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(YMS 444: dp. 320; 1. 136'; b. 24'6"; dr. 8' (mean); s. 14 k.; cpl. 33; a. 1 3", 2 20mm., 2 .50-car. mg., 2 dct., 2 dep.; cl. YMS-1)
The second Turkey was laid down as YMS-444 on 16 November 1943 at Kingston. N.Y., by C. Hiltebrant Dry Dock Co., Inc.; launched on 20 July 1944; and commissioned on 26 December 1944, Lt. George H. H. Huey, USNR, in command.
YMS-444 completed fitting out at New York and, in January 1945, made a shakedown voyage to Little Creek. On 6 February, she arrived at Norfolk and remained there while members of her crew attended Fire Fighting School. Then, late in February, she returned to New York. In March, the auxiliary motor minesweeper began operating out of Tompkinsville,
On 20 July, she departed New York and, after a stop at Miami, steamed through the Panama Canal to the California coast, arriving at Los Angeles on 8 September. On the 17th, she set her course westward for Pearl Harbor and the Marshalls. Although the war was over when YMS-444 arrived in the Pacific, there were still enormous tasks left for the minesweepers. YMS-444 pursued her duties operating out of Saipan and Eniwetok in October 1945. In November, she moved on to the Ryukyus and Japan, sweeping mines in the KyushuKorea and Honshu areas, and remained in Japanese waters into the new year.
On 24 February 1946, she departed Kure and set her course, via the Marianas and Marshalls, for Pearl Harbor and California. After pausing at San Pedro in April, she got underway for the Canal Zone on the 27th. It was 6 June before she departed the Canal Zone and set her course, via Charleston, for New York. She was decommissioned on 30 August 1946 and remained in the 3d Naval District as a Naval Reserve training ship.
For the next six years, YMS-444 operated out of New York ports and on the Great Lakes. On 1 September 1947, she was named Turkey and redesignated a motor minesweeper (AMS-56). She was placed in commission, in reserve, in April 1950, and she returned to active status on 21 November.
Turkey returned to the Atlantic in March 1952 and was assigned to serve with the Mine Forces, Atlantic Fleet, in August. During the following four years, she operated out of east coast ports with occasional voyages to the Caribbean. On 7 February 1955, she was reclassified an old coastal minesweeper MSC(0)-56. She arrived at Charleston on 9 November 1956 and was decommissioned there on 23 November 1956. Then, on 1 May 1957, she departed Charleston, steamed via New York, Halifax, and Montreal, and reported to the Commander, 4th Naval District, Toledo, Ohio, on 27 May 1957.
In 1960, Turkey was transferred to the 1st Naval District to continue as a Reserve training ship. As such, she operated out of Fall River, Mass., until~September 1968 when she was replaced as a training ship by Jacana (MSC 193). Her name was struck from the Navy list as of October 1968, and she was sold in August 1969.
HMS BYMS-2203 (J1003)
HMS BYMS-2203 (J 1003)  was a YMS-1-class auxiliary motor minesweeper originally built for the United States Navy during World War II. Upon completion she was transferred to the Royal Navy under Lend-Lease. She was returned to the U.S. Navy after conclusion of the war, and struck soon after. She was never commissioned in the U.S. Navy.
She was laid down 15 January 1942 as YMS-203 by the Hiltebrant Dry Dock Co. of Kingston, New York. She was launched on 15 January 1943 and delivered 31 August 1943 and transferred to the Royal Navy as BYMS-2203. 
Little is known of her war record. She sailed from the United Kingdom to Malta as a part of Convoy KMS 43 on 11 December 1943,  and, at least for a time, she served in the Pacific.  After USS Bangust (DE-739) had already attacked a submarine target 60 miles (97 km) of Roi in June 1944, BYMS-2203 assisted USS Greiner, USS SC-1364, and BYMS-2282 on in searching for Japanese submarine RO-11, even though, unknown at the time, Bangust’s attack had already been successful. 
Turkey II YMS-444 - History
- 1600 - The Hittite Empire forms in Turkey, also known as Anatolia.
- 1274 - The Hittites fight the Egyptian army under Ramesses II at the Battle of Kadesh.
- 1250 - Traditional date for the Trojan War which was fought in northwest Turkey.
- 1180 - The Hittite Empire collapses and divides into several smaller states.
- 1100 - The Greeks begin to settle along the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.
- 657 - Greek colonists establish the city of Byzantium.
- 546 - The Persians under the leadership of Cyrus the Great take over much of Anatolia.
- 334 - Alexander the Great conquers Anatolia on his way to conquering the Persian Empire.
- 130 - Anatolia becomes part of the Roman Empire.
- 47 - Saint Paul begins his ministry in Turkey, establishing Christian churches throughout the region.
- 330 - Constantine the Great establishes the new capital of the Roman Empire at the city of Byzantium. He names it Constantinople.
- 527 - Justinian I becomes Emperor of Byzantium. This is the golden age of the Byzantium Empire.
- 537 - The Hagia Sophia Cathedral is completed.
- 1071 - The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantium army at the Battle of Manzikert. The Turks gain control over much of Anatolia.
- 1299 - The Ottoman Empire is founded by Osman I.
- 1453 - The Ottomans conquer Constantinople bringing an end to the Byzantium Empire.
