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Artemision Zeus or Poseidon, c. 460 B.C.E.

Artemision Zeus or Poseidon, c. 460 B.C.E.


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Artemision Zeus or Poseidon, c. 460 B.C.E., bronze, 2.09 m high, Early Classical (Severe Style), recovered from a shipwreck off Cape Artemision, Greece (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)

Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker


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Artemision Bronze

The Artemision Bronze represents either Zeus, the ancient Greek king of the gods of Mount Olympus, or possibly Poseidon, the god of the Sea.

This sculpture is a rare, ancient Greek bronze sculpture that was recovered from the sea off Cape Artemision, Greece.

Created in the early Geek Classical Period of 460 BC, this masterpiece is the embodiment of beauty, control, and strength.

He is shown in full heroic nudity with his left arm and foot thrust dynamically forward in the direction of his foes, while his right leg and arm are raised and slightly bent, representing movement.

Most of his weight shifted to the left foot while the other lightly touches the ground. The figure appears to be paused, ready for action.

The head is sculptured in considerable detail with his hair and beard intricately carved. His eyebrows were initially made of silver, his lips of copper, and his eyes of some other material, which are now entirely missing.

The right hand formerly held either a thunderbolt if it represented Zeus or a trident if it represented Poseidon.

Because of its majesty and similarity to other statues of Zeus, it is assumed to represent the mightiest of the Olympian gods, Zeus.

The “Artemision Bronze” sculpture was found in two pieces at the bottom of the sea. It was presumably part of a sunken Roman ship’s cargo, as many Greek masterpieces were repatriated to Rome as the thirst for Greek Art consumed the Romans in the 1st and 2nd centuries BC.

Many such shipwrecks with Greek scriptures are from an Ancient Roman date and were of vessels looting Greek art.

The statue was found in 1926 and then excavated in 1928. Greek fishermen first discovered the left arm in their nets. The rest of the figure was recovered in 1928.

This sculpture was made in the lost-wax method of bronze casting, with each section cast separately and then welded together.

Most ancient Greek bronzes were melted down for their raw materials as the cyclical fortunes of Ancient Greece, and Rome demanded.

Fortunately, this bronze was saved from destruction when it was lost in a shipwreck in antiquity and discovered in an age when ancient treasures were worth more than the value of the bronze or gold raw material, with which they were constructed.

The Greek word agalma (αγαλμα) means “object of worship” and is derived from the Greek word for “delight.”

This sculpture was created for the delight of not only the Greeks but also their gods. This statue was probably designed as an offering or votive for a temple dedicated to Zeus.

In committing such works of art as offerings, the Greeks attempted to appease their gods and earn divine favor.


Artemision Zeus or Poseidon, c. 460 B.C.E. - History

Artemision Zeus or Poseidon

Smarthistory. art, history, conversation.

Published on Mar 13, 2014

Artemision Zeus or Poseidon, c. 460 B.C.E., bronze, 2.09 m high, Early Classical (Severe Style), recovered from a shipwreck off Cape Artemision, Greece in 1928 (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)


Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker. Created by Steven Zucker and Beth Harris
.

duration 05 :07 minutes

Zeus Of Artemision & Orion

Published on Jan 26, 2016

A statue was found off the northern coast of Greece in 1926 among the ruins of a Roman shipwreck. While debate has gone on who this represents(Zeus/Poseidon), no one I can find has mentioned WHAT this represents. So I will. My subs can try to fill out the rest of the story. I admit I am not well versed in Greek mythology.

duration 02 :58 minutes

Published on Aug 31, 2016

The Artemision Bronze is an ancient Greek sculpture that was recovered from the sea off Cape Artemision, in northern Euboea.It represents either Zeus or Poseidon, is slightly over lifesize at 209 cm, and would have held either a thunderbolt, if Zeus, or a trident if Poseidon.However, the iconography of Ancient Greek pottery portrays Poseidon wielding the trident, when in combat, in more of a stabbing motion Zeus is depicted fighting with his arm raised, holding the thunderbolt overhead, in the same position as the Artemision Bronze .The empty eye-sockets were originally inset, probably with bone, as well as the eyebrows , the lips, and the nipples .


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Artemision Bronze Object Analysis

The Greeks had many artistic works developed in the 5th c. BCE such as the 460-450 BEC bronze Poseidon/Zeus. The Artemision bronze statue of Poseidon or Zeus (Fig. 1) was discovered in the sea. The statue was pulled out of the sea close to Cape Artemision. The statue is made almost completely from bronze and is over six and a half feet in height, and the arm span of the statue measures almost identical in length at six feet and three-quarters inches long. The smaller details such as lips and nipples are copper, while the eyes were ivory or bone. The statue is unique in its godly content, but there were other bronzes that resembled it in texture and nudity, such as the Riace Warriors made within the same decade as the Poseidon/Zeus figure. The figure would have been an offering to whichever god, whether it be Zeus or Poseidon. Offerings would have been given for numerous reasons, whether it be for a blessing or giving thanks to the gods.

