China's Wars - Rousing the Dragon 1894-1949, Philip Jowett

China's Wars - Rousing the Dragon 1894-1949, Philip Jowett

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China's Wars - Rousing the Dragon 1894-1949, Philip Jowett

China's Wars - Rousing the Dragon 1894-1949, Philip Jowett

By the late nineteenth century Imperial China was in decline. The Manchu Qing dynasty had lost much of its strength and its last years were largely dominated by the Dowager Empress Ts'u-hsi. A series of clashes with western powers had ended in defeat and reduced the prestige of the government and most efforts to modernise were either disrupted by corruption or undermined by the Empress. Tensions with the Empire of Japan, which had been forced to open up to outside influences, eventually erupted into war in Korea, and the resulting First Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95 was a disaster for China. In the aftermath of this war European powers forced the Imperial government into more humiliating concessions. The Boxer Revolt further reduced the prestige of the government and in 1911 the Qing were overthrown. This marked the start of nearly fifty years of chaos - the new Republic never really got established and China descended into civil war, with a series of warlords fighting an amazing number of wars.

Even when the Nationalists managed to gain the supremacy in this conflict many of the warlords remained in their posts and the Nationalists found themselves in a long civil war with the Communists. At the same time the Japanese began their long costly intervention in Chinese affairs, which finally broke out into full scale war in 1937. The Chinese were just about holding on when the Japanese turned their attention to the Pacific, dragging the Allies into the war in China, but even after the defeat of Japan the fighting didn't stop. Finally after three years of renewed civil war Mao's Communists expelled the Nationalists from the mainland and a peace of sort settled over China.

This book covers this long and costly series of wars. We start in the dying days of Imperial China and the first attempts to modernise the Chinese army. Jowett does a good job of explaining the chaotic situation during the warlord period, with its seemingly endless procession of wars and changes of fortune (an estimated 500 wars in the 1910s and 1920s including five major conflicts, fought between as many as 2,000 warlords). The text is supported by an excellent selection of contemporary photographs, good Osprey maps and some interesting propaganda material, mainly issued by the Japanese or the Communists.

This is an excellent study of a chaotic period in Chinese history. It will be of value both to those interested in this period and its conflicts in their own right and those who want to get some idea of events before the current Communist regime came to power - the chaos of the previous half-century helps explain the current regime's concern with stability.

1 - Brutal Awakening 1894-1911
2 - Revolution - 1911-20
3 - High Warlordism - 1920-28
4 - Undeclared Conflict - 1928-37
5 - Full-scale War - 1937-41
6 - World War in the East - 1941-45
7 - Red Victory - 1946-49

Author: Philip Jowett
Edition: Hardcover
Pages: 400
Publisher: Osprey
Year: 2013


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Catalogue Persistent Identifier
APA Citation

Jowett, Philip, S. (2013). China's Wars : rousing the dragon 1894-1949. Oxford New York : Osprey Publishing

MLA Citation

Jowett, Philip, S. China's Wars : rousing the dragon 1894-1949 / Philip Jowett Osprey Publishing Oxford New York 2013

Australian/Harvard Citation

Jowett, Philip, S. 2013, China's Wars : rousing the dragon 1894-1949 / Philip Jowett Osprey Publishing Oxford New York

Wikipedia Citation
China's Wars : rousing the dragon 1894-1949 / Philip Jowett

China is one of the great powers of the modern world. Yet in the late 19th century China was a ramshackle and isolated medieval empire upon whom the European colonial powers could impose their wishes at will. This book describes the series of conflicts from 1894 to 1949 that forged modern China.

Includes bibliographical references (pages [395]-397) and index.


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China’s Wars: Rousing the Dragon 1894-1949 Book Review

China's Wars capably recaps that country's turbulent military history from the late 1800's to Mao Tse-tung's Communist conquest.

Subtitled "Rousing the Dragon 1894-1949", Osprey's hefty hardback actually begins before China's humiliating defeat in 1894's Sino-Japanese War.

Predatory foreign powers with potent, modern militaries had coveted crumbling Imperial China. Prescient Chinese progressives, however, deplored dangerous deficiencies in their military leadership, discipline, training, tactics, weaponry and equipment. And they urged rapid reforms of the army and navy. But with traditionalists rigidly resisting change, competing tensions simply further crippled China.

Author Philip Jowett starts there – and dutifully demonstrates direct correlation between fratricidal Chinese tendencies and endemic national weakness. He also deftly delineates developments of lasting consequence.

Exhibit A: "warlordism". Jowett devotes a full chapter, and parts of all others, to Chinese iterations of this phenomenon – including insurgent, bandit, provincial and collaborationist forces. The motif of "corruption" also courses through coverage. And it remained a common, corrosive concern – repeatedly weakening Chinese military capabilities. Most importantly, both issues arguably changed the course of human history.

Osprey's convenient compendium covers all main events: the Sino-Japanese War, Imperial dynastic collapse, Republican revolution, ensuing internecine struggles, the Japanese invasion, The Long March, World War II, and the Communist ascendancy. Numerous accounts of individual campaigns and actions underpin the larger narrative.

To avoid reader "confusion", Jewett employs the older Wade-Giles transliteration system for Mandarin Chinese. Sidebars, annotations and extended captions augment the account. Photos, color plates and maps illustrate text. And a selected bibliography and index conclude contents.

Some nomenclature missteps made me wince. That's a Polikarpov R-1 with a Soviet M-5 Liberty Engine copy – not an "R1M5". It's "P-51 Mustang" – not "Mustang 51B". And the terms "left wing" and "right wing" more accurately reflect modern political perspectives than historical Chinese reality.

Nitpicks aside, Osprey has earned radiant repute for mapping the backwaters of military history. China's Wars confirms that éclat. Philip Jowett's incandescent account ably illumines this largely neglected topic. And I thoroughly enjoyed it.

The M1941 rifle used the energy from recoil to cycle the rifle. As the bullet and propellant gases move down the barrel, they impart force on the bolt head which is locked to the barrel. The barrel, together with the bolt, moves a short distance rearward until the bullet leaves the barrel and pressure in the bore drops to safe levels. The barrel then stops against a shoulder allowing the bolt carrier to continue rearward under the momentum imparted by the initial recoil stage. The rotating bolt, with eight locking lugs, would then unlock from the chamber as cam arrangement rotates and unlocks the bolt to continue the operating cycle. [1] The Johnson rifle utilized a two-piece stock and a unique 10-round rotary magazine, designed to use the same 5-round stripper clips already in use by the M1903 Rifle.

