1919 under the Cheka. Jews were the commandants of eleven out of twelve main Gulags.

The founders of the Gulag death camp system were the two Jews, Naftaly Frenkel & Levi Berman. These camps were under the direct control of the mass murdering Jew, Genrikh Yagoda.

Note: Genrikh Yagoda was the greatest Jewish murderer of the 20 th Century, the GPU’s deputy commander, and the founder &commander of the NKVD. Yagoda diligently implemented Stalin’s collectivization orders and is responsible for the deaths of at least 10 million people. His Jewish deputies established & managed the Gulag system. After Stalin no longer viewed him favorably, Yagoda was demoted & executed, and was replaced as chief hangman in 1936 by Nikolai Yezhov.

There were at least 476 separate camps, some of them comprising hundreds, even thousands of camp units. The most infamous complexes were those at arctic or subarctic regions.

Millions of innocent people were incarcerated in the Soviet Gulags, serving sentences of five to twenty years of hard labor.

Prisoners in camps worked outdoors and in mines, in arid regions and the Arctic Circle, without adequate clothing, tools, shelter, food, or even clean water. They trudged through mud in sub-zero -20C temperatures, cut down trees with handsaws, dug at frozen ground with primitive pickaxes and heaved huge rocks with primitive of tools. Others mined coal or copper by hand, often suffering painful or fatal lung diseases from inhaling ore dust while on the job.

These prison labors in the camps worked up to 14 hours a day on massive projects, including the Moscow-Volga Canal, the White Sea-Baltic Canal, and the Kolyma Highway.

Starvation was not uncommon, as prisoners were barely fed enough to sustain such difficult labor. Other prisoners were simply dragged out to the woods and shot by guards for little or no reason.

Between 1929 and the year of Stalin’s death in 1953, 18 million men and women were transported to Soviet slave labor camps in Siberia and other outposts of the Red empire, many of them never to return. The prisoners suffered from starvation, illness, violence, and cold an immense number of people died.

Although the Soviet prison camps were publicized as making important contributions to the Soviet economy, it is not surprising, given the desperately poor conditions, that prison labor did not make a substantial contribution to the economy. Without sufficient food, supplies and clothing, prisoners were weak, sick, and unable to work.


The Jewish Bolsheviks implemented a policy known as “collectivization”. By collectivization they could take away the peasants land in the name of the state, and by the use of Red Terror at the hands of the Cheka & Red Army. This is what Karl Marx himself described as the “essence of communism”, to abolish private property, which belongs to the Gentiles.

He ordered the governor to confiscate all grain, all food from this area. By doing that he knew the he is condemning them to death.“ -Nikolay Melnik, survivor of the 1923 famine

In early 1930, over 91% of the agricultural land was collectivized. The Communists were taking every good from the peasants. All weapons of the civilians were also confiscated by the state.

The famine was awful. People were eating almost everything that could be swallowed. They ate straw from the roof.” -Yulia Khmelevskaya (Historian)

During the periods of 1921 to 1922, 1932 to 1933 and 1946 to 1947, the Bolshevik regime deliberately mechanized three series of genocidal man-made famines aimed at starving farmers in Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia. Millions of people died a slow death and people resorted to eating grass and some even to cannibalism.

You are Starving? This is not famine yet, when your woman start eating their children, then you may come and say we are starving.” -Leon Trotsky

An example of a real “Holocaust”, not a Holohoax, which the Jewish-controlled media is silent on, is the Holodomor. The Encyclopedia Britannica estimates that around 8 million people, five million of them Ukrainian, were starved to death by the Stalin-Kaganovich famine alone and the three Holodomor genocides together resulted in a death toll of 16.5 million people.

Destroying the peasant economy and driving the peasant from the country to the town, the famine creates a proletariat.” -Lenin

Russian historian, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, estimated that between 1917 to 1958, the Jewish Bolshevik regime managed to exterminate up to 60 million Europeans, including victims of the forced collectivization, the hunger, large purges expulsion, banishment, executions, and mass deaths at Gulags.

Industrial-scale murders like these are an essential part of communist theory.

Three-quarters of mankind may die, if necessary, to ensure the other quarter for Communism.” -Lenin

Leon Trotsky, founder of the Red Army, admitted, “We must turn Russia into a desert, populated by White negroes upon whom we shall impose a tyranny such as the most terrible Eastern despots never dreamt of. The only difference is that this will be a left-wing tyranny, not a right-wing tyranny. It will be a Red (Jewish) tyranny, and not a White one. We mean the word “red” literally, because we shall shed such floods of blood as will make all the human losses suffered in the capitalist wars pale by comparison.”