(Figure 1, image found at: http://ancientrome.ru/art/artwork/sculp/gr/bronze/bro036.jpg)

The statue is of a muscular man presumably representing an Olympian god. The statue is completely nude and is yet another depiction of the ideal male figure that the Greeks were so interested in. His long and curly beard suggests either Poseidon or Zeus as well as his broad stature. His expression is subtle, but it is clear that he is focused. He is positioned in such a way that presents him as hunting, either an animal, or an enemy. Right arm outstretched to balance himself, one foot facing forward towards his target, the other tilted out in the same direction of his muscular torso. His left arm is held over his head, muscles flexing, holding the weapon he would have been holding had it survived with him. His hand is clenched as he readies himself to use the weapon to strike.
One of the key issues surrounding this bronze statue is the controversial debate about who the subject is. The body features and the facial details suggest that the statue is of an Olympian god, but it is difficult to determine which one. The two most common theories are that it is either Poseidon or Zeus. His musculature could be an identifying feature to either of the proposed gods. His stance, however, resembles that of Zeus. His outstretched arm makes him appear to be throwing a weapon. Poseidon’s typical weapon is a trident, but if the statue was holding a trident, in order for it to be being used as a weapon proportionately, the trident would be stabbing him in the back of the head. The reason why Zeus seems more plausible is because of his signature lightning bolt. The proportions of the statue suggest that whatever he is holding would be a small weapon such as a lightning bolt and not a lengthy one like a trident. I am hopeful that when I see it on-site in Athens at the National Museum that I can get a better sense of the statues nature and be able to make my own assumptions about which of the gods it is meant to represent.


Artemision Zeus

When the bronze original was discovered in the sea it held nothing in its raised right hand. Thus, we cannot know whether it shows the sea god Poseidon, who would be holding a trident, or Zeus, ruler of the gods, brandishing his thunderbolt. The figure is a prime example of the stringent classical style that marks the transition from Archaic stiffness with its familiar stereotypical smile towards a greater range of expression, as is evident here where we see the body captured at the moment before the deity&rsquos anger and strength is released in his throw.

This figure, alongside several other works from the Royal Cast Collections, were given as a gift to theCAFA art academy in Beijing in 2008 to replace the figures that had been smashed during the cultural revolution of the 1960s. The casts have been used in drawing classes at the academy, a tradition that continues in China and Japan long after it has disappeared in Europe.

- Henrik Holm, senior research curator at SMK

This is a 3D scan of a plaster cast of the sculpture &lsquoZeus or Poseidon from the Artemision&rsquo dated circa 460-450 BCE.

The scan is made from the cast (ref. KAS2100) in The Royal Cast Collection at SMK &ndash National Gallery of Denmark.


Magnificent Ancient Greek Bronzes recovered from the Sea. National Archeological Museum of Athens

These jaw-dropping masterpieces displayed in Athens museum are united by the common fate : they were reclaimed from the sea, as were much of the other ancient bronze sculptures that survived till today. Romans were so fond of them they plundered all of Greece - no wonder as there’s something about the plastics of great greek bronzes that just isn’t possible to convey in the marble sculpture.

The statue of Zeus or Poseidon - there is no consensus on this - from Cape Artemision, a superb representative of the Severe style from c. 460 BC. Found in 1926.

The Jockey of Artemision from the same shipwreck. Gorgeous example of the dynamics of Hellenistic art, dated to around 150–140 BC.

The Marathon Boy found in the Aegean Sea in the bay of Marathon in 1925, depicting probably a young athlete in a contrapposto, dating to c. 340-330 BC.

300BC HOLY SHIT THATS INSANE METALLURGY

Artemision Bronze

The Artemision Bronze (often called the God from the Sea) is an ancient Greek sculpture that was recovered from the sea off Cape Artemision, in northern Euboea. It represents either Zeus or Poseidon, is slightly over lifesize at 209 cm, and would have held either a thunderbolt, if Zeus, or a trident if Poseidon. However, the iconography of Ancient Greek pottery portrays Poseidon wielding the trident, when in combat, in more of a stabbing motion (similar to a fencing stance or an ➭vance-lunge') Zeus is depicted fighting with his arm raised, holding the lightning bolt overhead, in the same position as the Artemision Bronze (see 'Poseidon and the Giant Polybotes' an Attic Red Figure Stamnos attributed to the Trolios Painter, as well as 'Zeus hurling his lightning at Typhon' ca. 550 BC which is a black-figured Chalcidian hydria).

Jockey of Artemision

The Jockey of Artemision is a large Hellenistic bronze statue of a young boy riding a horse, dated to around 150–140 BC. It is a rare surviving original bronze statue from Ancient Greece and a rare example in Greek sculpture of a racehorse. Most ancient bronzes were melted down for their raw materials some time after creation, but this one was saved from destruction when it was lost in a shipwreck in antiquity, before being discovered in the twentieth century. It may have been dedicated to the gods by a wealthy person to honour victories in horse races, probably in the single-horse race (Greek: κέλης). The artist is unknown.

Marathon Boy

The Marathon Boy or Ephebe of Marathon is a Greek bronze sculpture found in the Aegean Sea in the bay of Marathon in 1925.

