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(SS-128: dp. 854 (surf.), 1,062 (subm.), 1. 219'3"b. 20'8"; dr. 15'11" (mean); s. 14.5 k. (surf.), 11 k.(subm.); cpl. 42; a. 1 4", 4 21" tt.; cl. S-1)
S-23 (SS-128) was laid down on 18 January 1919 by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Quincy, Mass. launched on 27 October 1920; sponsored by Miss Barbara Sears; and commissioned on 30 October 1923, Lt. Joseph Y. Dreisonstok in command.
Initially assigned to Submarine Division 11, Control Force, S-23 was based at New London, Conn., through the 1920's. During that time, she operated off the New England coast from late spring until early winter then moved south for winter and spring exercises. From 1925 on, her annual deployments included participation in fleet problems; and those maneuvers occasionally took her from the Caribbean into the Pacific With the new decade, however, the submarine was transferred to the Pacific; and, on 5 January 1931, she departed New London for the Panama Canal, California, and Hawaii. En route, she participated in Fleet Problem XII and, on 25 April, she arrived at her new homeport, Pearl Harbor, whence she operated, with Division 7, for the next ten years. In June 1941 Division 7 became Division 41, and, on 1 September S-28 departed the Hawaiian Islands for California. An overhaul and operations off the west coast took her into December when the United States entered World War II.
The crew of the World War I-design submarine then prepared for service in the Aleutians. Radiant-type heaters were purchased in San Diego to augment the heat provided by the galley range. Heavier and more waterproof clothing, including ski masks, were added to the regular issue provided to submarine crews. The boat itself was fitted out for wartime service and, in January 1942, S-23 moved north to Dutch Harbor, Unalaska.
On the afternoon of 7 February, she departed Dutch Harbor on her first war patrol. Within hours, she encountered the heavy seas and poor visibility which characterized the Aleutians. Waves broke over the bridge, battering those on duty there, and sent water cascading down the conning tower hatch. On the 10th S-23 stopped to jettison torn sections of the superstructure, a procedure she was to repeat on her subsequent patrols; and, on the 13th, the heavy seas caused broken bones to some men on the bridge. For another three days, the submarine patrolled the great circle route from Japan, then headed home, arriving at Dutch Harbor on the 17th. From there, she was ordered back to San Diego for overhaul and brief sound school duty.
On her arrival, requests were made for improved electrical, heating, and communications gear and installation of a fathometer, radar, and keel-mounted sonar. The latter requests were to be repeated after each of her next three patrols, but became available only after her fourth patrol.
On 20 May, S-2S again sailed for the Aleutians. Proceeding via Port Angeles, she arrived in Alaskan waters on the 29th and was directed to patrol to the
west of Unalaska to hinder an anticipated Japanese attack. On 2 June, however, 20-foot waves broke over the bridge and seriously injured two men. The boat headed for Dutch Harbor to transfer the men for medical treatment. Arriving the same day, she was still in the harbor the following morning when Japanese carrier planes attacked the base.
After the first raid, S-23 cleared the harbor and within hours arrived in her assigned patrol area where she remained until the 11th. She was then ordered back to Dutch Harbor; replenished; and sent to patrol southeast of Attu, which the Japanese had occupied, along with Kiska, a few days earlier.
For the next 19 days, she hunted for Japanese logistic and warships en route to Attu and reconnoitered that island's bays and harbors. Several attempts were made to close targets, but fog, slow speed, and poor maneuverability precluded attacks in all but one case. On the 17th, she fired on a tanker, but did not score. On 2 July, she headed back to Unalaska and arrived at Dutch Harbor early on the morning of the 4th.
During her third war patrol, 15 July to 18 August S-23 again patrolled primarily in the Attu area. On 6 August, however, she was diverted closer to Kiska to support the bombardment of the island; and, on 9 August, she returned to her patrol area, where her previous experiences in closing enemy targets were repeated.
Eight days after her return to Dutch Harbor, S-23 again headed west, and, on 28 August she arrived in her assigned area to serve as a protective scout during the occupation of Adak. During most of her time on station, the weather was overcast, but it proved to be the most favorable she had experienced in eight months of Alaskan operations. On 16 September, she was recalled from patrol to meet her 20 September scheduled date of departure for San Diego for upkeep and sound school duty.
On 7 December, S-23 returned to Unalaska, and, on the 17th, she got underway on her fifth war patrol. By the 22d, she was off western Attu; and, on the 23d, she received orders to take up station off Paramushiro. On the 24th, she headed for the Kurils. Two days later, 200 miles from her destination, her stern plane operating gear outside the hull broke. Since submerging and depth control became difficult, she turned back for Dutch Harbor. Moving east, her mechanical difficulties increased; her stern planes damaged her propellers; her fouled rudder resulted in a damaged gear train. Nature added severe snow and ice storms after 3 January 1943. But, On the 6th, S-23 made it into Dutch Harbor.
Using equipment and parts from S -23, S-25 was repaired at Dutch Harbor and at Kodiak; and, on 28 January, she departed her Unalaska base for another patrol in the Attu area. She spent 21 days on station, two of which, 6 and 7 February, were spent repairing the port main motor control panel. She scored on no enemy ships and returned to Dutch Harbor on 26 February.
Refit, the submarine got underway for her last war patrol on 8 March. Moving west, she arrived off the Kamchatka Peninsula on the 14th and encountered floes with ice 21/2 to 3 feet thick. Her progress down the coast in search of the Japanese fishing fleet slowed, and, initially limited to moving during daylight hours, she rounded Cape Kronotski on the afternoon of the 16th and Cape Lopatka on the morning of the 19th. She then set a course back to the Aleutians which would take her across Japanese Kuril-Aleutians supply lanes. On the 26th, she took up patrol duty in the Attu area; and, one the 31st, she turned her bow toward Dutch Harbor.
