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On the portait of the Roman emperor Caligula well-preserved paint enhances the striking appearance. Mixtures of different pigments have been used to achieve refined tonal and realistic effects using carbon-based black together with Egyptian blue and red and yellow orchre on hair, black on eyebrows and eyelashes, red ochre on the skin mixed with Egyptian blue and the use of madder lake between the lips and in the rims and inner corners of the eyes. A cross-section taken from the skin only shows one layer of a red ochre directly on top of the marble. The VIL-imaging revealed a strong luminescence of Egyptian blue in the right eye and on the surface of the face and hair where it appears as scattered particles as part of a mixture of different colours used to obtain the right shade. On the UV-FL-image a strong pink fluorescense is observed on the lower rims and inner corners of the eyes. The same colour is seen between the lips due to the use of madder lake. The GC-MS analysis used to detect a probable binding medium revealed the presence of egg as the most likely candidate, which indicates the use of a polychrome egg-tempera treatment for the painting of the portrait bust.
Caligula, Ny Carlsberg Glypotek - History
Portrait Statue of Caligula
The Virginia Museum of Fine Arts (VMFA) in Richmond, Virginia, possesses one of the finest and most important images of a Roman emperor in North America, a full-length statue of the Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, more popularly known as “Caligula” (“Little Boot”).
Portrait Statue of Emperor Gaius (“Caligula”), 37 CE
(Arthur and Margaret Glasgow Fund 71.20)
© Virginia Museum of Fine Arts
The statue’s beauty lies in the exquisite craftsmanship of the stone carving, so subtle that it conveys a sense of the overlapping layers of clothing that Caligula wears and even records “press lines”—the lines that an actual toga would have had after being folded and stored in a chest when it was not in use and that are clearly distinguishable from the folds of the toga.
Horizontal press lines along the left side of Caligula’s toga
Photo by Mark Abbe
The statue’s importance lies in the fact that Caligula ruled for less than four years before he was assassinated, and he was so unpopular that almost all images of him were destroyed, defaced, or recarved into likenesses of more acceptable Romans. Today, only two full-length statues of Caligula are known, the example in Richmond’s VMFA and the portrait of a youthful Caligula found in Gortyn, Crete (the Roman capital of that region under Caligula’s rule).
The Gortyn statue, like VMFA’s, shows Caligula wearing a toga, but in this case his head is veiled, indicating that he is taking part in a religious ceremony (probably his outstretched right hand held a patera for pouring libations). The youthfulness of the Gortyn Caligula suggests that the statue was made before Caligula became Princeps, “First Citizen,” the official title of the early emperors.
|Portrait Statue of the young Caligula capite |
velato, circa 32 CE, Gortyn, Crete
Photo by Peter Schertz, VMFA curator of
In 2010, the University of Virginia and VMFA received a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities to undertake new technical studies of the Richmond Caligula under the codirection of Dr. Bernie Frischer, UVA professor of classics and art history, and myself.
The primary goal of the technical studies was to make a 3D model of the statue and to study its ancient polychromy, the added colors that were a part of all ancient marble statues.
A second goal of the project was to promote a better understanding of the statue’s ancient topographical context, appearance, and cultural significance. We assembled an international team of scholars to address questions of the original appearance of the statue, its ancient context and rediscovery in the nineteenth century, and historical issues surrounding Caligula’s life and reign.
Caligula team members in front of the statue, December 3, 2011
Mark Abbe, Bernard Frischer, Vasily Rudich, Peter Schertz, Kathy Gillis, Paolo Liverani,
Maria Grazia Picozzi. Not pictured: Steven Fine, John Pollini, Jan Stubbe Østergaard, Eric Varner
VMFA’s Caligula was a particularly strong candidate for such an intense study because much of the recent scholarship on Greek and Roman polychromy has concentrated on works of Greek art (many of which were showcased in the traveling exhibition—and catalogue—Gods in Color, originating from the work of German archeologist Vinenz Brinkman) so the study of a major example of Roman art could significantly add to our knowledge.
Also, one of the most fascinating studies of a polychromed Roman work, which precedes the study of the Richmond statue, was on a portrait of Caligula at the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, an art museum in Copenhagen with a focus on ancient sculpture. This study and restoration of a bust of Caligula was conducted by the Copenhagen Polychromy Network, an interdisciplinary research partnership. Below is the marble portrait and the color reconstruction done by CPN, one of the early efforts of that group to show that “Greek and Roman sculptures were colorful.”