This system had some advantages in comparison to the M1 Garand rifle, such as a greater magazine capacity combined with the ability to recharge the magazine with ammunition (using 5-round clips or individually) at any time, even with the bolt closed on a chambered round. Finally that the Johnson rifle did not—unlike the M1 Rifle—eject an en bloc clip upon firing the last round in the magazine, was considered an advantage by some soldiers. A widely-held belief among US soldiers (when surveyed [ by whom? ] in 1952, 27% of soldiers held this opinion [ citation needed ] ) was that the M1 Garand's distinctive clip ejection sound, the well-known "M1 Ping", presented a danger when fighting an enemy force, as the sound purportedly [ according to whom? ] signaled to the enemy that the solder's M1 Rifle was empty and they could no longer fire in defense. Regardless any anecdotal beliefs and despite the popularity of the story—which persists to this day [ when? ] —there are no verified cases of an enemy using the "M1 Ping" sound to their advantage up through the Korean War. [2] [3]

Unfortunately, despite the several advantages the Johnson Rifle design had over the M1 Garand rifle, the existing disadvantages were too great to change US rifle production from the M1 Garand. The Johnson's short recoil reciprocating barrel mechanism resulted in excessive vertical shot dispersion that was never fully cured during its production life, and was prone to malfunction when a bayonet was attached to the reciprocating barrel (short recoil weapons require specific barrel weights to cycle correctly). Additionally, the complex movements of the barrel required for proper operation would be subject to unacceptable stress upon a bayonet thrust into a target. The Johnson also employed a number of small parts that were easily lost during field stripping. Partially because of lack of development, the M1941 was less rugged and reliable than the M1, though this was a matter of personal preference and was not universally opined among those that had used both weapons in combat. [4]

As was Johnson's practice, he gave all of his weapons a "pet" nickname. Johnson christened his semi-automatic rifle Betsy and the Light Machine Gun Emma.

Melvin Johnson continued to develop small arms. He worked with ArmaLite and Colt's Manufacturing Company as an advocate for the AR-15. The AR-15 used a similar bolt design to the M1941 Johnson. [5]

Melvin Johnson campaigned heavily for the adoption of the Johnson rifle by the U.S. Army and other service branches. However, after limited testing, the U.S. Army rejected Johnson's rifle in favor of the M1 Garand rifle developed by Springfield Armory. [6] The M1941 was ordered by the Netherlands for issue to the KNIL in the Dutch East Indies, but only 1,999 rifles were shipped to the Dutch East Indies before the Japanese invaded. [7] At this time, the U.S. Marine Corps found itself in need of a modern fast-firing infantry rifle, and acquired some rifles from the Dutch East Indies shipment for issue to its Paramarine battalions then preparing to deploy for action in the Pacific theatre. By all accounts, [ citation needed ] the M1941 performed acceptably in combat with the Marines in the early days of the Pacific fighting.

Weapon serial number A0009 was issued to USMC Captain Robert Hugo Dunlap, of Monmouth, Illinois, and he carried it into combat in the battle for Iwo Jima, beginning 19 February 1945. Captain Dunlap was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions in that battle, and he retained and displayed the weapon until his death in 2000. He praised the rifle and credited it with saving his life and the lives of others.

Despite repeated requests by the Marine Corps to adopt the rifle, [8] the Johnson rifle lacked the support of US Army Ordnance, which had already invested considerable sums in the development of the M1 Garand and its revised gas operating system, then just going into full production. Johnson was successful in selling small quantities of the M1941 Johnson Light Machine Gun to the U.S. armed forces, and this weapon was later used by both Paramarines and the Army's First Special Service Force. [9] Additionally, in April 1944, the United States War Department offered the Free French military the use of approximately 10,500 Johnson rifles and 1,500 Johnson light machine guns these guns were from undelivered Dutch/Netherlands contracts taken over by the United States Government in 1942. The French accepted them and issued them to their "Sovereignty troops" (i.e. second line units remaining in North Africa). [10]

Some rifles were reportedly sent to Nationalist China, [11] [12] and a few were captured by the People's Liberation Army during the later stages of the Chinese Civil War. [13] The .30cal Springfield and Enfield M1917 rifles were supplied in large numbers to the KMT by the USA pre-1945, to arm Y and X Forces in Burma. [14] About 30% of Nationalist small arms were of US origin, 30% captured Japanese, and the remainder from various Chinese sources. [15] One US military source states that between September and November 1948 the Nationalists lost 230,000 rifles to the Communists. In early 1949 the total figure reached over 400,000 of which at least 100,000 were US types. [15]

At the beginning of the Indonesian National Revolution, some M1941 rifles were still in service within Dutch forces. While the KNIL handed over many Geweer M. 95 and Lee-Enfield rifles to Indonesia after the end of the war, the Johnsons were brought to the Netherlands. They were eventually sold in the surplus market in 1953. [16]

In late 1946, Argentina expressed an interest in Johnson's arms, and Johnson fabricated a prototype, the Model 1947 auto carbine, a semi automatic rifle variant of the light machine gun with the 10 round cylindrical magazine. While specific details are sketchy, it apparently bore little resemblance, but shared some features with the Johnson M1941 light machine gun. Argentina apparently declined to purchase any, and the M1947 auto carbine never went into production. In any event, the post-war years were not kind to the Johnson organisation. The entity filed for bankruptcy and was liquidated in early 1949.

A notable example is the FMA VF-1 manufactured in Argentina.

The Johnson rifle was also used in training by the anti-Castro Brigade 2506, but would not be carried to the 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion. [17]

Because it was produced in relatively small quantities the Johnson rifle has become a highly sought-after collectible by World War II collectors looking to complete their collections.

The treasure collection is divided into two parts

The treasure is piled up in the Nanjing repository, ready to be returned to the Palace Museum in the ancient Forbidden City, when the bloody civil war between the nationalists and communists engulfs the country. Both sides claim the treasure as their own

In 1948, with Beijing and Nanjing about to fall to Mao's troops, the nationalists stationed in Nanjing plan their exit to Taiwan. They transfer the treasure remaining in Beijing to Nanjing, in order to transport the entire collection with them to the island

Faced with threats of an imminent arrival of communist troops, the nationalists manage to send only three ship consignments to the port of Keelung. It is midwinter and the journey is difficult in rough seas

Finally, on February 22, 1949, the last ship arrives in Taiwan

The nationalists only manage to take 3,824 boxes with them, much less than was transferred from Beijing when the objects took to the road. However, the nationalists managed to take a great deal of the most valuable objects

The collection is now divided in two. The largest number of valuables remains on the mainland and is returned to the Palace Museum, where the collection was originally assembled by emperors over several centuries in the former Forbidden City. In Taipei, the National Palace Museum is built to house the objects spirited away to Taiwan

'Jigs med dbang rgyal, Be ri. Mdo khams chu bzhi sgang drug bstan srung dwangs blangs dmag gi lo rgyus. Delhi: Mdo khams chu bzhi sgang drug dbus spyi khyab rgyun las khang, 2009. W1KG13774

Blo bzang rgya mtsho and Ngag dbang chos 'pel. Rgyal thang dpa' bo dbang phyug steng pa'i dpa' ba'i gtam rgyud rdo rje'i srog ldan (The Vajra Soul: The Life Account of the Valorous Wangchuk Tengpa). Dharamsala: Ngawang Chophel, 1992. W4CZ315272

Bsod nams rgya mtsho and Shes rab rgya mtsho (Trans.). Rgyal thang gi lo rgyus yig tshags dpyad gzhi phyogs bsgrigs (A Collection of Archival Documents on Gyelthang). Kun ming: Yun nan mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 2003. W1KG14780

Bstan pa rgyal mtshan. Rgyal thang yul lung dgon gnas dang bcas paʼi byung ba mdo tsam brjod pa blo gsal mgul pa mdzes paʼi rgyan (A Necklace for the Wise: History of Gyelthang and Sumtsen Ling Monastery). Dharamsala: Rgyal thang bya ʼthab ngag dbaṅ thabs mkhas, 1985. W1PD9229

Conversations with former guerilla members Phunang Tengpa (普喏丁巴 Punuodingba) Chonzé Lobzang Shedrub, 1994, and Ngophu (红破 Hongpo) Agyel, 2003.