In April 1943, S-23 returned to San Diego. During the summer, she underwent an extensive overhaul; and, in the fall, she began providing training services to the sound school which she continued through the end of hostilities. On 11 September 1945, she sailed for San Francisco where she was decommissioned on 2 November. Fourteen days later, her name was struck from the Navy list. Her hulk was subsequently sold for scrapping and was delivered to the purchaser, Salco Iron and Metal Co., San Francisco, on 15 November 1946.
S-23 was awarded one battle star for her World War II service.
Julius Caesar’s Forgotten Assassin
On March 15, 44 B.C. a group of Roman senators murdered Julius Caesar as he sat on the podium at a senate meeting. The dictator fell bleeding to his death from 23 stab wounds before the horrified eyes of the rest of the house. It was a little after noon on the Ides of March, as the Romans called the mid-day of the month. The spectators didn’t know it yet but they were witnessing the last hours of the Roman Republic. But who was to blame?
As readers of William Shakespeare know, a dying Caesar turned to one of the assassins and condemned him with his last breath. It was Caesar’s friend, Marcus Junius Brutus.
𠇎t tu, Brute?” – “You too, Brutus?” is what Shakespeare has Caesar say in the Tragedy of Julius Caesar. Except, Caesar never said these words. And Brutus was neither his closest friend nor his biggest betrayer, not by a long shot.
The worst traitor was another man: Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus. Decimus was a distant cousin of Marcus Brutus. Because Shakespeare all but leaves him out of the story, Decimus is the forgotten assassin. In fact, he was essential.
Shakespeare puts two men in charge of the plot to kill Caesar, Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus (he of the famous “lean and hungry look”). Shakespeare mentions Decimus but misspells his name as Decius and downplays his role. But often-overlooked ancient sources make clear that Decimus was a leader of the conspiracy.
Brutus and other conspirators after killing Julius Caesar. (Credit: Fototeca Gilardi/Getty Images)
Decimus was closer to Caesar than either Brutus or Cassius was. In fact, they opposed Caesar during his bloody rise to power in a civil war. Only when he started winning the war did they defect to his cause. Caesar pardoned Brutus and Cassius and rewarded them with political office but he didn’t trust them. Decimus was different. He always fought for Caesar, never against him, and so he held a place in Caesar’s inner circle.
Decimus belonged to the Roman nobility, the narrow elite that ruled both Rome and an empire of tens of millions of people. His grandfather extended Rome’s rule to the Atlantic, in Spain. But Decimus’s father had a mediocre career and his mother dabbled in revolution. Then Caesar came along and offered Decimus the chance to restore his house’s name.
Decimus was a soldier at heart, educated but rough and ambitious, as his surviving correspondence shows. “My soldiers have experienced my generosity and my courage,” Decimus wrote. “I waged war against the most warlike peoples, captured many strongholds and destroyed many places.” He did all that, he wrote, to impress his men, to serve the public, and to advance his reputation.
Decimus warmed to Caesar, a great commander and a war hero to boot. In his mid-twenties Decimus joined Caesar’s forces that were fighting to add Gaul (roughly, France and Belgium) to Rome’s empire. Decimus won an important naval battle off Brittany and served with Caesar in the siege at Alesia (in today’s Burgundy) that sealed Rome’s victory in Gaul.
Julius Caesar laying siege to Alesia, Gaul, 52 BC. (Credit: The Print Collector/Print Collector/Getty Images)
Later, his enemies in the Roman senate tried to strip Caesar of power but he fought back. It was civil war and Decimus chose Caesar. Once again, Decimus won a victory at sea, this time on Gaul’s Mediterranean coast. A grateful Caesar named Decimus acting governor of Gaul while Caesar went off to challenge his enemies elsewhere. After more than four years of hard fighting, Caesar returned to Rome triumphant in 45 B.C., with Decimus at his side. Why, then, did Decimus raise a dagger against Caesar only nine months later?
Many Romans feared the power that Caesar amassed. In theory Rome was a constitutional republic. In practice, Rome teetered for decades on the brink of military dictatorship. Now, Caesar was Rome’s first dictator for life𠅊 king in all but name. He even took a queen as his mistress, Cleopatra of Egypt. In March 44 B.C. she lived in Caesar’s villa on the outskirts of Rome. Her young son was, she claimed, Caesar’s illegitimate child. All of this was too much for Roman traditionalists.
But ambition rather than political principle turned Decimus against Caesar. Decimus’s letters suggest a man who cared more about honor than about liberty. He wanted the distinction of a triumph or formal victory parade in Rome, but Caesar denied it, although he granted the privilege to lesser generals. No doubt the dictator liked to dole out his favors slowly to keep his men on their toes. He rewarded Decimus in other ways, but the slight still smarted.
Then there was the rise of Caesar’s young grandnephew, Gaius Octavius, only a teenager and no soldier but a gifted and cunning politician. Decimus could not have liked watching Octavius replace him in Caesar’s esteem. Another possible influence on Decimus was his wife, who came from a family that was opposed to Caesar.
In winter 44 B.C. Cassius originated the conspiracy to kill Caesar. Like Decimus and Brutus, Cassius belonged to the nobility. He was a professional soldier, like Decimus, but also an intellectual like Brutus. A man of action, Cassius inspired Brutus to move. Brutus was no soldier but he was a philosopher and orator and much admired in Rome. imus joined the plot as well, as did more than 60 prominent Romans.
The Death of Caesar, painted by Jean-Léon Gerome. (Credit: Fine Art Images/Heritage Images/Getty Images)
As a past master at ambush, Cassius might have come up with the plan to surprise Caesar in the Senate. Decimus, however, made the wheels turn. Of all the conspirators only he had Caesar’s trust. Caesar even had Decimus at his side at a dinner party the night before his assassination. On the morning of the Ides Caesar suddenly decided not to go to the senate meeting, probably because of rumors of conspiracy.
It’s not quite true that a soothsayer warned Caesar to ware the Ides of March!” as Shakespeare says. In fact, the soothsayer warned Caesar a month earlier to beware a 30-day period ending in the Ides of March, that is, the times from February 15 to March 15. But the Ides had finally come.