Portrait head of Caligula (left) and modern reconstruction (right)
Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, inv. no. 2687
Photo by Ole Haupt
Building on such previous scholarship, the first step in the team’s study of the VMFA Caligula was to create a 3D digital model, known as the “State Model,” that recorded the current appearance of the statue and which served as the basis for hypothetical reconstructions of the ancient statue. The work was done by Peter Kennedy and Greg Chaprnka of Direct Dimensions, a private company based in Maryland.
|VMFA Caligula ||State Model, 3D digital scan |
At the same time that we scanned the statue for a digital model, Dr. Mark Abbe, assistant professor of ancient art history at the Lamar Dodd School of Art at the University of Georgia, examined the surface for traces of tool marks and polychromy using raking light, UV light, and photo-induced luminescence.
This examination yielded new information regarding previous restorations to the statue in the form of the decipherment of a previously known but unintelligible inscription on the left arm. Only with the use of raking light were we able to clearly read the inscription, .” Following Maria Grazia Picozzi’s (associate professor of the history of archeology at the University of Rome) archival research on the statue’s history, we were able to relate this inscription to the nineteenth century restoration of the statue.
Surface of reworked left arm in ambient (left) and raking light (right) |
Photos by Mark Abbe
The great hope in undertaking this project, however, was that we would find sufficient traces of polychromy to reconstruct the clothing of a Roman emperor. In this we were disappointed. Only two small traces of polychromy were identified, both of them in deep vertical folds of drapery across the upper chest. These traces were located using photo-induced luminescence, a recently developed technique used to identify traces of Egyptian blue, a pigment which many consider to be the world’s first synthetic color.
Details of microscopic particles of red/pink madder lake (left) and Egyptian blue (right)
Photos by F. Pozzi, Metropolitan Museum of Art
What was gratifying, however, is that the combination of pink madder and Egyptian blue were used to produce various shades of purple, according to both ancient written sources and modern analyses of purple on other works of ancient art. Purple is especially important in the Roman context, as Romans indicated senatorial rank by the addition of a purple stripe to their togas (the toga praetexta) while the more elaborate toga purpurea (all purple toga with gold embroidery) and toga picta (painted, or pictured, toga) were even more prestigious.
In making our hypothetical digital reconstructions of VMFA’s Caligula, we looked at ancient comparisons and literary sources to propose two possibilities first, Caligula in a more senatorial guise with the black boots and toga praetext:
|Digital reconstruction |
VMFA Portrait Statue of Caligula wearing a toga praetexta .
And second, Caligula in a more imperial guise, with black boots and a gold-embroidered toga purpurea:
|Digital reconstruction |
VMFA Portrait Statue of Caligula wearing a toga purpurea
with gold embroidery
The NEH-funded study of Caligula’s polychromy led directly to my decision that we should undertake a new conservation campaign focused on the statue with two goals: (1) to determine whether the head and body of the statue are from a single block of marble and, therefore, “belong” and (2) to adjust the position of the head. To this end, conservators undid the 1971 restoration of the head in order to physically separate the head from the body. This involved the removal of a copper rod that probably dated to the statue’s nineteenth century restoration. This rod had been inserted in holes drilled in the torso and head and was held in place by a hard epoxy that had to be removed by mechanical means.
Researchers took small samples of marble from both sides of the exposed surfaces of the break for stable isotopic analysis. (Raking samples from the interior of the break ensured that the marble samples had not been contaminated by environmental factors). The analysis revealed an almost exact correlation of the marble samples, leaving no reasonable doubt that the body and head are from a single block of Parianlyknites marble. This fine-grained, pure white marble was quarried on the Aegean island of Paros and was highly prized in antiquity. Among other well-known statues carved from lyknites is the statue of Rome’s first emperor (and Caligula’s great-grandfather) known as the Augustus Prima Porta, which was found in a private villa of Augustus’s wife, Livia.
Conservator Greg Byrne and VMFA Curator Peter Schertz examine the break between the head and neck
after the removal of Caligula’s head (left) the drilled hole in the head where marble sample was removed
for stable isotopic analysis (right).
Repositioning Caligula’s head took two days and was determined by aligning foliations in the marble of the neck on both the body and the head, comparison with other surviving full-length statues of togate figures from ancient Rome, and visual analysis of the overall composition. In the course of adjusting the head, we discovered that even very small adjustments to the head (a fraction of an inch to the left or right, a tiny bit raised or lowered) affected the overall impression the statue conveys.