Democratic Reform in Tibet—Sixty Years On, The State Council Information Office of
the People’s Republic of China, 2019.

Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang. 1973. Four River Six Ranges: Reminiscences of the Resistance Movement in Tibet. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of H.H. the Dalai Lama.

G.yung drung rgyal mtshan. Mi lo 50 ring gi mdo khams chu bzhi sgang drug gi lo rgyus phyogs bsdus/. Delhi: Mdo khams chu bzhi sgang drug dbus spyi khyab rgyun las khang, 2009. W1KG13773

Jowett, Philip. China’s Wars: Rousing the Dragon, 1894-1949. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2013.

Lai, Benjamin. The Long March 1934–35: The Rise of Mao and the Beginning of Modern China. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2013.

Mortensen, Dasa. The History of Gyalthang under Chinese Rule: Memory, Identity, and Contested Control in a Tibetan Region of Northwest Yunnan. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2016.

Mortensen, Dasa. “Historical Amnesia in Gyalthang: The Legacy of Tibetan Participation in the Cultural Revolution.” In Conflicting Memories, edited by Robert Barnett, Benno Weiner, and Francoise Robin series edited by David Sneath, Caroline Humphrey, and Uradyn E. Bulag, 275-310. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2020.

Ngag dbang chos 'phel bstan 'dzin, Gyang dmar. Gyang dmar ngag dbang chos 'phel gyi rang rnam. Dharamsala: Gyangmar Choenze Ngawang Choejor, 1997. W2CZ6656

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Got this book as a gift for Christmas. Book is a little less than 400 pages, printed on quality paper. The book follows the period in chronological order there are seven chapters: Brutal Awakening 1894-1911, Revolution 1911-20, High Warlordism 1920-28, Undeclared Conflict 1928-37, Full Scale War 1937-41, World War in the East 1941-45 and Red Victory 1946-49. There are numerous "subsection boxes" inserted in the layout going into further detail on topics (e.g. an explanation of the Beiyang fleet of the 19th century). The thing that really makes this book worthwhile are the photos and illustrations. I have read or thumbed thru many books on the period and this particular one has many, many pictures I have never seen before. There are black & white, hand-tinted and color illustrations along with maps. If one wanted to paint Imperial or warlord armies, there are enough illustrations to provide a very good guide. I have read a few parts and the writing is very easy to digest and understand. Highly recommended!

I got this book too for Christmas. Have only had a flick through it at the moment but looks very good. I also got 'China's War with Japan 1937-1945: The Struggle for Survival' by Rana Mitter, which I am reading now. A very good overview of the war that dispels the myth that China's role should just be seen a footnote to the history of WWII. Around 400 pages long, with 5 maps and 35 photographs. An ideal broad introduction into this often neglected theatre of WWII.

Just ordered it. Thank you for your recommendations!

What proportion of the book is devoted to the Warlord Era?

The High Warlordism chapter is 56 pages, however the previous chapter on the revolution also deals with regional factions and cliques, Imperial army, etc. That chapter is 44 pages. Book is really comprehensive, Jowett even discusses the Chinese-Tibet War, Mongolian War and other conflict with neighbors in the 1920s. There was also a propaganda artwork depicting a Nationalist battle against a Warlord. The image showed a warlord flag I hadn't seen before (red with Chinese symbols), very cool stuff.

Thanks PAR. Only a quarter, eh? I don't know if a purchase is justified, but will give it more thought.

If you look on Amazon, Jowett has another book coming out in February 2014 titled "The Armies of Warlord China 1911-1928".

Thanks TE. It sounds like exactly what I'm looking for. I'll check it out.

China's Wars

Besides the large quantity of Hexon II hexes he passed on to me on Sunday, David Crook also gave me a book . CHINA'S WARS: ROUSING THE DRAGON 1894-1949 by Philip Jowett.

  • The Sleeping Dragon
  • Chapter 1: Brutal Awakening 1894-1911
  • Chapter 2: Revolution 1911-20
  • Chapter 3: High Warlordism 1920-28
  • Chapter 4: Undeclared Conflict 1928-37
  • Chapter 5: Full-Scale War 1937-41
  • Chapter 6: World War in the East 1941-45
  • Chapter 7: Red Victory 1946-49
  • Bibliography
  • Index

Something else for me to think about over the coming weeks and months!


Interesting stuff Bon. It reminds me of a conversation I once had with a Chinese student, we were discussing World War Two uniforms, and he corrected me when I stated that british uniforms " at the start of the war in 1939" altered by the end. He, for obvious reasons, didn't agree with my start date for WW2. It was an interesting reminder not to be too parochial!

The start date of the Second World War (and I've seen that title recently disputed by historians who consider that the Seven Years War was probably the first global war, and that the Great War was the second!) does depend upon when one's country became involved in it.

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1-COM1056 RED STAR WHITE EAGLE RUSSO-POLISH WAR 1920: Designer Edition Red Star White Eagle: The Russo-Polish War, 1920, Designer Signature Edition, marks the return of a true wargaming classic by David Williams, remastered and updated with this all-new, supersized edition. Celebrated by many as one of the finest and often sought-after game titles ever produced by Game Designers' Workshop (GDW, 1979) on a fascinating, almost forgotten conflict that would determine the course of European history for the next 20 years or more. Red Star White Eagle is yet another Classic Reborn! by Compass.

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1-666131 Fernandez, Jose TAXDIRT 1909 Taxdirt 1909 - The heroic cavalry charge in the Melilla campaign.

Early in the afternoon of Monday, September 20, 1909, 65 Spanish riders threw themselves at about 1,500 Rifian troops. The surprise was absolute. More than a hundred of the bewildered Harquenos remained on the ground, and when the rest tried to regroup, the riders led by the Lieutenant-Colonel Cavalcanti charged again. After making a third and final charge and fulfilling his mission, the Cavalry retired.