When they heard about Caesar’s staying home, the plotters sent Decimus to Caesar’s house to talk him into attending the senate meeting after all. Decimus did his job. He changed the dictator’s mind and Caesar went to the meeting— where he was then murdered.
VIDEO: Julius Caesar: The Roman leader Julius Caesar was stabbed 23 times by a mob of mutinous senators in 44 B.C. Could he possibly have survived long enough to utter his famous last words?
Afterwards Decimus provided security to the killers. He owned a troupe of gladiators who doubled as a private police force. They escorted the assassins to safety on the Capitoline Hill and guarded the perimeter during the tense days that followed.
At first the Roman people supported the assassins as defenders of constitutional liberty but they changed their minds when they saw the strength of Caesar’s supporters. Decimus came in for particular criticism because his closeness to Caesar made his treachery seem all the worse.
Decimus soon left Rome to lead an army in northern Italy and defend what he saw as the cause of the republic. Although he started out strong he was outfoxed by Octavius. Named as Caesar’s heir and adopted son in Caesar’s will, Octavius first allied with Decimus and then turned on him. A year and a half after the Ides of March, Decimus was abandoned by his soldiers, captured by his enemies and executed. A year later, Brutus and Cassius lost a battle and committed suicide. Octavius, by contrast, continued on his bloody rise to power, and eventually ended up as Rome’s first emperor. Eventually he went by the name of Augustus.
If Decimus was so important to Caesar’s assassination why isn’t he better known? In part because Brutus monopolized favorable publicity. His friends and family polished his image in publications after his death. Later Romans looked back on Brutus with admiration and laid the groundwork for Shakespeare’s eulogy of Brutus as “the noblest Roman of them all.”
Not so Decimus. Unlike Brutus, Decimus was no wordsmith, nor did he have admirers with a literary flair to tell his story. Yet his role does appear in certain lesser-known ancient accounts. Although Shakespeare made little use of them they survive today. And so the record allows us to recover the tale of Caesar’s forgotten assassin.
Current usage Edit
In standard German, three letters or combinations of letters commonly represent [s] (the voiceless alveolar fricative) depending on its position in a word: ⟨s⟩, ⟨ss⟩, and ⟨ß⟩. According to current German orthography, ⟨ß⟩ represents the sound [s] :
- when it is written after a diphthong or long vowel and is not followed by another consonant in the word stem: Straße, Maß, groß, heißen [Exceptions: aus and words with final devoicing (e.g., Haus)]  and
- when a word stem ending with ⟨ß⟩ takes an inflectional ending beginning with a consonant: heißt, größte. 
In verbs with roots where the vowel changes length, this means that some forms may be written with ⟨ß⟩, others with ⟨ss⟩: wissen, er weiß, er wusste. 
The use of ⟨ß⟩ distinguishes minimal pairs such as reißen (IPA: [ˈʁaɪsn̩] , to rip) and reisen (IPA: [ˈʁaɪzn̩] , to travel) on the one hand ( [s] vs. [z] ), and Buße (IPA: [ˈbuːsə] , penance) and Busse (IPA: [ˈbʊsə] , buses) on the other (long vowel before ⟨ß⟩, short vowel before ⟨ss⟩).  : 123
Some proper names may use ⟨ß⟩ after a short vowel, following the old orthography this is also true of some words derived from proper names (e.g., Litfaßsäule advertising column, named after Ernst Litfaß.  : 180
In pre-1996 orthography Edit
According to the orthography in use in German prior to the German orthography reform of 1996, ⟨ß⟩ was written to represent [s] :
- word internally following a long vowel or diphthong: Straße, reißen and
- at the end of a syllable or before a consonant, so long as [s] is the end of the word stem: muß, faßt, wäßrig.  : 176
In the old orthography, word stems spelled ⟨ss⟩ internally could thus be written ⟨ß⟩ in certain instances, without this reflecting a change in vowel length: küßt (from küssen), faßt (from fassen), verläßlich and Verlaß (from verlassen), kraß (comparative: krasser).  : 121–23 ,  In rare occasions, the difference between ⟨ß⟩ and ⟨ss⟩ could help differentiate words: Paßende (expiration of a pass) and passende (appropriate).  : 178
Substitution and all caps Edit
If no ⟨ß⟩ is available, ⟨ss⟩ or ⟨sz⟩ is used instead (⟨sz⟩ especially in Hungarian-influenced eastern Austria). Until 2017, there was no official capital form of ⟨ß⟩ a capital form was nevertheless frequently used in advertising and government bureaucratic documents.  : 211 In June of that year, the Council for German Orthography officially adopted a rule that ⟨ẞ⟩ would be an option for capitalizing ⟨ß⟩ besides the previous capitalization as ⟨SS⟩ (i.e., variants STRASSE vs. STRAẞE would be accepted as equally valid).   Prior to this time, it was recommended to render ⟨ß⟩ as ⟨SS⟩ in allcaps except when there was ambiguity, in which case it should be rendered as ⟨SZ⟩. The common example for such a case was IN MASZEN (in Maßen "in moderate amounts") vs. IN MASSEN (in Massen "in massive amounts"), where the difference between the spelling in ⟨ß⟩ vs. ⟨ss⟩ could actually reverse the conveyed meaning. [ citation needed ]
Switzerland and Liechtenstein Edit
In Swiss Standard German, ⟨ss⟩ usually replaces every ⟨ß⟩. This is officially sanctioned by the reformed German orthography rules, which state in §25 E2: "In der Schweiz kann man immer „ss“ schreiben" ("In Switzerland, one may always write 'ss'"). Liechtenstein follows the same practice. There are very few instances where the difference between spelling ⟨ß⟩ and ⟨ss⟩ affects the meaning of a word, and these can usually be told apart by context.  : 230
Uncommon uses Edit
Occasionally, ⟨ß⟩ has been used in unusual ways:
- As a surrogate for Greek lowercase ⟨β⟩ (beta), which looks fairly similar. This was used in older operating systems, the character encoding of which (notably Latin-1 and Windows-1252) did not support easy use of Greek letters. Additionally, the original IBM DOS code page, CP437 (aka OEM-US) conflates the two characters, with a glyph that minimizes their differences placed between the Greek letters ⟨α⟩ (alpha) and ⟨γ⟩ (gamma) but named "Sharp s Small". 