“The biggest bankers across the ocean will work in the closest possible contact with us. If we win the revolution, we shall establish the power of Zionism upon the wreckage of the revolution’s funeral, and we shall become a power before which the whole world will sink to its knees. We shall know what real power is. By means of terror & bloodbaths, we shall reduce the Russian intelligentsia to a state of complete stupefaction & idiocy and to an animal existence.”

We must not forget that some of the greatest mass murders of all time are Jewish.” -Genrikh Yagoda (NKVD)

The Jew, Grigori Zinoviev, head of the Communist International (Comintern), wrote in an article in the Krasnaya Gazeta, in 1918. He said, “We will make our hearts cruel, hard and immovable, so that no mercy will enter them, and so that they will not quiver at the sight of a sea of enemy blood. We will let loose the floodgates of that sea. Without mercy, without sparing, we will kill our enemies in scores of hundreds. Let them be thousands. Let them drown themselves in their own blood. Let there be floods of the blood of the bourgeois more blood, as much as possible.”


Joseph “Uncle Joe” Stalin was once loved by the Jewish-controlled Western media and the West. Essentially, Stalin was the front man for the Jewish operation in Russia, known as Communism.

When Stalin marched into Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania and Poland, the West looked the other way. It was the same after the war when Stalin took over Eastern Europe.

Stalin’s purge trials, of his fellow comrades, was seen by the West as a legitimate response to an internal threat.

The West media shrugged with indifference toward seven to ten million dead in the Ukrainian man-made “famine”. It was the same with Stalin’s gulags that contained millions of victims in the 1930s.

Instead of improving working conditions, Stalin made things much more oppressive & backwards.

Stalin killed on behalf of the Jews and received a free pass for his crimes. He was the Czar of Red Russia, but his commissars were two-thirds Jewish.

Stalin enjoyed a sainted reputation until he turned against the Jews in the final years of his life. So long as he was appointing one Jew after another to high Soviet positions and blinking at their crimes, he was applauded.

Stalin today is now more useful as a whipping boy than as the favorite darling of the Jewish-controlled media. He can take the blame for the crimes of the Jewish commissars who have disappeared down the memory hole of history. Stalin can even be used to paint the Jews as victims of communism, rather than the originators of communism, because he liquidated a few of them late in life.

Note: In the Soviet Union, under Stalin and his Communist Jews, the “emptying of Christian churches” was accomplished by burning these churches down, thousands of them, and building Jewish synagogues instead.

Note: During Communism, all the money that the red state needed was recorded by the national bank as a credit to the state itself. The interesting thing is that these debts were later taken over by capitalist investors during the “peacefull” removal of communism, with enormous gains, almost like an investment. A huge win for International Jewry!

Warning: Communist Body Count- 149,469,610

People’s Republic of China, Body Count: 73,237,000 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Body Count: 58,627,000 Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, Body Count: 3,284,000 Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Body Count: 3,163,000 Cambodia, Body Count: 2,627,000 Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Body Count: 1,750,000 Vietnam, Body Count: 1,670,000 People’s Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Body Count: 1,343,610 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Body Count: 1,072,000 Chinese Soviet Republic, Body Count: 700,000 People’s Republic of Mozambique, Body Count: 700,000 Socialist Republic of Romania, Body Count: 435,000 People’s Republic of Bulgaria, Body Count: 222,000 People’s Republic of Angola, Body Count: 125,000 Mongolian People’s Republic, Body Count: 100,000 People’s Socialist Republic of Albania, Body Count: 100,000 Republic of Cuba, Body Count: 73,000 German Democratic Republic, Body Count: 70,000 Socialist Republic of Czechoslovakia, Body Count: 65,000 Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Body Count: 56,000 Hungarian People’s Republic, Body Count: 27,000 People’s Republic of Poland, Body Count: 22,000 People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen,Body Count: 1,000.

Note: In the end Communism created in record time the kind of state that the Jewish banker dreams totally mechanized, centralized, free from contact with Nature. This was possible through the magic trick of merely replacing the international investor with a state bureaucracy, a trick which the elites had already employed during the absolutism of the 17 th Century, the same time when investment companies took their modern form.

Warning: Don’t be fooled, the Iron Curtain may have fallen but Soviet Union 2.0 is right around the corner, aided & abetted by its Middle Eastern Bolshevik satellite, Israel.


Yep, here it comes AGAIN! Aren’t we ever going to be through with this noxious subject? NO!

This is the next in the series from The Iron Curtain Over America.