The scene was the hilly region surrounding the Taxdirt on the peninsula of Tres Forcas about 15km west of Melilla. The news of what happened was received with admiration, first by the commanders of the army, and then by all the people. 1 vol, 118 pgs 2018 SPAIN, ALMENA
NEW-softcover, available late December 2018 [Spanish Text] . $28.00

1-66671 Gomez, Antonio DE TETUAN A GUAD RAS: Guerra de Africa 1859-1860 This latest installment of 'Warriors and Battles' series, with color illustrations and maps. 1 vol, 128 pgs 2012 ITALY
NEW-softcover . $24.00

1-197600 Gooch, John MUSSOLINI AND HIS GENERALS: The Armed Forces and Fascist Foreign Policy, 1922-1940 In his masterful and highly detailed study of Italian diplomacy and military power under fascism, John Gooch examines year by year and in great detail the interaction between Il Duce's foreign policy goals - from 1922 to Italy's entry into the Second World War in 1940 - and the response of the army, navy, and air force as they sought to accommodate Mussolini's ever evolving ambitions. Mussolini and his Generals is at once a history of Italian foreign policy and its military strategy. It is the definitive work in English on this subject. 1 vol, 651 pgs 2007 UK, CAMBRIDGE PRESS
NEW-dj . $40.00 with a discount of 25%

1-51240 Gudmundsson, Bruce ON ARTILLERY Analytical look at the role of artillery from thefall of Sedan 1870 until Vietnam conflict, detailsof friendly-fire, the impotence of counter-batteryfire, chpt. notes, biblio, index. 1 vol, 176 pgs 1993 WESTPORT, PRAGER PUBLISH
NEW-pb . $27.00

1-199980 Jones, Spencer FROM BOER WAR TO WORLD WAR: Tactical Reform of the British Army, 1902-1914 The British Expeditionary Force at the start of World War I was tiny by the standards of the other belligerent powers. Yet, when deployed to France in 1914, it prevailed against the German army because of its professionalism and tactical skill, strengths developed through hard lessons learned a dozen years earlier.

In October 1899, the British went to war against the South African Boer republics of Transvaal and Orange Free State, expecting little resistance. A string of early defeats in the Boer War shook the military's confidence, but crucially shaped the British Army's tactical development in the years that followed.

Before the British Army faced the Boer republics, an aura of complacency had settled over the military. The Victorian era had been marked by years of easy defeats of crudely armed foes. The Boer War, however, brought the British face to face with what would become modern warfare. The sweeping, open terrain and advent of smokeless powder meant soldiers were picked off before they knew where shots had been fired from. The infantry's standard close-order formations spelled disaster against the well-armed, entrenched Boers. Although the British Army ultimately adapted its strategy and overcame the Boers in 1902, the duration and cost of the war led to public outcry and introspection within the military.

Jones draws on previously underutilized sources as he explores the key tactical lessons derived from the war, such as maximizing firepower and using natural cover, and he shows how these new ideas were incorporated in training and used to effect a thorough overhaul of the British Army. The first book to address specific connections between the Boer War and the opening months of World War I, Jones's fresh interpretation adds to the historiography of both wars by emphasizing the continuity between them. 1 vol, 384 pgs 2012 US, UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA PRESS
NEW-dj . $35.00

1-203580 Jowett, Philip CHINA'S WARS: Rousing the Dragon 1894-1949 In the late 19th century, China was a ramshackle and isolated medieval empire upon whom the European colonial powers could impose their wishes at will. China's Wars describes the series of conflicts from 1894 to 1949 that forged modern China, from colonial clashes such as the Boxer Rebellion, through the chaotic years of warlord domination to the Japanese invasion, the Second World War and the bitter Civil War that followed. Previously unpublished photographs, contemporary pictures, and specially-commissioned maps illustrate these tumultuous events and the men who fought them, events that would end with the eventual triumph of the Communist Party and the rise of modern China. 1 vol, 400 pgs 2013 UK, OSPREY PUBLISHING
NEW-dj . $40.00 with a discount of 15%

1-221100 Jowett. Philip LIBERTY OR DEATH: Latin American Conflicts, 1900-70 From the Banana Wars of the early 20th century through to the Football War of 1969, South and Central America has been a hotbed of revolutions, rebellions and conflicts as diverse as they are numerous. Some were small-scale affairs involving the poorly armed forces of Central American armies with rifles, machetes and a few aged machine guns. Others were full-scale conflicts involving sophisticated armies equipped with tanks, artillery and aircraft, and hundreds of thousands of troops. These wars often went largely unreported in the West, which was preoccupied with its own problems in fighting two world wars and dealing with Cold War tensions.

Fully illustrated with a wealth of rare photographs, this fascinating story sheds light on seven decades of a continent in conflict that is rarely covered in English. 1 vol, 368 pgs 2019 UK, OSPREY PUBLISHING
NEW-dj, available late August 2019 . $40.00 with a discount of 15% rct

1-220130 Kinloch, Terry GODLEY: The Man Behind the Myth A comprehensive biography of General Sir Alexander Godley, presenting for the first time a fair and balanced look at his time as commander of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF) and II ANZAC Corps during World War I. While Godley is generally remembered as being a poor field commander, Terry Kinloch argues that he was in fact a capable one who had little or no ability to influence the failed battles at Gallipoli and Passchendaele that he is often seen as responsible for.

Kinloch also presents, for the first time, a detailed account of Godley's long pre- and post-World War I career in the British Army. After the war Godley returned to the British Army, eventually reaching the rank of general before retiring in 1933. During his 48-year military career, he also served on operations in Rhodesia and South Africa, as a mounted infantry instructor, in the post-war British occupation force in Germany, and as the Governor of Gibraltar. 1 vol, 328 pgs 2019 NEW ZEALAND, EXISLE PUBLISHING
NEW-dj, available early May 2019 . $35.00 with a discount of 10% rct

1-73830 Leuchars, Chris TO THE BITTER END:Paraguay & the Triple Alliance. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2003 WESTPORT, GREENWOOD PUBS
NEW-hardcover . $108.00

1-212630 MacDougall, Philip AIR WARS 1920-1939: The Development and Evolution of Fighter Tactics Spain (1936-9), China (1937 onwards), Mongolia (1939), Finland (1939-40), and France (1939-40) were a testing ground for a new approach to air tactics with western democracies and totalitarian states analyzing the resulting lessons. This covers how intelligence on aerial tactics was collected and why it was not always fully absorbed, resulting in many nations having to relearn the same lessons at the outset of WWII.

Finland, during the Winter War, while not involved in Spain or any other air war of the time, better applied the lessons being learned than the Soviet Union, which had been directly involved in air wars fought over China, Mongolia, and Spain.

In the case of Britain, not only were the lessons of Spain ignored, but also those of its own experimental fighter unit, the AFDE (Air Fighting Development Establishment), that had been formed in 1934 and was reinforcing the intelligence received from those real air war conflicts. 1 vol, 192 pgs 2016 UK, FRONTHILL MEDIA
NEW-pb, available mid October 2016 . $35.00 with a discount of 15%

1-208650 Macri, Franco David CLASH OF EMPIRES IN SOUTH CHINA: The Allied Nations' Proxy War with Japan, 1935-1941 Japan's invasion of China in 1937 saw most major campaigns north of the Yangtze River, where Chinese industry was concentrated. The southern theater proved a more difficult challenge for Japan because of its enormous size, diverse terrain, and poor infrastructure, but Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek made a formidable stand that produced a veritable quagmire for a superior opponent-a stalemate much desired by the Allied nations.