- In Prussian Lithuanian, as in the first book published in Lithuanian, Martynas Mažvydas' Simple Words of Catechism,  as well as in Sorbian (see example at right).
- For sadhe in Akkadian glosses, in place of the standard ⟨ṣ⟩, when that character is unavailable due to limitations of HTML. 
Origin and development Edit
As a result of the High German consonant shift, Old High German developed a sound generally spelled ⟨zz⟩ or ⟨z⟩ that probably was pronounced [s] and was contrasted with a sound, probably pronounced [ɕ] (voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative) or [ʒ] (voiced postalveolar fricative) and spelled ⟨s⟩.  Because ⟨z⟩ could also represent the affricate [ts] , some attempts were made to differentiate the sounds by spelling [s] as ⟨zss⟩ or ⟨zs⟩: wazssar (German: Wasser), fuozssi (German: Füße), heizsit (German: heißt).  In Middle High German, ⟨zz⟩ simplified to ⟨z⟩ at the end of a word or after a long vowel, but was retained word internally after a short vowel: wazzer (German: Wasser) vs. lâzen (German: lassen) and fuoz (German: Fuß). 
In the thirteenth century, the phonetic difference between ⟨z⟩ and ⟨s⟩ was lost at the beginning and end of words in all dialects except for Gottscheerish.  Word internally, Old and Middle High German ⟨s⟩ came to be pronounced [z] (the voiced alveolar sibilant), while Old and Middle High German ⟨z⟩ continued to be pronounced [s] . This produces the contrast between modern standard German reisen and reißen. The former is pronounced IPA: [ˈʁaɪzn̩] and comes from Middle High German: reisen, while the latter is pronounced IPA: [ˈʁaɪsn̩] and comes from Middle High German: reizen. 
In the late medieval and early modern periods, [s] was frequently spelled ⟨sz⟩ or ⟨ss⟩. The earliest appearance of ligature resembling the modern ⟨ß⟩ is in a fragment of a manuscript of the poem Wolfdietrich from around 1300.  : 214 ,  In the Gothic book hands and bastarda scripts of the late medieval period, ⟨sz⟩ is written with long s and the Blackletter "tailed z", as ⟨ſʒ⟩. A recognizable ligature representing the ⟨sz⟩ digraph develops in handwriting in the early 14th century.  : 67–76
By the late 1400s, the choice of spelling between ⟨sz⟩ and ⟨ss⟩ was usually based on the sound's position in the word rather than etymology: ⟨sz⟩ (⟨ſz⟩) tended to be used in word final position: uſz (Middle High German: ûz, German: aus), -nüſz (Middle High German: -nüss(e), German: -nis) ⟨ss⟩ (⟨ſſ⟩) tended to be used when the sound occurred between vowels: groſſes (Middle High German: grôzes, German: großes).  : 171 While Martin Luther's early 16th-century printings also contain spellings such as heyße (German: heiße), early modern printers mostly changed these to ⟨ſſ⟩: heiſſe. Around the same time, printers began to systematically distinguish between das (the, that [pronoun]) and daß (that [conjunction]).  : 215
In modern German, the Old and Middle High German ⟨z⟩ is now represented by either ⟨ss⟩, ⟨ß⟩, or, if there are no related forms in which [s] occurs intervocalically, with ⟨s⟩: messen (Middle High German: mezzen), Straße (Middle High German: strâze), and was (Middle High German: waz). 
Standardization of use Edit
The pre-1996 German use of ⟨ß⟩ was codified by the eighteenth-century grammarians Johann Christoph Gottsched (1748) and Johann Christoph Adelung (1793) and made official for all German-speaking countries by the German Orthographic Conference of 1901. In this orthography, the use of ⟨ß⟩ was modeled after the use of long and "round"-s in Fraktur. ⟨ß⟩ appeared both word internally after long vowels and also in those positions where Fraktur required the second s to be a "round" or "final" s, namely the ends of syllables or the ends of words.  : 217–18 In his Deutsches Wörterbuch (1854) Jacob Grimm called for ⟨ß⟩ or ⟨sz⟩ to be written for all instances of Middle and Old High German etymological ⟨z⟩ (e.g., eß instead of es from Middle High German: ez) however, his etymological proposal could not overcome established usage.  : 269
In Austria-Hungary prior to the German Orthographic Conference of 1902, an alternative rule formulated by Johann Christian August Heyse in 1829 had been officially taught in the schools since 1879, although this spelling was not widely used. Heyse's rule matches current usage after the German orthography reform of 1996 in that ⟨ß⟩ was only used after long vowels.  : 219
Use in Roman type Edit
Although there are early examples in Roman type (called Antiqua in a German context) of a ⟨ſs⟩-ligature that looks like the letter ⟨ß⟩, it was not commonly used for ⟨sz⟩.  ,  These forms generally fell out of use in the eighteenth century and were use in Italic text only  : 73 German works printed in Roman type in the late 18th and early 19th centuries such as Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Wissenschaftslehre did not provide any equivalent to the ⟨ß⟩. Jacob Grimm began using ⟨ß⟩ in his Deutsche Grammatik (1819), however it varied with ⟨ſſ⟩ word internally.  : 74 Grimm eventually rejected the use of the character in their Deutsches Wörterbuch (1838), the Brothers Grimm favored writing it as ⟨sz⟩.  : 2 The First Orthographic Conference in Berlin (1876) recommended that ß be represented as ⟨ſs⟩ - however, both suggestions were ultimately rejected.  : 269,  : 222 In 1879, a proposal for various letter forms was published in the Journal für Buchdruckerkunst. A committee of the Typographic Society of Leipzig chose the "Sulzbacher form". In 1903 it was proclaimed as the new standard for the Eszett in Roman type.  : 3–5
Until the abolition of Fraktur in 1941, it was nevertheless common for family names to be written with ⟨ß⟩ in Fraktur and ⟨ss⟩ in Roman type. The formal abolition resulted in inconsistence in how names such as Heuss/Heuß are written in modern German.  : 176
Abolition and attempted abolitions Edit
The Swiss and Liechtensteiners ceased to use ⟨ß⟩ in the twentieth century. This has been explained variously by the early adoption of Roman type in Switzerland, the use of typewriters in Switzerland that did not include ⟨ß⟩ in favor of French and Italian characters, and peculiarities of Swiss German that cause words spelled with ⟨ß⟩ or ⟨ss⟩ to be pronounced with gemination.  : 221–22 The Education Council of Zurich had decided to stop teaching the letter in 1935, whereas the Neue Zürcher Zeitung continued to write ⟨ß⟩ until 1971.  Swiss newspapers continued to print in Fraktur until the end of the 1940s, and the abandonment of ß by most newspapers corresponded to them switching to Roman typesetting. 