Having traced the Knighthood of Teutonic Order from its origin to its dissolution as a military-religious brotherhood, and having noted the development of successor sovereigns down to the obliteration of Prussia in 1945, we must turn back more than a thousand years to examine another thread–a scarlet one–in the tangled skein of European history.

In the later years of the dimly recorded first millennium of the Christian era, Slavic people of several hundred tribes occupied the land which became known later as the north central portion of European Russia. South of them between the Don and Volga Rivers and north of the lofty Caucasus Mountains lived a people known to history as Khazars. These people had been driven westward from Central Asia and entered Europe by the corridor between the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea. They found a land occupied by primitive pastoral people of a score or more of tribes, a land which lay beyond the boundaries of the Roman Empire at its greatest extent under Trajan (ruled 98-117 A.D.), and also beyond the boundaries of the Byzantine Empire (395-1453). By slow stages the Khazars extended their territory eventually to the Sea of Azov and the adjacent littoral of the Black Sea. The Khazars were apparently a people of mixed stock with Mongol and Turkic affinities. Around the year 600, a belligerent tribe of half-Mongolian people, similar to the modern Turks, conquered the territory of what is now Southern Russia. Before long the kingdom (khanate) of the Khazars, as this tribe was known, stretched from the Caspian to the Black Sea. Its capital, Ityl, was at the mouth of the Volga River. [H: I want YOU to know that this information is not only verified by the “Jews” but is presented in the History of the Jews, by Solomon Grayzel, Philadelphia–The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1947. I stress this so my scribe and Nora don’t get drawn and quartered by the Zionists of TODAY who claim there are no such things as “Khazars”.]

In the eighth or ninth century of our era, a khakan (or chagan, roughly equivalent to tribal chief or primitive king) of the Khazars wanted a religion for his pagan people. Partly, perhaps because of incipient tension between Christians and the adherents of the new Mohammedan faith (Mohammed died in 632), and partly because of fear of becoming subject to the power of the Byzantine emperor or the Islamic caliph, he adopted a form of the Jewish religion at a date generally placed at about 741 A.D., but believed by historian Vernadsky to be as late as 865. According to the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (Vol. VI, pp. 375-377), this chieftain, probably Bulan, “called upon the representatives of Judaism, Christianity and Mohammedanism to expound their doctrines before him. This discussion convinced him that the Jewish faith was the most preferable, and he decided to embrace it. Thereupon he and about 4,000 Khazars were circumcised it was only in degrees that the Jewish teachings gained a foothold among the population.”

In his History of the Jews, (The Jewish Publication Society of America, Vol. III, 1894, pp. 140-141), Professor H. Graetz gives further details:

“A successor of Bulan, who bore the Hebrew name of Obadiah, was the first to make serious efforts to further the Jewish religion. He invited Jewish sages to settle in his dominions, rewarded them royally, founded synagogues and schools…caused instruction to be given to himself and his people in the Bible and the Talmud, and introduced a divine service modeled on the ancient communities.

“After Obadiah came a long series of Jewish chagans, for according to a fundamental law of the state ONLY Jewish rulers were permitted to ascend the throne.”

The significance of the term “ancient communities” cannot be here explained. For a suggestion of the “incorrect exposition” and the “tasteless misrepresentation” with which the Bible, i.e., the Old Testament, was presented through the Talmud, see below in this chapter, the extensive quotation from Professor Graetz.

Also in the Middle Ages, Viking warriors, according to Russia tradition by invitation, pushed from the Baltic area into the low hills west of Moscow. Archaeological discoveries show that at one time or another these Northmen penetrated almost all areas south of Lake Ladoga and West of the Kama and Lower Volga rivers. Their earliest, and permanent, settlements were north and east of the West Dwina River, in the Lake Ilmen area, and between the Upper Volga and Oka rivers, at whose junction they soon held the famous trading-post of Nizhni-Novgorod.

These immigrants from the North and West were principally “the ‘Rus’–Varangian tribe in ancient annals considered as related to the Swedes, Angels, and Northmen” (Encyclopedia Britanica, Vol, XIX, p. 712). From the local Slavic tribes, they organized (about 862) a state, known subsequently from their name as Russia, which embraced the territory of the upper Volga and Dnieper rivers and reached down the latter river to the Black Sea and to the Crimea. Russ and Slav were of related stock and their languages, though quite different, had common Indo-Germanic origin. They accepted Christianity as their religion. Greek Orthodox missionaries, sent to Rus [i.e. “Russia”] in the 860s baptized so many people that shortly after this a special bishop was sent to care for their needs.