The sculpture is conserved in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens where it is dated to around 340–330 BC. The Museum suggests that the subject is the winner of an athletic competition. With its soft musculature and exaggerated contrapposto, its style is associated with the school of Praxiteles. The upraised arm and the distribution of weight indicate that in his original context, this ephebe was leaning against a vertical support, such as a column.


Artemision Bronze

The Artemision Bronze (often called the God from the Sea) is an ancient Greek sculpture that was recovered from the sea off Cape Artemision, in northern Euboea (Modern Greek Εύβοια, Évia). It represents either Zeus [1] or Poseidon, [2] and is slightly over lifesize [3] brandishing a missing thunderbolt (if Zeus) or trident (if Poseidon) with his raised right hand and sighting over his extended left hand.

The debate over whether the statue represents Poseidon or Zeus hinges on the lost attribute held in the right hand. As Carol Houser writes, "Sometimes the Artemision protector is called 'Poseidon'. Those who would do so have been known to argue that the image must be that of the great sea god since the statue was found in the Mediterranean. But like other statues of totally different subjects, this one went into the sea simply because it was on board a ship that sank. Others cite the example of the Poseidonia coins, overlooking the much weightier evidence presented by the numerous surviving statuettes of Zeus launching his thunderbolt in a pose matching that of the Artemision figure." [4] A major additional problem with that hypothesis is that a trident would obscure the face, especially from the profile view, which most scholars (even those who have supported an identification as Poseidon) have held to be the most, or even the only, important view. Iconographic parallels with coins and vase painting from the same time show that this is extremely unlikely. However, the trident may have been unusually short, avoiding the problem. On the other hand, the statue is essentially a larger version of an extensive series of smaller solid bronze figurines extending back into the late 7th century, all of which strike the same pose and represent Zeus [5] . On the basis of this and other iconographic parallels with vase-painting, [6] most scholars presently think it is a Zeus. However, opinion is divided.

The god is caught at the moment of pause in the full potentiality of his coming movement, described by Carol Mattusch: "the figure has the potential for violence, is concentrating, poised to throw, but the action is just beginning, and we are left to contemplate the coming demonstration of strength." [7] It is an original work of great strength in the Severe style that preceded the fifth-century classical style, dated to ca. 460 BCE. A comparison can be made with the Charioteer of Delphi, a roughly contemporaneous bronze.

Discussions concerning its provenance have found champions for most of the Greek mainland centers technically capable of such a large-scale sculpture: Attica— where Christos Karouzos [8] associates it with Kalamis (about 470-440 BCE)— Boeotia, Aegina, Sicyon or Argos. [9] The sculpture has also been associated with Onatas [10] or Myron. [11] The Poseidon/Zeus is a highlight of the collections in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens. [12]

The sculpture was discovered in 1926 [13] and further excavated in 1928, at the site of a shipwreck that occurred no earlier than the middle of the second century BCE. Unfortunately, not much is known about the wreck because exploration was abandoned when a diver died, in 1928, and was never resumed. Many such shipwrecks are of Roman date and were of vessels 'exporting' Greek art to Italy, but it is unclear whether the Artemision wreck is one of these.

The empty eye-sockets were originally inset, probably with bone, as well as the eyebrows (with silver), the lips, and the nipples (with copper).

The sculpture's head, now an icon of Hellenic culture, formed the subject of a Greek postage stamp.


Technique

Il est difficile d'effectuer une analyse technique de la statue, étant donné la restauration extensive et irréversible à laquelle elle a donné lieu lors de sa découverte en 1929. De toute évidence, elle a été réalisée selon le procédé de fonte à la cire perdue sur positif. Les bras ont été fondus à part et rapportés par une soudure en cuvette sous les aisselles, comme dans le cas des guerriers de Riace. La moitié de chaque pied a également été rapportée et soudée. Les sourcils et les lèvres étaient incrustés de cuivre rouge quant aux yeux, la composition de leur incrustation reste inconnue : il pouvait s'agir de pierre ou de métal.

Une armature de fer, scellée au plomb, dépasse du pied : elle servait à fixer la statue sur un piédestal de pierre.

Statuette de Zeus, en bronze, brandissant le foudre (attribut symbolisant la foudre). Un aigle (?) se tient sur sa main gauche.

« Zeus » ou « Poséidon ». Bronze, attribué à Calamis. 2,09 m de haut. Trouvé en 1928 dans l'épave du cap Artémision, en même temps que le jockey de l'Artémision.

L'attribut manque. S'il s'agit du foudre, comme sur la statuette précédente, c'est Zeus, dieu du Ciel. Mais si l'attribut est un trident, c'est son frère, Poséidon, dieu de la mer.

Les spécialistes font remarquer les proportions un peu archaïques des membres et de la tête.


Watch the video: Bronze Vs. Marble Zeus or Poseidon? (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Tojajar

    I think you will allow the mistake. I can defend my position.

  2. Derian

    Yes OK. I put it 5.

  3. Akikazahn

    I strongly advise you to visit the site, which has a lot of information on the topic that interests you.

  4. Kajilmaran

    It can be discussed endlessly

  5. Fiannan

    the quality is not very good and there is no time to watch !!!



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