When the Nazi German government abolished the use of blackletter typesetting in 1941, it was originally planned to also abolish the use of ⟨ß⟩. However, Hitler intervened to retain ⟨ß⟩, while deciding against the creation of a capital form.  In 1954, a group of reformers in West Germany similarly proposed, among other changes to German spelling, the abolition of ⟨ß⟩ their proposals were publicly opposed by German-language writers Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, and Friedrich Dürrenmatt and were never implemented.  Although the German Orthography Reform of 1996 reduced the use of ⟨ß⟩ in standard German, Adrienne Walder writes that an abolition outside of Switzerland appears unlikely.  : 235
Development of a capital form Edit
Because ⟨ß⟩ had been treated as a ligature, rather than as a full letter of the German alphabet, it had no capital form in early modern typesetting. There were, however, proposals to introduce capital forms of ⟨ß⟩ for use in allcaps writing (where ⟨ß⟩ would otherwise usually be represented as either ⟨SS⟩ or ⟨SZ⟩). A capital was first seriously proposed in 1879, but did not enter official or widespread use.  Historical typefaces offering a capitalized eszett mostly date to the time between 1905 and 1930. The first known typefaces to include capital eszett were produced by the Schelter & Giesecke foundry in Leipzig, in 1905/06. Schelter & Giesecke at the time widely advocated the use of this type, but its use nevertheless remained very limited.
The preface to the 1925 edition of the Duden dictionary expressed the desirability of a separate glyph for capital ⟨ß⟩:
Die Verwendung zweier Buchstaben für einen Laut ist nur ein Notbehelf, der aufhören muss, sobald ein geeigneter Druckbuchstabe für das große ß geschaffen ist. 
The use of two letters for a single phoneme is makeshift, to be abandoned as soon as a suitable type for the capital ß has been developed.
The Duden was edited separately in East and West Germany during the 1950s to 1980s. The East German Duden of 1957 (15th ed.) introduced a capital ⟨ß⟩, in its typesetting without revising the rule for capitalization. The 16th edition of 1969 still announced that an uppercase ⟨ß⟩ was in development and would be introduced in the future. The 1984 edition again removed this announcement and simply stated that there is no capital version of ⟨ß⟩. 
Graphical variants Edit
The recommendation of the Sulzbacher form (1903) was not followed universally in 20th-century printing. There were four distinct variants of ⟨ß⟩ in use in Antiqua fonts:
- ⟨ſs⟩ without ligature, but as a single type, with reduced spacing between the two letters
- the ligature of ⟨ſ⟩ and ⟨s⟩ inherited from the 16th-century Antiqua typefaces
- a ligature of ⟨ſ⟩ and ⟨ʒ⟩, adapting the blackletter ligature to Antiqua and
- the Sulzbacher form.
The first variant (no ligature) has become practically obsolete. Most modern typefaces follow either 2 or 4, with 3 retained in occasional usage, notably in street signs in Bonn and Berlin. The design of modern ⟨ß⟩ tends to follow either the Sulzbacher form, in which ⟨ʒ⟩ (tailed z) is clearly visible, or else be made up of a clear ligature of ⟨ſ⟩ and ⟨s⟩.  : 2
Use of typographic variants in street signs:
Unligatured ſs variant in a street sign in Pirna, Saxony
Antiqua form of the ſʒ ligature (Berlin street signs)
Blackletter form of the ſʒ ligature (Erfurt street signs)
Two distinct blackletter typefaces in Mainz. The red sign spells Straße with ſs the blue sign uses the standard blackletter ſʒ ligature.
Sulzbacher form in the German Einbahnstraße ("one-way street") sign
The inclusion of a capital ⟨ẞ⟩ in ISO 10646 in 2008 revived the century-old debate among font designers as to how such a character should be represented. The main difference in the shapes of ⟨ẞ⟩ in contemporary fonts is the depiction with a diagonal straight line vs. a curved line in its upper right part, reminiscent of the ligature of tailed z or of round s, respectively. The code chart published by the Unicode Consortium favours the former possibility,  which has been adopted by Unicode capable fonts including Arial, Calibri, Cambria, Courier New, Dejavu Serif, Liberation Sans, Liberation Mono, Linux Libertine and Times New Roman the second possibility is more rare, adopted by Dejavu Sans. Some fonts adopt a third possibility in representing ⟨ẞ⟩ following the Sulzbacher form of ⟨ß⟩, reminiscent of the Greek ⟨β⟩ (beta) such a shape has been adopted by FreeSans and FreeSerif, Liberation Serif and Verdana. 
Keyboards and encoding Edit
In Germany and Austria, a 'ß' key is present on computer and typewriter keyboards, normally to the right-hand end on the number row. The German typewriter keyboard layout was defined in DIN 2112, first issued in 1928. 