The “Rus” (or “Russ”) were absorbed into the Slav population which they organized into statehood. The people of the new state devoted themselves energetically to consolidating their territory and extending its boundaries. From the Khazars, who had extended their power up the Dnieper Valley, they took Kiev, which was an important trading center even before becoming, in the 10th century, the capital of a large recently Christianized state. Many Varangians (Rus) had settled among the Slavs in this area (the Ukraine), and Christian Kiev became the seat of an enlightened Westward-looking dynasty, whose members married into several European royal houses, including that of France.

The Slavs, especially those in the area now known as the Ukraine, were engaged in almost constant warfare with the Khazars and finally, by 1016 A.D., destroyed the Khazar government and took a large portion of Khazar territory. For the gradual shrinking of the Khazar territory and the development of Poland, Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and other Slavic states, see the pertinent maps in Historical Atlas, by William R. Shepherd (Henry Holt and Col., New York, 1911). Some of the subjugated Khazars remained in the Slav-held lands their khazars had long held, and others migrated to Kiev and other parts of Russia, probably to a considerable because of the dislocations wrought by the Mongols under Genghis Khan (1162-1227), who founded in and beyond the old Khazar khanate the short-lived khanate of the Golden Horde. The Judaized Khazars underwent further dispersion both northwestward into Lithuanian and Polish areas, and also within Russia proper and the Ukraine. In 1240 in Kiev the Jewish community was uprooted, its surviving members finding refuge in towns further west along with the fleeing Russians, when the capital fell to the Mongol soldiers of Batu, the nephew of Genghis Khan. A short time later many of these expelled Jews returned to Kiev. Migrating thus, as some local power impelled them, the Khazar Jews became widely distributed in Western Russia. Into the Khazar khanate there had been a few Jewish immigrants–rabbis, traders, refugees-but the people of the Kievan Russian state did not facilitate the entry of additional Jews into their territory. The rulers of the Grand Duchy of Moscow also sought to exclude Jews from areas under its control. From its earliest times the policy of the Russian government was that of complete exclusion of the Jews from its territories. For instance, Ivan IV (reign, 1533-1584) refused to allow Jewish merchants to travel to Russia.

Relations between Slavs and the Judaized Khazars in their midst were never happy. The reasons were not racial–for the Slavs has absorbed many minorities–but were ideological. The rabbis sent for by Khakan Obadiah were educated in and were zealots for the Babylonian Talmud, which after long labors by many hands had been completed on December 2, 499. In the thousands of synagogues which were built in the Khazar khanate, the imported rabbis and their successors were in complete control of the political, social, and religious thought of their people. So significant was the Babylonian Talmud as the principal cause of Khazar resistance to Russian efforts to end their political and religious separtism, and so significant also are the modern sequels, including those in the United States, that an extensive quotation on the subject from the great History of the Jews, by Professor H. Graetz (Vol. II, 1893, pp. 631 ff.) is here presented:

“The Talmud contains much that is frivolous of which it treats with great gravity and seriousness it further reflects the various superstitious practices and views of its Persian birthplace which presume the efficacy of demonical medicines, of magic, incantations, miraculous cures, and interpretations of dreams. It also contains isolated instances of uncharitable judgments and decrees against the members of other nations and religions, and finally it favors an incorrect exposition of the scriptures, accepting, as it does, tasteless misrepresentations.

” More than six centuries lie petrified in the Talmud. Small wonder then, that the sublime and the common, the great and the small, the grave and the ridiculous, the altar and the ashes, the Jewish and the heathenish, be discovered side by side.

“The Babylonian Talmud is especially distinguished from the Jerusalem or Palestine Talmud by the flights of thought, the penetration of mind, the flashes of genius, which rise and vanish again. It was for this reason that the Babylonian rather than the Jerusalem Talmud became the fundamental possession of the Jewish race, its life breath, its very soul–nature and mankind, powers and events, were for the Jewish nation insignificant, non-essential, a mere phantom the only true reality was the Talmud.”

Not merely educated by the Talmud but actually living the life of its Babylonian background, which they may have regarded with increased devotion because most of the Jews of Mesopotamia [H: Ah–getting very close to “Sumar”!] had embraced Islam, the rabbi-governed Khazars had no intention whatever of losing their identity by becoming Russianized or Christian. The intransigent attitude of the rabbis was increased by their realization that their power would be lost if their people accepted controls other than Talmudic. The controls by rabbis were responsible not only for basic mores, but for such externals as the peculiarities of dress and hair. It has been frequently stated by writers on the subject that the “ghetto” was the work not of Russians or other Slavs but of rabbis.