The copper rod used in earlier restorations was replaced with a fiberglass rod that was fixed in place with plaster. Both the fiberglass and plaster are fully reversible, in keeping with current conservation practices and the knowledge that future curators and conservators may want to remove the head for additional study or adjustments in the alignment.
Portrait Statue of Emperor Gaius (“Caligula”)
37 CE (Arthur and Margaret Glasgow Fund, 71.20)
Photo by Travis Fullerton
© Virginia Museum of Fine Arts
The newly restored portrait statue of Caligula will go on public view at the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts by January 2014.
CaligulaEmperor Caligula, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Louis le Grand – CC BY-SA 3.0
Now we finally have an actual Roman who was the target of outright Roman hatred. Many people are familiar with some of Caligula and Nero’s evil doings but it is important to note that many of these tales are like the fabrications or later historians building on already unfavorable accounts. Even taking some of the evil deeds with a grain of salt, Caligula still stands as one of the most hated people ever.
Many historians, contemporary and modern agree that his rule started well for at least a few of the first months until Caligula became deathly ill. His personality changed quite radically after this illness and the evil came out in full force.
This has led many to speculate that he suffered brain swelling or heat damage to the brain, though it is also possible that such a terribly close call with death caused the change. Regardless, Caligula’s rule took a turn for the worse.
Mostly the fiscal irresponsibility is what led to the greatest popular hatred of Caligula, he quickly wasted a large surplus of imperial funds left by his predecessor Tiberius. Part of this was on lavish games, which at least pleased the masses but much was spent on personal expenses. A great example of this was the seizure of hundreds of grain boats to build an absolutely unnecessary bridge across the bay of Baiae.
Fanciful renaissance depiction of Caligula.
This was simply done to spite a prophecy from Caligula’s younger years where a soothsayer told Caligula that he had no greater chance at becoming emperor than he had to be able to ride his horse across the bay. After building the bridge, Caligula rode his horse across several times just to do so, this came at great public expense and resulting in a famine from the shortage of grain supply boats.
Aside from the fiscal responsibility, Caligula was the very epitome of cruel and unusual. He dressed up as various gods, and goddesses, and had people address him as a god. He relished in giving drawn out and painful executions, such as sawing in half, or repeated beatings with chains. His standby execution orders were often “Strike so that he may feel that he is dying.” He often forced family members to watch their relatives be executed, and would invite fathers whose sons were killed to dinner so that Caligula could discuss the execution with them.
Caligula had two other codes he lived by, often saying “Remember that I have the right to do anything to anybody.” And “Let them hate me, so they but fear me.” This extended to the members of the senate, who he not only mocked by making his horse a Consul, but also raped their wives and discussed the act with the senators right after.
Ruins of the temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum Romanum. Ancient resources as well as recent archaeological evidence suggest that, at one point, Caligula had the palace extended to annex this structure.
Once, Caligula was jealous of a centurion’s handsome son and sentenced him to fight multiple gladiators in the arena, when the boy proved victorious, Caligula had him dragged through the streets and executed anyway. He also built a boat palace on a lake of such extravagance that it came with its own marble floors and plumbing.
After bankrupting the previously wealthy empire and making enemies of Senators and centurions alike, it is no surprise that he was assassinated. The plot was known and developed by members of multiple social classes and kicked off just after Caligula announced that he would move to Alexandria to rule and live like a proper God.
It is surely a testament to the universal hatred towards Caligula that he inspired such cooperation among the often firmly divided social classes. Keep in mind that everything above is taken from sources already hostile to Caligula so some may be exaggerated or wholly made up, but it is still clear that he was an absolutely terrible person.
The Emperor would throw people into the arena to be killed by animals, because he was bored
Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, known as Caligula, was born on the 31st of August, AD 12, in Antium (now Anzio), Italy.
He was one of six children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder, with siblings named Nero, Drusus, Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla. His father, Germanicus, was the nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius, his great-great-grandfather was Julius Caesar and his great-grandfather was Augustus.
Caligula got his nickname when he was 3-years-old and traveled with his father, Germanicus, on his wars. He wore a tiny replica of a soldier’s outfit to the great amusement of the legions, and so the soldiers began calling him Caligula, which means “little soldier’s boot.”
When his father died in 17 AD, emperor Tiberius accused his mother and brothers of treason and all of them died in prison or exile. Caligula was spared because of his young age and forced to live with his great-grandmother, Livia.