In other countries, the letter is not marked on the keyboard, but a combination of other keys can produce it. Often, the letter is input using a modifier and the 's' key. The details of the keyboard layout depend on the input language and operating system: on some keyboards with US-International (or local 'extended') setting, the symbol is created using AltGr s (or Ctrl Alt s ) in Microsoft Windows, Linux and Chrome OS in MacOS, one uses ⌥ Option s on the US, US-Extended, and UK keyboards. In Windows, one can also use alt code 0223.
Some modern virtual keyboards show ß when the user presses and holds the 's' key.
The HTML entity for ⟨ß⟩ is &szlig . Its code point in the ISO 8859 character encoding versions 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16 and identically in Unicode is 223, or DF in hexadecimal. In TeX and LaTeX, ss produces ß. A German language support package for LaTeX exists in which ß is produced by "s (similar to umlauts, which are produced by "a , "o , and "u with this package). 
History of S-23 SS-1284r - History
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One of a large group of inter-war period submarines, SS-131, S-26 entered service in 1923. When World War II began, S-26 was stationed at New London, but was sent to Panama shortly after Pearl Harbor. She was lost in January 1942, on her second patrol, in a collision with an American subchaser that had escorted S-26 &hellip
The keel of USS S-24 (SS-129) was laid down on 1 November 1918 by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation…a subcontractor of the Electric Boat Company of New York City, New York…at Quincy, Massachusetts. The submarine was christened by Mrs. Herbert B. Loper and launched on 27 June 1922. The S-boat was commissioned on 24 August 1923 &hellip
Pitching Statistics League Leaderboard
On April 5, 1971, a baseball tradition will die. Opening Day ceremonies in Washington D.C. are the last of there kind and 45,061 fans were able to watch the Senators crush the Athletics 8-0.
The Orioles walked away with the East Division title with a third consecutive 100-win season. With four twenty-game winning pitchers – Mike Cuellar, Dave McNally, Jim Palmer and Pat Dobson – supported by the bats of Frank Robinson, Boog Powell, Brooks Robinson, and newcomer Merv Rettenmund, it was never in doubt.
The West was also a runaway. In winning 101-games the Oakland A’s announced the beginning of a coming dynasty. The youngsters blossomed. Cy Young winner Vida Blue won 9 of his first 10 decisions to join Catfish Hunter as twenty-game winners. Rollie Fingers was the closer. Hitting stars Reggie Jackson and 3B Sal Bando supplied the big bats while ex-Dodger Tommy Davis supplied a valuable piece off the bench.
As good as the A's played in the regular season the playoffs were a different story. The trio of Dave McNally, Mike Cuellar and Jim Palmer made it look easy in a three game sweep. The young pitching staff of the A’s were not ready for the more experienced Orioles.
#1 Baltimore Orioles (101-57). The trio of Brooks Robinson, Frank Robinson and Boog Powell all drove in more than 90 runs. The four headed monster starting pitching staff won an astonishing 84 games. Eddie Watt was effective out of the bullpen before a broken hand shelved him. Rookie outfielder Don Baylor was a September call-up.
#2 Detroit Tigers (91-71). The Tigers made a great leap forward to second place by increasing their win total 12 games. Giving up on Denny McClain proved to be the right move. Pitcher Joe Coleman stepped forward and won 20-games to complement Mickey Lolich's league leading 25 victories. Two 36-year-old batters, Al Kaline and Norm Cash, along with catcher Bill Freehan, led the offense.
#3 Boston Red Sox (85-77). The Red Sox moved up one notch primarily due to the bats of 1B George "Boomer" Scott, 3B Rico Petrocelli, and Reggie Smith. Their mediocre pitching staff lacked depth. Veteran Sonny Siebert led the staff with 16-wins.
#4 New York Yankees (82-80). The Yankees just barely climbed over the .500 mark. Centerfielder Bobby Murcer had a career year, batting .331 with 25 home runs, but the rest of the team offense sputtered. The pitching burden still fell on the shoulders of Mel Stottlemeyr and Fritz Peterson, but neither was outstanding.
#5 Washington Senators (63-96). No fans and few wins led to another exit from Washington. They would move to Texas at the season's conclusion. It was pretty much a carbon copy of 1970. Frank Howard was again their power house, but his numbers were starting to decline. Any expectations that Denny McClain would make a comeback were dashed early as he struggled to a 10-win / 22-loss record.
#6 Cleveland Indians (60-102). The Tribe hit the bottom. Some familiar future Yankees, 1B Chris Chambliss and 3B Craig Nettles, showed some hope, but were still getting accustomed to big league baseball. Ace pitcher Sam McDowell disappointed as did the rest of the pitching staff.
#1 Oakland Athletics (101-60). If there was any doubt that they were building a solid team in Oakland, it disappeared in 1971. Reggie Jackson and 3B Sal Bando led the power with a combined 56 home runs. Bert Campaneris stole 35 bases. In addition to 20-game winners, Cy Young and MVP winner Vida Blue and star pitcher Catfish Hunter, Chuck Dobson won 15 before an elbow injury cut his season short.
#2 Kansas City Royals (85-76). A starting pitching staff led by Dick Drag's 17-wins benefited from closer Ted Abernathy's 23 saves. The 20-game win improvement from the unknown KC Royals attracted attention. A hit and run team, the Royals were led by centerfielder Amos Ottis' league leading 52 steals and little SS Freddie Patek's 49. Otis and 2B Cookie Rojas each hit .300.
#3 Chicago White Sox (79-83). The White Sox took a step up from their 56-win 1970 season. The big shot in the arm for the offense was 3B Bill Melton with a league leading 33 home runs. Veteran pitcher Wilbur Wood notched 22-wins for an otherwise poor pitching staff.
#4 California Angels (76-86). The Angels had hopes of contending, but seemed to be distracted by the antics of outfielder Alex Johnson. Johnson the team’'s leading hitter in 1970, was a constant problem. He could not get along with teammates or management and after numerous fines and suspensions, he was suspended for the season on June 26. Another disappointment was the inability of Tony Cogniliaro to overcome his eye injury and he retired on July 11. The only player to stand out was pitcher Andy Messersmith who recorded 20-wins.