As time passed, it came about that these Khazar people of mixed non-Russian stock, who hated the Russians and lived under Babylonian Talmudic law, became known in the western world, from their place of residence and their legal-religious code, as Russian Jews.

In Russian lands after the fall of Kiev in 1240, there was a period of dissension and disunity. The struggle with the Mongols and other Asiatic khanates continued and from them the Russians learned much about effective military organization. Also, as the Mongols had not overrun Northern and Western Russia, there was a background for the resistance and counter-offensive which gradually eliminated the invaders. The capital of reorganized Russia was no longer Kiev but Moscow (hence the terms Moscovy and Muscovite). In 1613 the Russian nobles (boyars), desired a more stable government than they had had, and elected as their czar a boy named Michael Romanov [H: Oops, I’ve gone and done it now!] whose veins carried the blood of the grand dukes of Kiev and the grand dukes of Moscow.

Under the Romanovs of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there was no change in attitude toward the Judaized Khazars, who scorned Russian civilization and stubbornly refused to enter the fold of Christianity. [H: Ah, staff, please locate my presentation on the Russian Romanos I promised more and simply haven’t found “time” to offer it–it is going to be IMPORTANT IN HISTORICAL HAPPENINGS.] <The discussion on the Romanovs begins on page 152 in JOURNAL #58 calledFROM THE FRYING PAN INTO THE PIT OF FIRE.> Peter the Great [reign, 1682-1725] spoke of the Jews as ‘rogues and cheats’. Elizabeth [reign, 1742-1762] expressed her attitude in the sentence: “From the enemies of Christ, I desire neither gain nor profit.” With the expansion of Russia in the last half of the eighteenth century, many additional Jews were acquired with the new territory, especially in Russia’s portion of divided Poland (1772, 1793, 1795). The Empress, Catherine II [reign, 1762-1796] had no choice but to receive the Jews along with the other inhabitants of the land, but she created out of the provinces taken from Poland a “Pale of Settlement” from which the newly acquired Jews could not move. As before, from that time on, the attitude of the government was to hem in the Jews as much as possible.

Under the Romanov dynasty (1613-1917 [1917-Bolshevik Revolution]) many members of the Russian upper classes were educated in Germany, and the Russian nobility, already partly Scandinavian by blood, frequently married Germans or other Western Europeans. Likewise many of the Romanovs, themselves–in fact all of them who ruled in the later years of the dynasty–married into Western families. Prior to the nineteenth century, the two occupants of the Russian throne best known in world history were Peter I, the Great, and Catherine II, the Great. The former–who in 1703 gave Russia its “West Window”, St. Petersburg, later known as Petrograd, and recently as Leningrad–chose as his consort and successor on the throne as Catherine I [reign, 1725-1727], a captured Marienburg (Germany) servant girl whose mother and father were respectively a Lithuanian peasant woman and a Swedish dragoon. Catherine II, the Great, was a German princess who was proclaimed reigning Empress of Russia after her husband, the ineffective Czar Pater III, subnormal in mind and physique, left St. Petersburg. During her thirty-four years as Empress, Catherine, by studying such works as Blackstone’s Commentaries, and by correspondence with such illustrious persons as Voltaire [H: Remember that along with Voltaire’s other contributions–he had translated, NEWTON’S PRINCIPIA.] F.M. Grimm [H: Nora has done a beautiful study of “Grimm”] Frederick the Great, DIdcrot, and Maria-Theresa of Austria, kept herself in contact with the West.

The nineteenth century czars were Catherine the Great’s grandson, Alexander I [reign, 1801-1825–German wife] his brother, Nicholas I [reign, 1825-1855]–German wife] his son, Nicholas III [reign, 1881-1894–Danish wife] and his son, Nicolas II, [reign, 1894-1917–German wife], who was murdered with his family (1918) after the Communists seized power (1917) in Russia. [H: And since history has now PROVEN that “COMMUNISM” is a construction of Jewish Zionists and that ALL of the government heads in new Communistic Russia after that Revolution were Jewish Zionists–what do we have to face here, readers?]

Though many of the Romonovs, including Peter I and Catherine II, had far from admirable characters–a fact well advertised in American books on the subject–and though some of them including Nicholas II were not able rulers, a general purpose of the dynasty was to give their land certain of the advantages of Western Europe. In the West they characteristically sought alliances with one country or another, rather than ideological penetration.