Caligula was adopted by Tiberius and soon he and his cousin Gemellus were made equal heirs to the throne. When Tiberius died in 37 AD, the 24-year-old Caligula was named the sole emperor.
His succession was welcomed in Rome and he granted bonuses to those in the military, eliminated unfair taxes, and freed those who had been unjustly imprisoned.
After six months Caligula fell severely ill, and when he recovered he was never the same person again. After the illness, all sources attest to a change in Caligula’s behavior. It is said that at this point Caligula went mad.
Caligula Depositing the Ashes of his Mother and Brother in the Tomb of his Ancestors, by Eustache Le Sueur, 1647
He became extremely paranoid and he began killing those close to him or sending them to exile, and he also began to refer to himself as a god in meetings with senators and politicians. He even demanded that temples be erected in Rome in his honor and he told everyone to call him “Neos Helios“, or “New Sun”.
He began appearing in public dressed as various gods and demigods such as Hercules, Mercury, Venus and Apollo.
He ordered the construction of a bridge between his palace and the Temple of Jupiter so that he could meet with the deity.
He was sleeping with other men’s wives and bragged about it, and he even committed incest with his own three sisters. He eventually impregnated his favorite sister Drusilla. He even opened a brothel right inside the imperial palace.
Caligula had an insatiable appetite for torture and he would throw people into the arena to be killed by wild animals just because he was bored.
Emperor Caligula, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Photo Credit
The strange and lewd behavior continued into a form of megalomania and he ordered statues of him to be erected all over the empire. A statue of gold was specifically commissioned to be erected in the Temple of Jerusalem.
Caligula declared his horse, Incitatus, a priest of his temple, made it a senator and had wanted it granted consulship.
Caligula was named emperor by the Roman Senate on 18 March 37 CE.
Caligula was named emperor by the Roman Senate on 18 March 37 CE. He maintained the formula for imperial portraiture established by his predecessors Tiberius and Augustus to stress unity and continuity of imperial leadership. This propaganda was especially important to the Julio-Claudians, who had difficulty producing sons as heirs to the imperial throne. Caligula was the son of Germanicus (d. 19) and the great-nephew of the emperor Tiberius, himself only the stepson of Augustus, Thus, in keeping with the Julio-Claudian “look,” we see Caligula as youthful, with an angular face, protruding ears, and short hair combed forward over the forehead. Caligula’s pride, however, often comes through in his portraits. He was known more for his opulence and extravagance than effective governing, and his rule was cut short by assassination in 41 CE.
Ancient writers like Philo and Seneca described Caligula as insane, sex-crazed, and concerned only with himself and his pleasures. Suetonius and Cassius Dio went so far as to accuse him of incest. Though these claims may have merely been part of a campaign to underscore Caligula’s failures as emperor and unpopularity, his infamy continues to capture the imaginations of authors, filmmakers, and gamers.
Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, known as Caligula, marble. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1914 (14.37)
Bust of Caligula, marble. Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
Roman sestertius depicting Caligula, ca. 38 CE. The reverse shows Caligula’s three sisters, Agrippina, Drusilla and Julia Livilla, with whom Caligula was rumoured to have carried on incestuous relationships.
Caligula and Rome, cameo, 37-41 CE. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
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Caligula, Ny Carlsberg Glypotek - History
Portrait of Caligula, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek Copenhagen (Variant A)
Portrait of the Roman Emperor Caligula, today in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, colour reconstruction, Variant A (Carrara marble, natural pigment according to the Price Method in tempera technique). Polychromy: Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, Sylvia Kellner.
(Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen)
UVF=Ultraviolet Fluorescence (Schott KV 418)
UVR=Ultraviolet Reflectography (Schott UG1 or Schott BG12)
VM=Visual Light Stereo Microscopy (10-50x, Zeiss & Olympus)
RL=Raking Light (Schott KL1500)
NLBW=Photography in visible light, black & white
NLCOLOR=Photography in visible light, full color
MPH=Macro Photography (via Microscope or Macro lenses)
XRF=X-ray Fluorescence Analysis
SEM=Scanning Electrone Microscopy
EXM=Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis
UV-VIS=UV-VIS Absorption Spectroscopy
Looking to learn more about Ny Carlsberg Glyptoteket? Here are ten things you probably didn’t know about the museum:
The palms of Glyptoteket’s courtyard garden were originally grown in the childhood home of Carl Jacobsen, the founder of Carlsberg, making them 140 years old. Since that time, they have grown 20 meters tall.