In the first book to cover this southern theater in detail, David Macri closely examines strategic decisions, campaigns, and operations and shows how they affected Allied grand strategy. Drawing on documents of US and British officials, he reveals how the Sino-Japanese War served as a 'proxy war' for the Allies. By keeping Japan's military resources focused on southern China, they hoped to keep the enemy bogged down in a war of attrition that would prevent them from breaching British and Soviet territory. 1 vol, 480 pgs 2015 US, UNIVERSITY PRESS OF KANSAS
NEW-softcover, available late June 2015 . $35.00

1-221680 Macro, Paul ACTION AT BADAMA POST: The Third Afghan War, 1919 The 3rd Afghan War in 1919 was the only time that the Afghans invaded British India during Britain's long history of conflict in Afghanistan and along the North-West Frontier. It was a campaign that cost the lives of well over 1,000 British and Indian troops. Includes more than 30 images and 5 maps.

This little-known action features a crashed aircraft from RAF's 20 Sqn and the subsequent rescue by the 22 Battery Motor Machine Gun Service. It was an all-arms action -- the lives of two airmen were saved at the cost of an Indian Militiaman and an unknown number of Afghan tribesmen.

This book looks at the background to the conflict, the Kurram Militia, the history of the squadron and the lives of the key players. Whilst this was not the only action the 22 Battery of the Motor Machine Gun Service fought during the 3rd Afghan War, this one was recorded in the account of A/Sjt Ernest 'Bill' Macro, who was in charge of the section of 22 Battery dispatched to Badama Post in late July 1919. 1 vol, 272 pgs 2016 US, CASEMATE PUBLISHING
NEW-dj, available mid September . $33.00 with a discount of 15% rct

1-WGAME46 Markham, Robert WARGAMER # 46: The Rise of the House of Sa'ud GAME: The Rise of the House of Sa'ud. Counters unpunched.

Magazine Features:
* The Rise of the House of Sa'ud - Background to the issue game
* The Royal Navy (QtrD) - Game review
* World War II ETO (TSR) - Game review
* Descent into Hell - Game review of Operation Market Garden (GDW)
* 1941 - A variant for Axis & Allies (MB)
* and more 1 vol, 60 pgs 1985 US, 3W
AS NEW-unpunched game . $20.00 rct

1-195470 Marsh, Don and Starkings, Peter Japanese Army Flying Schools 1912-1945 The book details the history of Imperial Japanese Army Flying Schools from 1912 to 1945, covering not only the formation of the schools, but also evolution of the training aircraft and the training of pilots, other aircrew, and ground crew maintenance personnel. Includes numerous photographs, many of which have not been seen before in any English language publication. In addition the wide variety of aircraft types used and the different markings they carried add much color interest to inspire modelers in a completely new field and are illustrated by some 400 color art profiles.
1 vol, 0 pgs 2011 ATGLEN, SCHIFFER BOOKS
NEW-softcover, available late May 2011 . $80.00

1-217050 Meixsel, Richard Bruce FRUSTRATED AMBITION: General Vicente Lim and the Philippine Military Experience, 1910-1944 Biography of Vicente Podico Lim (1888-1944) was once his country's best-known soldier. The first Filipino to graduate from West Point and a graduate of the US Army War College, Lim figured in every significant military development in the Philippines during his thirty years in uniform. Frustrated Ambition is the first in-depth biography of this forgotten figure, whose career paralleled the early 21th century history of the Philippine military. Includes 9 black and white illustrations and 5 maps.

As independence seemed increasingly likely for the Philippines in the 1930s, Lim positioned himself to take a leading role in developing armed forces for a sovereign nation. But as Lim maneuvered behind the scenes, Manuel L. Quezon, soon to be the commonwealth president, revealed that he had invited General Douglas MacArthur to serve as military adviser to the Philippines.

Frustrated Ambition corrects the conventional historical narrative of events thereafter-one that emphasizes the failure of the nascent Philippine military under MacArthur and inflates the general's heroic role in the defense of Bataan and Corregidor. Richard Bruce Meixsel restores Lim as the then-recognized leader of the opposition to MacArthur's mission, and shows how Lim took the Philippine Army in a more tenable direction as MacArthur's military system foundered.

World War II brought Lim to the fore. While MacArthur directed his troops from Corregidor, Lim commanded a division on Bataan that may have suffered more combat losses at the battle of Abucay than did all American units on Bataan during the entire campaign. When the U.S. high command turned its efforts to evacuating the Philippine Islands, Lim began to prepare for the ensuing underground struggle against the Japanese-a fight that cost him his life.

By recounting Vicente Lim's career, Frustrated Ambition illuminates forgotten episodes in Philippine history, offers new perspectives on military affairs during the American occupation, and recovers the story of Filipino soldiers whose service changed the course of their country's military history. 1 vol, 368 pgs 2018 US, UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA PRESS
NEW-dj, available late April 2018 . $37.00

1-COM1097 Mortell, Ross COMBAT! Solitaire Wargame Solitaire game on man to man combat in the 20th century. At the start of each turn, the player will play 1 card from their hand to the Initiative track to determine the initiative values for each of the player's friendly teams and may have other effects depending on the card.

After this, the player assigns orders to each character on his side to determine the actions that the character can take this turn. Once the friendly characters have orders assigned to them, the player will draw an Enemy AI Card for each Alerted Enemy Character. These cards will determine the Initiative value for each Enemy Team and the Order that they will receive. The Order determines the actions that an Enemy Character will take that turn.

The game turn is then played through in 4 Impulses. From the lowest initiative value to the highest each Character (Friendly and Enemy) will perform the action specified on their Order counter. All Characters will act on Impulse 1 before moving to Impulse 2, then Impulse 3 and finally Impulse 4. At the end of the turn all Orders are removed and the played cards returned to the respective decks. Each soldier (friendly and enemy) is represented by a 1-inch counter with 5/8-inch informational markers showing morale, wounds, orders etc.

* Four 22x34-inch game maps
* Four 5/8-inch counter sheets
* Two 1 inch counter sheets
* Two decks of cards (52 cards per deck)
* One Rulebook
* One Scenario Book
* Four Displays/Charts
* One Turn Display
* Two Ten-Sided Dice
* One Six-Sided Die
* One Game Box

Product Information:
* Complexity: 6 out of 10
* Solitaire Suitability: 10 out of 10 - Designed specifically for solitaire play
* Time Scale: Abstracted dependent upon actions taken per round but between 30 seconds and 2 minutes
* Map Scale: 10 yards per hex
* Unit Scale: Single man - man-to-man combat
* Players: One - Designed specifically for solitaire play
* Playing Time: Two to six hours dependent upon size of scenario 1 vol, 1 pgs 2019 US, COMPASS GAMES
NEW-box . $139.00 with a discount of 20% rct

1-221282 Mujzer, Peter THE ROYAL HUNGARIAN ARMY 1920-1945, Volume 2: Hungarian Mobile Forces Period Photos. Line drawings of tanks. Unit insignia, and more. 1 vol, 122 pgs 2000 US, AXIS EUROPA BOOKS
AS NEW-dj, (1) copy available . $100.00 rct

1-980065 O'Shea, Brendan and McNally, Michael WAR FOR IRELAND, THE 1913-1925 The battle for Irish Independence was not one conflict, but a series of bloody struggles that stretched over a decade. Covers the Easter Rising,The Anglo-Irish War, The Irish Civil War. 1 vol, 248 pgs 2009 UK, OSPREY PUBLISHING
. $27.00

1-199220 Paine, S.C. THE WARS FOR ASIA, 1911-1949 Shows that the Western treatment of World War II, the Second Sino-Japanese War, and the Chinese Civil War as separate events misrepresents their overlapping connections and causes. The long Chinese Civil War precipitated a long regional war between China and Japan that went global in 1941 when the Chinese found themselves fighting a civil war within a regional war within an overarching global war.