Like their Slavic overlords, the Judaized Khazars of Russia had various relationships with Germany. Their numbers from time to time, as during the Crusades, received accretions from the Jewish communities in Germany–principally into Poland and other areas nor yet Russian many of the ancestors of these people, however, had previously entered Germany from Slavic lands. More interesting then these migrations was the importation from Germany of an idea conceived by a prominent Jew of solving century-old tension between native majority populations and the Jews in their midst. In Germany, while Catherine the Great was Empress of Russia, a Jewish scholar and philosopher named Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786) attracted wide and favorable attention among non-Jews and a certain following among Jews. His conception of the barrier between Jew and non-Jew, as analyzed by Grayzel, was that the “Jews had erected about themselves a mental ghetto to balance the physical ghetto around them.” Mendelssohn’s objective was to lead the Jews out of this mental ghetto into the wide world of general culture–without, however, doing harm to their specifically Jewish culture. The movement received the name Haskalah, which may be rendered as enlightenment. Among other things, Mendelsohn wished Jews in Germany to learn the German language.

The Jews of Eastern Europe had from early days used corrupted versions of local vernaculars, written in the Hebrew alphabet just as the various vernaculars of Western Europe were written in the Latin alphabet, and to further his purpose Mendelsohn translated the Pentateuch–Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy–into standard German, using however, the accepted Hebrew alphabet. [H: How many of you KNEW this? If you didn’t know THIS then I ask that you read on and perhaps find that there are a lot of things you may well have not known. Further, there isn’t going to be a “preacher” in any Christian pulpit who will tell you this. Why? Because he will not have been allowed to LEARN this type of information in his “Judea-Christian” seminary, my dear blind lambs!] Thus in one stroke he led his readers a step toward Westernization by offering them, instead of the Babylonian Talmud, a portion of Scripture recognized by both Jew and Christian.

The Mendelsohn views were developed in Russia in the nineteenth century, notably by Isaac Baer Levinsohn (1788-1860), the Russian Mendelsohn. Levinsohn was a scholar who, with Abraham Harkavy, delved into a field of Jewish history little known in the West, namely the settlement of Jews in Russia and their vicissitudes during the Dark Ages. Levinsohn was the first to express the opinion that the Russian Jews hailed not from Germany, as is commonly supposed, but from the banks of the Volga. This hypothesis, corroborated by tradition, Harkavy established as a fact.

The reigns of the nineteenth century Czars showed a fluctuation of attitudes toward the Jewish state within a state. In general, Nicholas I had been less lenient than Alexander I toward his intractable non-Christian minority, but he took an immediate interest in the movement endorsed by the highly respected Levinsohn, for he saw in “Haskalah” an opportunity for possibly breaking down the separatism of the Judaized Khazars. He put in charge of the project of opening hundreds of Jewish schools a brilliant young Jew, Dr. Max Lilienthal. From its beginning, however, the haskalah movement had had bitter opposition among Jews in Germany–many of whom, including the famous Moses Hess, became ardent Jewish nationalists–and in Russia the opposition was fanatical. The great mass of Russian Jewry was devoid of all secular learning, steeped in fanaticism, and given to superstitious practices, and their leaders, for the most part, had no notion of tolerating a project which would lessen or destroy their control. These leaders believed correctly that the new education was designed to lessen the authority of the Talmud, which was the cause, as the Russians saw it, of the fanaticism and corrupt morals of the Jews. The leaders of the Jews also saw that the new schools were a way to bring the Jews closer to the Russian people and the Greek church. According to historian Raisin, the millions of Russian Jews were averse to having the government interfere with their inner and spiritual life by foisting upon them its educational measures. Lilienthal was in their eyes a traitor and informer, and in 1845, to recover a modicum of prestige with his people, he shook the dust of bloody Russia from his feet. Thus the Haskalah movement failed in Russia to break down the separatism of the Judaized Khazars.

When Nicholas I [reign, 1825-1855] died, his son Alexander II [reign, 1855-1881] decided to try a new way of winning the Khazar minority to willing citizenship in Russia. He granted his people, including the Khazars, so many liberties that he was called the Czar Liberator.

By irony, or nemesis, however, his liberal regime contributed substantially to the downfall of Christian Russia. Despite the ill-success of his Uncle Alexander’s measures to effect the betterment of the obnoxious Jewish element, he ordered a wholesale relaxation of oppressive and restraining regulations and Jews were free to attend all schools and universities and to travel without restrictions. The new freedom led, however, to results the “Liberator” had not anticipated.