In the museum, you’ll find Denmark’s largest collection of French art. The collection includes masters such as Rodin, Degas, Monet, Manet, Cézanne, and Renoir.
The Glyptotek has one of Copenhagen’s most beautiful rooftop terraces, with views of the city and Tivoli. The roof terrace is designed by world famous Danish architect Henning Larsen, who also built the Copenhagen Opera House and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Riyhadh, Saudi Arabia.
The Glyptotek has always been a daylight museum. This means that the light in the exhibition halls primarily comes in via skylight windows. In 2015, the museum introduced evening lighting so you can now visit the museum until 10 pm on Thursdays.
Feel like staying outside? Behind the Glyptoteket is a beautiful sculpture garden with a gorgeous array of colorful flowers. Here you can find Rodin’s famous “Grubler,” also known as “The Thinker.”The garden is open to all and free to visit.
All the displayed white marble sculptures from ancient Greece and Rome were originally painted in powerful, bright colors. Researchers from Glyptoteket constantly finding out new information about the original appearance of these sculptures.
Glyptoteket’s floor mosaics tell stories just like the art on the walls. The Mosaics of Scottish Times in the Antiquity collection in the Kampmann building are a tribute to Carl Jacobsen’s British wife Ottilia. The Barley Captiulum mosaic is a tribute to one of the main ingredients in beer and can also be found in the Antiquity collection in the Kampmann building.
Through archaeological color studies, the wall colors of the original Glyptoteket building, first opened in 1905, have been identified in Glyptotek’s ancient Greek, Roman and Egyptian exhibition halls. Though they have been painted over many times, tt is those original colors that adorn the walls today.
The story goes: Carl Jacobsen wanted to be buried in the Glyptotek’s mausoleum. He ended up, however, being buried in the crypt under the Jesuit church in Valby, which he himself built in 1891. You can still see Carl Jacobsen’s death mask at the Glyptotek, so perhaps a small part of his wish was granted.
In 2017, Christine Buhl Andersen was named the first female director of the museum. Before that, the museum had eight male directors since its opening in 1897.
Visit Ny Carlsberg Glyptoteket
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Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek: Years of Art
The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, simply known as the Glyptotek is an art museum in Copenhagen, Denmark. In Danish “ny” means “new” and “Glyptotek” has Greek origin, glyphein , to carve and theke is a storing place. Glyptotek’s superlative collection included over 10,000 pieces of artwork sculptures and paintings.
The origin of the museum dates back to 1885, when Carl Jacobsen (1842-1914) of the Carlsberg Breweries, an industrialist , a patron of the arts and a passionate art collector, opened his art collection to the public. His collection consisted of Greek and Roman marble sculptures and 19th-century France and Denmark art pieces.
A state-owned museum was built on purpose. After 12 years of opening, in the year 1897, this collection was moved into the new building.
The Rule at the Glyptotek
Carl Jacobsen believed that art could touch, beautify and enrich the lives of everyone. But in contrast to the traditional museum, Carl did not believe that the visitor should be overburdened with scientific and academic systems. Rather art should speak directly to the individual.
The Glyptotek with its varied architecture gives each visitor a chance to disengage from the day today. The world-class collection offers a new perspective on human existence, civilisation and culture to individuals who visit the museum.
The present collection of the museum is built around that of Carl Jacobson. Once primarily a sculpture museum, the collection now includes paintings and antiques from ancient cultures. Apart from the works from France, Denmark, Greek and Roman culture, the artwork also comes from Egypt, the Mediterranean, as well as include modern sculptures of Auguste Rodin .
The collection of Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek includes the largest collection of antique art in Denmark. It also houses some European modern art. The antique collection comprises sculptures, frescoes, vases, bronze objects, sarcophagi and mummies from the ancient civilisation. The collection dates from 6,000 BC to the 5th century AD.
Some notable pieces include the stone head of the Egyptian king Amenhotep II from the 15th century BC, an entire tomb of an Etruscan prince from the 8th century BC excavated near Sabine Hills and a marble head of Emperor Caligula from the 1st century AD, which still retains some traces of its original painted decoration.
The 18th and 19th-century art collections include paintings and sculptures by artists of the Danish Golden Age and the Impressionist and post-Impressionist movements. Some names include Jens Juel, Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, Vincent van Gogh, Edger Degas and Paul Gaugin- along with sculptures by Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux and Auguste Rodin.