The global war that consumed Western attentions resulted from Japan's peripheral strategy to cut foreign aid to China by attacking Pearl Harbor and Western interests throughout the Pacific on December 7-8, 1941. S. C. M. Paine emphasizes the fears and ambitions of Japan, China, and Russia, and the pivotal decisions that set them on a collision course in the 1920s and 1930s. The resulting wars - the Chinese Civil War (1911-1949), the Second Sino-Japanese War (1931-1945), and World War II (1939-1945) - together yielded a viscerally anti-Japanese and unified Communist China, the still-angry rising power of the early twenty-first century. While these events are history in the West, they live on in Japan and especially China. 1 vol, 464 pgs 2012 UK, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
NEW-dj, available mid to late August 2012 . $38.00

1-44950 Perrett, Bryan IRON FIST: Classic Armoured Warfare Case Studies Perrett vividly recreates the battlefield in the era of the tank and details the evolution of mechanized warfare. Includes b/w illust, biblio, and index. 1 vol, 240 pgs 1995 LONDON, ARMS & ARMOUR
NEW-dj . $25.00 with a discount of 50%

1-83340 Pignato, P. UNIFORMS & EQUIPMENT OF THE ITALIAN ARMORED TROOPS 8.5x11, 100+ b/w and 200+ color photos/illust of the Italian Armored Troops WWI-WWII, their dress, equipment, unit history and more. 1 vol, 340 pgs 2012 ITALY
NEW-dj, ITALIAN TEXT . $95.00

2-56880 Raeder, Grand Admiral Erich GRAND ADMIARL/MY LIFE In this frank and modest autobiography covering WWI to WWII, Raeder was the most powerful player in the the German Navy, particularly insightful chapter on Operation Sea Lion, appendices, index. 1 vol, 464 pgs 2001 NY,
NEW-pb . $18.00 with a discount of 15%

1-221580 Rawson, Andrew POLAND'S STRUGGLE: Before, During and After the Second World War Poland was re-created as an independent nation at the end of WWI, but it soon faced problems as Nazi Germany set about expanding its control on Europe. The Wehrmacht's attack on 1 September 1939 was followed by a Red Army invasion two weeks later.

The people of Poland were then subjected to a terrifying campaign of murder, imprisonment and enslavement which only increased as the war dragged on. Polish Catholics faced violence and deportation as they adapted to the draconian laws implemented by the German authorities. Meanwhile, the Polish Jews were forced into ghettos while the plans for the Final Solution were implemented. They then faced annihilation in the Holocaust, code named Operation Reinhard.

Despite the dangers, many Poles joined the underground war against their oppressors, while those who escaped sought to fight for their nation's freedom from abroad. They sent intelligence to the west, attacked German installations, carried out assassinations and rose up to confront their enemy, all against impossible odds. The advance of the Red Army brought new problems, as the Soviet's dreaded NKVD introduced its own form of terror, hunting down anyone who fought for an independent nation. The story concludes with Poland's experience behind the Iron Curtain, ending with the return of democracy by 1991. 1 vol, 208 pgs 2019 UK, PEN & SWORD
NEW-dj, available early September 2019 . $35.00 with a discount of 15% rct

1-220570 Samuels, Martin PIERCING THE FOG OF WAR: The Theory and Practice of Command in the British and German Armies, 1918-1940 Since the late 1970s, anglophone and German military literature has been fascinated by the Wehrmacht's command system, especially the practice of Auftragstaktik. There have been many descriptions of the doctrine, and examinations of its historical origins, as well as unflattering comparisons with the approaches of the British and American armies prior to their adoption of Mission Command in the late 1980s. Almost none of these, however, have sought to understand the different approaches to command in the context of a fundamental characteristic of warfare - friction. This would be like trying to understand flight, without any reference to aerodynamics. Inherently flawed, yet this is the norm in the military literature. This book seeks to address that gap. 4 b/w maps, 4 b/w diags, 14 tables

Analyzes the nature of friction and the potential command responses to it, including the development of a typology of eight command approaches, each approach then being tested to identify its relative effectiveness and requirements for success. Examines the British and German armies' doctrines of command during the period to reveal similarities and differences in relation to their perspective on the nature of warfare and the most appropriate responses. For example, this looks at the German doctrine as practiced by Erwin Rommel, both as a young subaltern fighting the Italians in 1917, and then as a newly-appointed divisional commander against the French in 1940, is used to test the expression of in practice. Finally, this explores different command doctrines with case studies of two key armored battles: Amiens in August 1918 and Arras in May 1940. 1 vol, 256 pgs 2019 UK, HELION AND COMPANY
NEW-hardback, available mid June 2019 . $50.00 with a discount of 15% rct

1-217140 Sapienza, Antonio THE CHACO AIR WAR 1932-35: The First Modern Air War in Latin America Over 200 ills, mostly b/w, with color maps & aircraft profiles.

The Chaco War was probably the first modern conflict in Latin America where military aviation was widely used in all roles. Bolivia, as the reader will find out, had a very powerful military air force, but unfortunately for them and luckily for Paraguay, its high army command did not take advantage of it. On the other hand, the Paraguayan Commander-in-Chief, General Jose Felix Estigarribia used military aviation to help him defeat the enemy on the ground, and the result was clear: the Bolivians were expelled from the Chaco after three years of war.

This book focuses on the Chaco Air War with the aircraft technical details and information on aerial operations. All dogfights and bombing missions mentioned are detailed including crews, aircraft, serials, places, and outcomes. The book also describes how both military air forces were organized, how pilots and aviation mechanics were trained, how and where aircraft were purchased and many other unpublished before details.

The maps included in the book will help the reader have an idea of where aerial operations took place, both combatants air bases, Bolivia's plan to conquer the whole region and how the Paraguayan Army finally expelled the enemy out of the Chaco. The text is supported by a large number of photographs, and specially commissioned color profile artworks from modelers. 1 vol, 80 pgs 2018 UK, HELION AND COMPANY
NEW-softcover . $30.00 with a discount of 15%

1-225670 Sapienza, Antonio Luis The Chaco War, 1932-1935 - Fighting in Green Hell Concise history of first modern conflict in South America, with the full background, the military mobilization and deployment of the Bolivian and Paraguayan armed forces, and all of the battles. Includes an exclusive collection of photographs from the archives of the Institute of History and Military Museum of Ministry of National Defence of Paraguay, and several private archives in Paraguay and Bolivia.

Two very different military concepts faced each other: the German General Hans Kundt, a First World War veteran, hired by the Bolivian Government, was a proponent of the typical Prussian tactics of front attacks regardless of cost, but also of the strategy of taking and controlling as much territory as possible without annihilating the enemy.