Educated, and free at last to organize nationally, the Judaized Khazars in Russia became not merely an indigestible mass in the body politic, the characteristic state within a state, but a formidable anti-government force. With non-Jews of nihilistic or other radical tendencies–the so-called Russian intelligentsia–they sought in the first instance to further their aims by assassinations. Alexander tried to abate the hostility of the “terrorists” by granting more and more concessions, but on the day the last concessions were announced, a bomb was thrown at his carriage. The carriage was wrecked, and many of his escorts were injured. Alexander escaped as by a miracle, but a second bomb exploded near him as he was going to aid the injured. He was horribly mangled, and died within an hour. Thus perished the Czar Liberator. [H: Never seems to change does it?]

Some of those involved in earlier attempts to assassinate Alexander II were of Jewish Khazar background. According to the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, the assassination of Alexander II, in which a Jewess had played a part, revived a latent “anti-Semitism”. Resentful of precautions taken by the murdered Czar’s son and successor, Alexander III, and also possessing a new world plan, hordes of Jews, some of them highly educated in Russian universities, migrated to other European countries and to America. The emigration continued under Nicholas II. Many Jews remained in Russia, however, for in 1913 the Jewish population of Russia amounted to 6,946,000. [H: Still think the “Holocaust” could have happened as the Jews say. Remember, in 1991 the number of Jews killed in the death camps ROSE (by Jewish insistence) to 6 million 500 thousand!! Now, how do you equate that number with the NUMBER WHO GET RESTITUTION FROM THE GERMANS RIGHT NOW. Hey, don’t throw stones at ME–this number came directly from Universal Jewish Encyclopedia , Vol. IX, p. 285.]

Various elements of this restless aggressive minority nurtured the amazing quadruple aims of international Communism, the seizure of power in Russia, Zionism, and continued migration to America, with a fixed purpose to retain their nationalistic separatism. In many instances, the same individuals were participants in two or more phases of the four-fold objective.

Among the Jews who remained in Russia, which then included Lithuania, the Ukraine, and much of Poland, were the founders of the Russian Bolshevik party: [H: Finally made it!]

In 1897 was founded the Bund, the union of Jewish workers in Poland and Lithuania. They engaged in revolutionary activity upon a large scale, and their energy made them the spearhead of the party (Article on “Communism” by Harold J. Laski, Encyclopedia Britanica, Vol. III, pp. 824-827).


This is an excellent place to stop this writing and allow everything to soak in–we are now bringing the circle back around, readers, so you can easily see the path thus far and the players involved. We will, yes, go back into before this all came about–but it is THIS information which will impact you TODAY! I believe it is no wonder that the British Israeli Committee of 300, through its prime arm, the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith, tries to silence anyone who speaks of Jews or questions the Holocaust, and thus and so. Do you now understand the seriousness of the curtain of lies and WHO PRESENTS THEM THROUGH THE MEDIA, ETC. WAKE UP, FOR THE NEXT HEAD TO FALL–WILL BE YOURS!

Source: CONTACT THE PHOENIX PROJECT, August 10, 1993, Volume 2, Number 7, Pages 60-63.

Bolsheviks revolt in Russia - HISTORY

The Russian Revolution took place in 1917 when the peasants and working class people of Russia revolted against the government of Tsar Nicholas II. They were led by Vladimir Lenin and a group of revolutionaries called the Bolsheviks. The new communist government created the country of the Soviet Union.

Before the revolution, Russia was ruled by a powerful monarch called the Tsar. The Tsar had total power in Russia. He commanded the army, owned much of the land, and even controlled the church.

During the period of time before the Russian Revolution, life for the working class people and the peasants was very difficult. They worked for little pay, often went without food, and were exposed to dangerous working conditions. The aristocrat class treated the peasants like slaves, giving them few rights under the law and treating them almost like animals.

A major event leading to the Russian Revolution took place on January 22, 1905. A Large number of workers were marching to the Tsar's palace in order to present a petition for better working conditions. They were fired upon by soldiers and many of them were killed or injured. This day is called Bloody Sunday.

Before Bloody Sunday many peasants and working class people revered the Tsar and thought that he was on their side. They blamed their troubles on the government, not on the Tsar. However, after the shootings, the Tsar was perceived as an enemy of the working class and the desire for revolution began to spread.

In 1914, World War I began and Russia was at war with Germany. A huge Russian army was formed by forcing working class and peasant men to join. Although the Russian army had great numbers, the soldiers were not equipped or trained to fight. Many of them were sent into battle without shoes, food, and even weapons. Over the next three years, nearly 2 million Russian soldiers were killed in battle and nearly another 5 million were wounded. The Russian people blamed the Tsar for entering the war and getting so many of their young men killed.