The modern work includes pieces from Max Ernst, Pablo Picasso and Alberto Giacometti.
The buildings of this one museum are many. And architecture has been affected by many different architects and styles since the construction and addition of new blocks was done slowly over the years.
The original building, the Dehlerup building , was inaugurated in 1897. The Danish architect Jens Vilhelm Dahlerup designed the new building. It is the first designed building of the museum. Today this structure houses French Art (1800-1870), Danish and French Sculpture and Danish Art (1780-1930).
The building’s three wings are in a historic style inspired by the Venetian Renaissance. The interiors are richly decorated ceilings are painted, mosaic floors, marble columns and the walls are adorned by reliefs. The earlier version of the design of the original Dahlerup building includes a massive dome that was never built.
A winter garden and an extension block called the Kampmann building were added to the existing building in 1906. These were designed by architect Hack Kampmann . This four-winged building has a collonaded central hall as its centre. The architecture here is more influenced by the classical style. The south-facing facade has a stepped pyramid.
The most recent addition to the building complex is the climate-controlled building in 1996. This building was designed by the architect Hennig Larsen (1925-2013). This modern building is three floored and has a rooftop terrace with a panorama of Copenhagen. Larsen found his inspiration in both Egyptian buildings and small Mediterranean mountain villages.
The museum underwent an extensive renovation in the year 2006. Under the architectural firm Dissing+Weitling . The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek also includes an auditorium, a library, a shop and a cafe located in the winter garden.
This space is mainly used for classical concerts (including the Helge Jacobsen concert series). The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek is known for its good acoustics, both in the museum and the surrounding halls. The museum is used by the Early music vocal ensemble as a rehearsal room, often within museum hours. This adds to the overall museum experience. The auditorium is occasionally used for other musical genres including the Danish Klezmer group Mames Babegenush.
It is also used for other cultural events such as poetry reading, lectures and debates.
The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek with its enormous collection is an oasis of art. Carl Jacobsen’s ideology of not classifying the art into academic or scientific categories still speaks through the design and the overall experience of the museum.
The museum is a cultural centre with an auditorium hosting various events and exhibitions held along with the museum.
En.wikipedia.org. 2021. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek – Wikipedia. [online] Available at: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ny_Carlsberg_Glyptotek> [Accessed 24 March 2021].
Glyptoteket. 2021. About the museum: What is Glyptoteket and what does the name mean?. [online] Available at: <https://www.glyptoteket.com/about-the-museum/> [Accessed 24 March 2021].
BIANCHINI, R., 2021. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek | Inexhibit. [online] Inexhibit. Available at: <https://www.inexhibit.com/mymuseum/ny-carlsberg-glyptotek-copenhagen/#:
:text=Today%2C%20the%20Ny%20Carlsberg%20Glyptotek,Larsen%20architects%2C%20completed%20in%201996> [Accessed 24 March 2021].
All objects 151 objects
At present, the sculpture has only been submitted to VIL imaging. The VIL images show no luminescence indicating that there are no traces of Egyptian blue.
Head of a man
The head is made of limestone. The tip of nose and part of chin is missing. Damage around the left ear, which has almost disappeared.
Red paint can still be seen with the naked eye as irises in both eyes.
The relief is made of Pentelic marble white, fine grained marble with a very strong red patina. Overall the relief seems unfinished, and the background has criss-cross traces of tooth chisel.
The relief has been exa.
Head of a man
The head is made of limestone, and is intact except from small cuts in the surface. Traces of red paint can be observed in the hair and on the wreath with the naked eye.
Frederik Poulsen (Poulsen, 1951) noted traces.
On the portait of the Roman emperor Caligula well-preserved paint enhances the striking appearance. Mixtures of different pigments have been used to achieve refined tonal and realistic effects using carbon-based black.
The relief is made of Pentelic white marble with grey stripes and yellow patina. The acroteria and the lower right hand corner are broken off. Other breaks have been mended in plaster.
The relief has been examined wi.
Woman from a Palmyrene sarcophagus
The woman depicted was probably a part of a large sarcophagus, now detached by the waist. The surface of the portrait is slightly weathered and fragments are missing from her coiffure and the bracelet on her left arm.
Palmyrene loculus relief depicting a man
A man, Yedîʽbêl, is depicted on a grave relief. The background is slightly weathered and a fragment of the upper right corner is missing. The portrait itself is well-preserved, only with a slightly weathered surface. .