The Paraguayan Lieutenant-Colonel Jose Felix Estigarribia (later promoted to Colonel, and then General), took his specialization courses in Chile and France, and was a proponent of tactics of using trench warfare for defense, and flanking the enemy when in the offensive.

Eventually, Estigarribia's ideas proved their worth -- partially because his forces managed to capture huge stocks of Bolivian arms and ammunition throughout the war. 1 vol, 72 pgs 2020 UK, HELION AND COMPANY
NEW-pb, available mid October 2020 . $30.00 with a discount of 15% rct

1-219250 Sapienza, Antonio Luis AERIAL OPERATIONS IN THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1922 AND 1947 IN PARAGUAY: The First Dogfights in South America In the first half of the 20th Century, there were several revolutions in Paraguay, starting in 1904, then 1908, 1911-12, 1922-23, 1936 and finally 1947. In 1922, a huge internal crisis in the Liberal Party led to a bloody revolution and for the first time in the history of the country, both sides decided to use aerial power against the enemy. There were not any airplanes available in Paraguay at that time, and very few pilots, just three, so both the government led by President Eusebio Ayala, and the revolutionaries led by a couple of Army colonels, Chirife and Mendoza, searched for foreign pilots and planes in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Many WWI veterans emigrated to Latin America in search of a better life, either opened flight schools or offered their services in local conflicts. That is how some of them came to Paraguay with their own aircraft, which were bought by either the government or the revolutionaries. The three Paraguayan pilots offered their services to the government, which soon established the first air base near the capital, in a wide open field called 'Nu-Guazu' (a Guarani name meaning 'Big Field').

Meanwhile, the rebels organized their own air base, first near the city of Villarrica, and later in Cango. The main types used by both sides were the Ansaldo SVA5 and SVA10, but the government also managed to purchase a Breguet XIV, an Armstrong Whitworth FK.8, a SPAD S.20 and a couple of SAML A.3. Inevitably the first dogfights took place, and also bombing raids, strafing enemy troops, and recce missions on both sides. Finally, in mid-1923, the revolutionaries were defeated and one of the consequences was the foundation of the Military Aviation School.

In contrast, the Revolution of 1947 lasted just a few months but it was as bloody as the previous one, if not more so. The government, supported by the Colorado Party, fought against the revolutionaries, composed of almost 70% of the Army, Navy and Air Arm, supported by the Liberal, Febrerista and Communist parties. Regarding the Air Arm, it split in two, but at the beginning most of the aircraft in flying conditions were used by the revolutionaries, whose main base was the city of Concepcion, in the north of the country.

Soon, the government air arm had some aircraft in flying condition although most of the Italian types purchased in 1939 were out of service. Only Lend-Lease trainers such as PT-19, BT-13, AT-6 types were used for recce and light bombing raids, using mortar ammunition. Some weeks later, the loyalists managed to repair some Caproni AP-1s to be flown against the rebels. There were a few dogfights but no aircraft were shot down in them, although some were lost due to AA fire. In the end, the government could defeat the revolutionaries, mainly because of the lack of tactical organization in the rebel forces. This is the first in-depth account of them with data, pictures, maps and profiles, some of them never published before.

Includes 84 b/w photos/illustrations, 18 color profiles, 3 color maps, 4 b/w maps, and 4 tables. 1 vol, 48 pgs 2019 UK, HELION AND COMPANY
NEW-softcover, available mid February 2019 . $30.00 with a discount of 15% rct

1-223670 Schader, Karen German Military and the Weimar Republic - General Hans von Seekt, General Erich Ludendorff and the Rise of Hitler General Hans von Seekt (1866-1936) was the military counterpart of the Weimar Republic who attempted to restore Germany's international acceptance and security following defeat in World War I and the Treaty of Versailles of 1919.

The failure of both led eventually to the rise of Hitler and Nazi Germany. Hans von Seekt was from the traditional German officer caste, served with distinction on the war and became Chief of the Army Command at the Reichewehr Ministry of the Weimar Republic and Germany's 'supreme soldier' and major military strategist. His role was to rebuild the shattered German army in face of the punitive terms of post-war settlement imposed by the victorious Entente Powers which drastically reduced its strength and imposed crippling financial conditions.

He aimed to build a modern and efficient military - a new German army - with a main strategy of peaceful defense purposes, and to reintroduce Germany into the community of nations. This original and far-sighted policy was opposed by the movement seeking revenge for defeat - a 'stab in the back' - led principally by his rival, General Erich Ludendorff, whose aim was rebuild the once-mighty German imperial army as a major international force. The failure of von Seekt's experiment was mirrored by the fall of the Weimar Republic, and the rise of rise of Hitler and Nazi Germany.
1 vol, 288 pgs 2020 UK, PEN & SWORD
NEW-dj, available late May 2020 . $43.00 with a discount of 15% rct

1-218050 Tincopa, Amaru AIR WAR OVER THE PUTUMAYO: Colombian and Peruvian Air Operations During the 1932-1933 Conflict During 1932, the occupation of the Colombian towns of Leticia and Tarapaca by Peruvian troops and civilians, in the Amazon region, led to a conflict that almost ended in a total war between both countries. Aviation played an important role on both sides, due to the complicated jungle environment, which makes any land movements almost impossible.

After some ground and air combats, a ceasefire was agreed and the conflict was resolved. But the war over the Putumayo area became the baptism of fire for the Peruvian and Colombian air forces, leading, in the second case, to the development of its military aviation, which was almost nonexistent in 1932. For Peru, the result of the conflict was also a rearming process, which proved important when in 1941 it entered into war with Ecuador.

Includes 220 rare and previously unpublished images and specially commissioned color profiles showing camouflage and markings. 1 vol, 0 pgs 2018 UK, HELION AND COMPANY
NEW-softcover, available mid September 2018 . $30.00 with a discount of 15%

1-COM1079 Van Beurden, Kris EUROPE IN TURMOIL: Prelude to The Great War Game This card-driven game is set at the beginning of the 20th Century in which two players each assume the role of a political ideology ascendant in Europe at that time.

One player plays the Liberal. At the start of the game he is especially dominant in the United Kingdom and the French Third Republic and represents not just Liberal but also Pacifist and Socialist principles. His opponent plays the Authoritarian, dominating the three great central-European Empires of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary and representing their reactionary, repressive regimes.

The careful Balance of Power set at Vienna in 1815 and maintained by Bismarck is broken when Great Britain and Germany embark on the Naval Arms Race, the dramatic Dreadnought build-up. Belle ?poque contains this life-or-death struggle between both players, with several of the game's stronger cards referring to it (Admiral von Tirpitz, Copenhagenization, Winston Churchill, .)

Further focuses for the Events of the game are the growing anarchy and revolutionary spirit in Europe (represented by a chain of events such as Revolution of 1905, Tsarist Repression, Second Duma Disbanded), the system of alliances that transformed Europe into two factions (represented by amongst others the Entente Cordiale, Franco-Russian Alliance and Dual Alliance evens) and finally the series of crises which led to the outbreak of the Great War (Tangier Crisis, Austria annexes Bosnia, Gavrilo Princip).