The February Revolution

The people of Russia first revolted in early 1917. The revolution began when a number of workers decided to strike. Many of these workers got together during the strike to discuss politics. They began to riot. The Tsar, Nicholas II, ordered the army to suppress the riot. However, many of the soldiers refused to fire on the Russian people and the army began to mutiny against the Tsar.

After a few days of riots, the army turned against the Tsar. The Tsar was forced to give up his throne and a new government took over. The government was run by two political parties: the Petrograd Soviet (representing the workers and soldiers) and the Provisional Government (the traditional government without the Tsar).

Over the next several months the two sides ruled Russia. One of the main factions of the Petrograd Soviet was a group called the Bolsheviks. They were led by Vladimir Lenin and believed that the new Russian government should be a Marxist (communist) government. In October of 1917, Lenin took full control of the government in what is called the Bolshevik Revolution. Russia was now the first communist country in the world.

Lenin leading the Bolshevik Revolution
Photo by Unknown

After the revolution, Russia exited World War I by signing a peace treaty with Germany called the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The new government took control of all industry and moved the Russian economy from a rural one to an industrial one. It also seized farmland from landholders and distributed it among the peasants. Women were given equal rights to those of men and religion was banned from many aspects of society.

From 1918 to 1920, Russia experienced a civil war between the Bolsheviks (also called the Red Army) and the anti-Bolsheviks (the White Army). The Bolsheviks won and the new country was called the USSR (United Soviet Socialist Republic).

Bloody Sunday

Things were thrown up in the air on Sunday 22 January, 1905. In a peaceful protest led by a priest in St Petersburg, unarmed demonstrators were fired upon by the Tsar’s troops. 200 were killed and 800 wounded. The Tsar would never regain the trust of his people.

A Russian Orthodox priest named Father Georgy Gapon led a workers’ procession to present a petition to the Tsar on Bloody Sunday.

Riding on the subsequent wave of popular anger, the Social Revolutionary Party became the leading political party who established the October Manifesto later that year.

Lenin urged the Bolsheviks to take violent action, but the Mensheviks rejected these demands as it was deemed to compromise Marxist ideals. In 1906, the Bolsheviks had 13,000 members, the Mensheviks had 18,000.

Following the bloodshed on Bloody Sunday in 1905, Tsar Nicholas II opened two chambers on 27 April 1906 – Russia’s first parliament. Image source: Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-H28740 / CC-BY-SA 3.0.

In the early 1910s, the Bolsheviks remained the minority group in the party. Lenin was exiled in Europe and they had boycotted the Duma elections, meaning there was no political foothold to campaign or gain support.

Furthermore, there wasn’t a great demand for revolutionary politics. The years 1906-1914 were of relative peace, and the Tsar’s moderate reforms discouraged support for extremists. When the First World War erupted in 1914, rallying cries for national unity put the Bolshevik’s demands for reform on the back foot.

Bolsheviks revolt in Russia - HISTORY

"We old men may not live to see the battles of the upcoming revolution," Vladimir Lenin, informal leader of the Bolshevik party, said in January 1917. Back then, an émigré in Switzerland, he entertained the possibility that he would not be able to participate in the political struggle. But things turned out completely differently: At the end of October that year he would head the revolution against Kerensky and the Provisional Government.

This time the Bolshevik revolt was successful: They were joined by the Soviets and by the army. On the night of Oct. 25 (Nov. 7) the revolutionaries seized the central post and telegraph office and swiftly and successfully stormed the Winter Palace (the government's residence). Kerensky fled the city and the other ministers were arrested.

"The issue of concluding peace was equivalent to power. He who solves it, who has a concrete program, will govern Russia. In the end that is how it happened," believes Doctor of Historical Sciences Igor Grebenkin. It is this difference, he thinks that - with respect to the Provisional Government, which was "afraid to even address" these global problems - guaranteed victory for the Bolsheviks.

"Each minute our party is ready to take power in its entirety," Lenin stated in June 1917 during a rally of the Soviets. There was laughter in the room - no one believed the potential of the Bolsheviks. But several months later no one was laughing: The Bolsheviks indeed seized power in its entirety. It was still a long way until the final victory: there was still the Civil War, which lasted until 1923 and took the lives of almost 13 million people. But the Bolsheviks won that war too. In December 1922 they declared the creation of the first socialist state in the world, the USSR. The communists would govern Russia for almost 70 years.

Watch the video: Οι Γερμανοί πίσω από την Επανάσταση των Μπολσεβίκων (June 2022).


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