#5 Minnesota Twins (74-88). The 1970 division winners fell hard. Despite having the league's RBI leader, Harmon Killebrew 119, and batting champ Tony Oliva, .337, the team never got on-track. Poor pitching was the cause, as both Jim Perry and Jim Kaat disappointed. One note of optimism was rookie pitcher Bert Blyleven who posted 16-wins.
#6 Milwaukee Brewers (69-92). A rather dreadful season for the third year franchise and not much in the pipeline. Outfielder Johnny Briggs led the offense with 21 home runs. The best pitching record was posted by Marty Patten a paltry 14-14 season.
Did you know that the best fielding third baseman in history once committed three errors during the same inning? On July 28, 1971, Brooks Robinson actually had a bad day during the sixth inning versus the Athletics. The eleven time consecutive Gold Glove winner would still win number twelve, but the moment is still a noteworthy part of his career.
On August 10, 1971, Harmon Killebrew of the Minnesota Twins joined the 500 Home Runs Club during his 6,671st at-bat, the fewest amount needed since Babe Ruth joined the club in 1929.
The Amazonian Expedition That Nearly Killed Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt was never a fan of idle vacations. Whether ranching in the Dakotas, cougar hunting in Arizona, or going on a yearlong safari in Africa, his travels had always involved hardship and risk—two of the key components of what he once famously termed the “strenuous life.” Still, none of Roosevelt’s previous adventures could compare to the one he attempted in 1913. Despite having little experience in the jungle, the burly 55-year-old journeyed to Brazil and set out on a trip down an uncharted tributary of the Amazon: the mysterious Rio da Dúvida, or River of Doubt.
Theodore Roosevelt pointing towards the area explored during the Roosevelt-Rondon expedition. (Credit: Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images)
Roosevelt described the Amazon adventure as his “last chance to be a boy,” but it was also something of a consolation prize. He had hoped to begin serving a third term as president in 1913, but despite a strong showing in the 1912 election, he and his upstart Progressive Party had lost out to Democrat Woodrow Wilson. After moping around his New York home for a few months, Roosevelt received a letter from Argentina inviting him to conduct a series of lectures in South America. Not only did he accept, he decided to supplement the speaking tour with an extended river cruise down two tributaries of the Amazon. Before setting sail for the continent that October, he contacted the American Museum of Natural History, recruited a pair of naturalists and made plans to collect animal specimens during the expedition.
Roosevelt had envisioned a journey that was part holiday and part scientific endeavor, but upon arriving in South America, he decided to tackle something more stimulating. After consulting with his guide, the veteran Brazilian explorer Colonel Candido Rondon, he dropped his original itinerary and set his sights on traversing the River of Doubt, a wild and winding waterway that had yet to be charted by Europeans. The head of the American Museum of Natural History tried to warn him of the risks, but Roosevelt brushed off his concerns. “If it is necessary for me to leave my bones in South America,” he wrote, “I am quite ready to do so.”
Theodore Roosevelt in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, shortly before the Roosevelt-Rondon expedition began. (Credit:: Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty images)
In late-1913, after Roosevelt had completed his lecture tour, the “Roosevelt-Rondon” expedition got underway. Along with a small army of porters, explorers and scientists, the team also included Roosevelt’s 23-year-old son, Kermit, who had been living in Brazil. The adventurers began by traveling via steamboat to the remote town of Tapirapoan. From there, they embarked on a two-month overland trek toward the River of Doubt.
Though still carrying a bullet in his chest from a failed assassination attempt that occurred during his 1912 campaign, Roosevelt immediately impressed his companions with his seemingly boundless stamina. On the whole, however, the expedition did not get off to a promising start. Several men were struck down by tropical illness while crossing the rugged Brazilian highlands, and over half the group’s pack animals died from exhaustion. By the time they finally reached the River of Doubt in February 1914, a lack of supplies had forced Roosevelt and Rondon to downsize their team. In the end, the 22-man party that set off on the river included just three Americans—Roosevelt, Kermit and the naturalist George Cherrie.
Theodore Roosevelt during the expedition. (Credit: George Rinhart/Corbis via Getty Images)
If the journey to the River of Doubt had been trying, conditions only grew more extreme once explorers were on the water. As they floated down the river in dugout canoes, the men were at risk of attack by everything from alligators and piranhas to hostile native tribes. Whenever they stopped to camp on its banks, they were overwhelmed by what Roosevelt called the “torment and menace” of mosquitos and stinging flies. Just a few days into the expedition, the former president had another run-in with the local wildlife when he was nearly bitten by a venomous coral snake. The creature snapped at his leg, but only managed to sink its teeth into his thick leather boot.
With each bend in the river, the expedition entered new and unmapped territory. “It was interesting work, for no civilized man, no white man, had ever gone down or up this river or seen the country through which we were passing,” Roosevelt later wrote. “The lofty and matted forest rose like a green wall on either hand.” The journey began on calm waters, but by early March the explorers had encountered the first of what would eventually be dozens of miles of tortuous rapids. At each cataract, the men were forced to either shoot the whitewater in their canoes or carry the boats on their backs through the wilderness. Their progress slowed to a plodding seven miles per day, and they had to repeatedly stop and build new canoes after several were destroyed during the crossings. On March 15, Kermit’s canoe was sucked into a whirlpool and sent tumbling over a waterfall. He and a companion managed to swim to shore, but a third man, a Brazilian named Simplicio, drowned in the rushing rapids.
The River of Doubt (now the Roosevelt River). (Credit: Beatriz Andrade N༻rega)
The expedition’s troubles only mounted over the next several weeks. The explorers knew that a band of Indians was stalking them—Rondon had found his dog shot through with arrows𠅊nd they were constantly on edge about an ambush. The natives ultimately let the men pass unharmed, but the team was still plagued by malaria, dysentery and a lack of supplies. Even the indomitable Roosevelt began to suffer after he fell ill with fever and then sliced his leg open on a rock. Morale reached its lowest point in early April, when a porter named Julio shot and killed another Brazilian who had caught him stealing food. After failing to capture the murderer, the exhausted expedition simply abandoned him in the jungle.