The last of these mechanics tie together in the Great War mechanic, where each new alliance and each crisis increase the Tension between the Nations of Europe and potentially escalate to the game-ending Great War phase. Resolution of the Great War is dependent on the Alliances made by your Faction, giving a tension between playing the Alliance Events (thereby increasing the change of war breaking out and the chance of you winning that war) or not playing the alliances (preferring not to rattle the sabers, but at the same time also not protecting yourself from a saber-rattling opponent).

Will the strongly Authoritarian Empires of Central Europe hold out against rising Liberalism? Will the Workers combine forces with land-hungry Farmers and marginalized Intelligentsia to oust the ruling Bourgeois, Nobility and Monarchy? Will war break out, shattering the Status Quo? These and other exciting possibilities are now open to players.

Product Information:
* Complexity: Low to Medium (about 4 out of 10)
* Playing time: 3-4 hours
* Solitaire Suitability: Low
* Players: 2
* Time Scale: 1-2 years per turn

Game Components:
* 1 22x34-inch point-to-point map of Europe (one or more spaces per country)
* 1 Rulebook
* 2 player aid cards
* A deck of 110 Strategy Cards
* Two decks of 10 Stability Cards
* Two countersheets containing support markers and game record markers
* A deck of 35 Mobilization Cards
* 2 six-sided dice
* 1 box and lid set 1 vol, 1 pgs 2018 US, COMPASS GAMES
NEW-box . $79.00 with a discount of 15%

1-930325 various STRATEGY & TACTICS # 325 Italian-Ottoman War Italian-Ottoman War 1911-1912 is a two-player wargame using a variation on the system used in Windhoek (S&T # 313) simulating the Italian invasion of the territories that became Libya in 1911 and the subsequent campaign that ended in the following year. The campaign saw the Italians seize the coastal towns, but the Ottomans, supported by local Arab and Bedouin tribes, fell back into the interior. The war came to an end via Italian naval attacks in the Aegean and elsewhere, with the Ottomans finally ceding Libya to Rome. This laid the foundation for the establishment of an Italian colony and had an obvious effect on the campaign in North Africa during World War II. Scale: Each hex represents 45 kilometers, with each game turn one to two months. Units are at the battalion level.

Components: One 22x34-inch map, 176 counters, and magazine.
1 vol, 84 pgs 2020 US, DECISION GAMES
NEW-softcover, available mid November 2020 . $40.00 with a discount of 10% rct

1-930326 various STRATEGY & TACTICS # 326 The Battle of Mukden 1905 Mukden 1905 is a two-player simulation (easily adapted for solitaire play) of the climactic struggle of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05. Both players have the opportunity to attack and defend, but the main burden of the offensive is on the Japanese player. Scale: Each hex represents three miles (4.9 kilometers). The units of maneuver are regiments, brigades, divisions and one (cavalry) corps. Each full turn represents two days of real time.

Components: One 22' x 34' map & 228 counters.
1 vol, 84 pgs 2020 US, DECISION GAMES
NEW-dj, available mid December 2020 . $40.00 with a discount of 10% rct

1-930327 various STRATEGY & TACTICS # 327 Suwalki Gap Wargame covers the Polish-Lithuanian border between Belarus and Kaliningrad, and the potential of a Russian encirclement of the Baltic States by attacking over this route. Scale: Each hex is roughly 28Km (17.3miles) across. Each game turn represents one day. Each combat unit represents a battlegroup or task force and can be considered to include a mix of infantry, armour, artillery, and other support units.

Components: One 22x34-inch map, 280 counters, and magazine.
1 vol, 84 pgs 2021 US, DECISION GAMES
NEW-softcover, available early February2021 . $40.00 with a discount of 10% inc

1-930328 various STRATEGY & TACTICS # 328 Vicksburg May 1863 Vicksburg: The Assault On Stockade Redan (May 19th & 22nd 1863) is a two-player tactical wargame simulating the two Union assaults upon the Stockade Redan defensive position situated at the northeastern corner of the Vicksburg perimeter.

The Union player must assault and capture the imposing Stockade Redan earthworks that overlook Graveyard Road leading into Vicksburg (the most defensible position encompassing the city). The Confederate player must defend the Redan against the two historical assaults that attempted to take it (both failed with heavy casualties to the Union).

Capturing the Redan does not automatically assure a Union victory. If and when the first or second Union assault succeeds, the players must then consult the Gettysburg Matrix to determine if the impending collapse of Vicksburg will prevent Robert E. Lee's invasion of the North by compelling Jefferson Davis (who viewed Vicksburg as critical to the South's survival) to refuse Lee's risky plan to invade Pennsylvania, changing the course of the war.

Scale: Each game turn is equal to 5 to 10 minutes of real time. Each hex represents 12.5 yards (22.8 meters). Each unit-counter represents a company or regiment, depending on the unit type.

Components: One 22x34-inch map & 228 counters.
1 vol, 84 pgs 2021 US, DECISION GAMES
NEW-softcover, available mid April 2021 . $40.00 with a discount of 10% rct

1-930329 various STRATEGY & TACTICS # 329 The Shanghai-Nanking Campaign 1937 The Shanghai-Nanking Campaign 1937 (SNC) is a two-player historical simulation of the largest single military campaign fought anywhere in the world during the interwar period. The Japanese player is primarily on the offensive, attempting nothing less than ending China's existence as an independent country via the political shock of the rapid conquest of that country's primary port and capital cities.

The units of maneuver are Japanese regiments or Chinese divisions. Japanese regiments were uniform and varied on their combat experience. Chinese divisions varied in manpower and training and so their combat strength and second step are reflective of those factors. Each hexagon on the map represents seven miles (11 km) from side to opposite side. Each full game turn represents approximately two weeks.

Components: One 22x34-inch map, 176 counters, and magazine.
1 vol, 84 pgs 2021 US, DECISION GAMES
NEW-pb, available early June 2021 . $40.00 with a discount of 10% rct


Oversized 8.5x12-inch two-volume set covers the development and changes to Italian Army uniforms and badges from 1918-1935 in great detail. Volume I (652 pages) is all text and tables (in Italian). Volume II (661 pages) is all images and contains a multitude of full-color uniform plates, black and white illustrations, and color and b/w photos of uniforms, decorations, insignia, badges, etc. Especially helpful are the photos that show front, back, and sides of a soldier in uniform, 70 pages worth of uniforms and clothing from private collections, 120 color plates, 100 color photos of soldiers in uniform, 60 plates in b/w, and more. All in large size so you can actually see the detail in the uniforms and badges. Impressive compilation. 2 vol, 1313 pgs 2012 ITALY
NEW-dj, [Italian text] . $175.00

1-54830 Weeks, John ASSAULT FROM THE SKY:A History of Airborne Warfare 8.5x11, covers Europe 1940, Crete, North Arfica &Sicily, the Pacific, NE Europe 1944/45 through toVietnam, many b/w and color photos/illust, index. 1 vol, 192 pgs 1978 LONDON, WESTBRIDGE BOOKS
GOOD-dj . $18.00

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