The 19 remaining explorers continued downriver, but their scientific expedition had turned into a fight for survival. Their clothes were reduced to rags, and they headed off starvation only by catching fish and scrounging for hearts of palm. Roosevelt, once among the team’s strongest members, became delirious from fever and infection. He repeatedly demanded to be left alone in the jungle to die, but Kermit refused to leave him behind. “There were a good many days, a good many mornings when I looked at Colonel Roosevelt and said to myself, he won’t be with us tonight,” naturalist George Cherrie later remembered. 𠇊nd I would say the same in the evening, he can’t possibly live until morning.”
The expedition standing next to a Rio Roosevelt marker.
Roosevelt eventually lost a quarter of his body weight, but he stubbornly held on and even endured emergency leg surgery on the riverbank. As the former president languished in his canoe, Rondon led the explorers into waters closer to civilization. With the aid of local “seringueiros”𠅋razilian pioneers who lived in the jungle and harvested rubber—the men acquired new canoes and traversed the last few sections of rapids. Finally, on April 26, the team sighted a relief party that Rondon had previously ordered to meet them at the confluence of the River of Doubt and the Aripuanã River. After two months and hundreds of miles, they had reached the finish line. Though still sick, Roosevelt beamed with pride. In typically stoic fashion, he dashed off a telegram to the Brazilian government in which called the nightmarish expedition 𠇊 hard and somewhat dangerous, but very successful trip.”
Roosevelt received medical attention once the group reached civilization, and by the time he returned to New York in May 1914, he had grown strong enough to walk down his ship’s gangplank and greet a crowd of admirers. A few critics tried to dispute his claim that the expedition had “put upon the map a river nearly 1,500 kilometers in length,” but he later won over most of the skeptics during an extended lecture tour. In 1926, meanwhile, another group of explorers repeated the river journey and confirmed nearly all the Roosevelt-Rondon expedition’s geographical findings. By then, the Brazilians had given the River of Doubt a new name: the Roosevelt River.
The Calcite Pilot House was saved and retired to Rogers City where it was installed as a tourist attraction at Harbor View overlooking the Calcite Plant. Over the years, she was visited by thousands of people. Eventually, the Pilot House was removed and relocated to the Rogers City Chamber of Commerce grounds on U. S. 23. Gradually she began to decay from neglect and vandalism and was finally moved to 40 Mile Point Lighthouse Park and located near the lighthouse and facing the lake. The Pilot House continued to deteriorate.
In 1996, the 40 Mile Point lighthouse Society was organized and one of the first projects was to save the Pilot House. Once again it was moved - this time to its present location. Moran Iron Works of Onaway and the Kiwanis Club of Rogers City helped with the move.
The restoration work was undertaken by retired Great Lakes sailors, members of the Society and those who volunteered their time, expertise and hard work to the effort. Presque Isle County backed the project with financial assistance. Much of the needed materials were donated by local individuals and businesses. Moran Iron Works, Ellenberger Lumber and the U. S. Steel Great Lakes Fleet are among the many businesses that made the restoration effort a success. Many others donated various nautical artifacts for display.
of interest: The illuminated letter “L” on the mast is a whistle light. When the whistle was sounded, the light would come on as a visual aid for oncoming boats to see. The letter “L” stands for the limestone that is quarried at the former Michigan Limestone Operations, Inc. (often referred to as Calcite), now owned and operated by the Carmeuse Corporation.
The Steamer Calcite is technically a ship. However, Great Lakes sailors refer to the lake freighters as boats.
Self-unloaders were called "Boomers" because of the long unloading booms on their decks. When the Calcite was built in 1912, the self-unloader concept was more of a curiosity. Now nearly all lake boats are self-unloaders.
The new, 1000 foot lake boats are called “Footers”.
Built in 1912 in Wyandotte, Michigan by the Detroit Ship Building Company. At the time of construction, she was the largest self-unloading ship in the world. Home port was Rogers City, Michigan - Port of Calcite.
Registry No. US 209973
Hull No. 188
Overall length: 436 feet
Beam: 54 feet
Depth: 29 feet
Engine: Quadruple expansion steam engine
Cargo Capacity: 7000 tons of limestone
During a career spanning 49 years, she transported 24-3/4 million tons of limestone and 6-1/2 million tons of coal.
longer considered large enough to be cost-effective, she was scrapped in 1961 at Conneaut, Ohio.
Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Industry & Commerce &bull Waterways & Vessels. A significant historical year for this entry is 1912.
Location. 45° 29.145′ N, 83° 54.771′ W. Marker is near Rogers City, Michigan, in Presque Isle County. Marker can be reached from County Park Road 0.2 miles north of U.S. 23 when traveling north. Marker is within Presque Isle County Lighthouse Park, beside the restored Pilot House from the SS Calcite. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 7323 US Highway 23, Rogers City MI 49779, United States of America. Touch for directions.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 7 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. International Shipmaster's Association (a few steps from this marker) Forty Mile Point Lighthouse / Lake Huron Graveyard of Ships (within shouting distance of this marker) The Bunkhouse (within shouting distance of this marker) 40 Mile Point Lighthouse (within shouting distance of this marker) S.S. Joseph S. Fay Shipwreck (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line) The Glawe School (about 600 feet away) Site of Frederick Denny Larke Home (approx. 6.4 miles away) Frederick Denny Larke General Store (approx. 6.4 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Rogers City.
More about this marker. This is a large "kiosk-style" marker with multiple text and picture insets.
Today, East Boston’s population is mainly comprised of Italian-Americans and immigrants from Central America, South America, and Southeast Asia. While some residents across the water only know the area for Boston’s Logan International Airport, the neighborhood is an ideal place to visit for views of the city skyline. Visitors could get here on the Blue Line of the subway or via a ferry boat for a picturesque trip across the harbor.
History of S-23 SS-1284r - History
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