The Ottomans take Constantinople
Brief Overview of the History of Turkey
Turkey is located at the crossroads between Europe and Asia. This has made it an important land throughout world history. The city of Troy, made famous in Greek literature, was located on the Turkish coastline thousands of years ago. The first major empire to form in the land was the Hittite empire. The Hittites were followed by the Assyrians and then the Greeks, who began to settle in the area around 1100 BC. The Greeks founded many cities in the area including Byzantium, which would later be Constantinople and today is Istanbul. More empires came including the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great, and the Roman Empire.
In 330, Byzantium became the new capital of the Roman Empire under Roman Emperor Constantine I. The city was renamed Constantinople. It became the capital of Byzantium for hundreds of years.
In the 11th century, the Turks began to migrate into the land. The Arabs and the Seljuk Sultanate conquered much of the land. In the 13th century the Ottoman Empire emerged. It would become the most powerful empire in the area and rule for 700 years.
After World War I, the Ottoman Empire collapsed. However, Turkish war hero Mustafa Kemal founded the Republic of Turkey in 1923. He became known as Ataturk, which means father of the Turks.
After World War II, when the Soviet Union began to demand military bases in Turkey, the United States declared the Truman Doctrine. This was primarily meant to guarantee the security and independence of Turkey and Greece.
Christianity in Turkey
Since up to 98 percent of the population are Muslims, Christians are a minority religion in Turkey. Because it is a secular country, the only Muslim country in the world that has no State religion, the Constitution guarantees religious freedom, and tolerance is the rule. The population includes members of the Armenian Apostolic and Greek Orthodox churches, Roman and Eastern Catholics, and Jews. Today, approximately 120,000 Christians and 26,000 Jews live in Turkey, out of almost 80 million of the total population.
After the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, many of the early Christians, escaping from persecutions in Jerusalem, came to Asia Minor and settled in different cities like Ephesus, Hierapolis and Cappadocia. St. Paul preached in Perge, Konya, Derbe, Lystra, Psidian Antioch and Ephesus, where he wrote his Letter to Ephesians). St. John stayed for a while in Ephesus together with Virgin Mary and, after he returned from Patmos where he was exiled, died in Ephesus. St. Peter settled in Antioch and build the first Christian church carved in a cave. St. Philip settled in Hierapolis but was murdered together his family by the Romans.
Christianity was declared as the official religion in 380 AD, during the reign of Theodosius I, and destruction of pagan temples was legalized. Even so, throughout the Byzantine era Christianity had great ups and downs in popularity. Many found the road to piety confusing and assorted schisms between the Roman Catholic church and the Orthodox Byzantine church certainly didn't simplify matters. During the Ottoman period the "Dhimmi" tax was implemented, taking 50 percent of earnings from non-Muslims as opposed to a small amount from Muslim believers. The result was that large numbers of peasants converted their faith to Islam. Islam was also a relatively simple path to follow - profess belief in One God and the mission of Prophet Muhammed, and follow the Five Pillars of Faith.
Gradually, Christianity in Anatolia disintegrated, so that when the Islamic Ottomans finally conquered the Byzantine Empire, it was inevitable that what had been a predominantly Christian region would be no more.
Another important fact for Christians is that first Ecumenical Councils were made at Nicea (Iznik today) in the Marmara Region of Turkey, between Bursa and Istanbul.
Turkey II YMS-444 - History
Timeline of Events
December 7, 1941 - Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor, Hawaii also attack the Philippines, Wake Island, Guam, Malaya, Thailand, Shanghai and Midway.
December 8, 1941 - U.S. and Britain declare war on Japan. Japanese land near Singapore and enter Thailand.
December 9, 1941 - China declares war on Japan.
December 10, 1941 - Japanese invade the Philippines and also seize Guam.
December 11, 1941 - Japanese invade Burma.
December 15, 1941 - First Japanese merchant ship sunk by a U.S. submarine.
December 16, 1941 - Japanese invade British Borneo.
December 18, 1941 - Japanese invade Hong Kong.
December 22, 1941 - Japanese invade Luzon in the Philippines.
December 23, 1941 - General Douglas MacArthur begins a withdrawal from Manila to Bataan Japanese take Wake Island.
December 25, 1941 - British surrender at Hong Kong.
December 26, 1941 - Manila declared an open city.
December 27, 1941 - Japanese bomb Manila.
Map of the Japanese Empire at its peak in 1942.
January 2, 1942 - Manila and U.S. Naval base at Cavite captured by the Japanese.
January 7, 1942 - Japanese attack Bataan in the Philippines.
January 11, 1942 - Japanese invade Dutch East Indies and Dutch Borneo.
January 16, 1942 - Japanese begin an advance into Burma.
January 18, 1942 - German-Japanese-Italian military agreement signed in Berlin.
January 19, 1942 - Japanese take North Borneo.
January 23, 1942 - Japanese take Rabaul on New Britain in the Solomon Islands and also invade Bougainville, the largest island.
January 27, 1942 - First Japanese warship sunk by a U.S. submarine.
January 30/31 - The British withdraw into Singapore. The siege of Singapore then begins.
February 1, 1942 - First U.S. aircraft carrier offensive of the war as YORKTOWN and ENTERPRISE conduct air raids on Japanese bases in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands.
February 2, 1942 - Japanese invade Java in the Dutch East Indies.
February 8/9 - Japanese invade Singapore.
February 14, 1942 - Japanese invade Sumatra in the Dutch East Indies.
February 15, 1942 - British surrender at Singapore.
February 19, 1942 - Largest Japanese air raid since Pearl Harbor occurs against Darwin, Australia Japanese invade Bali.
February 20, 1942 - First U.S. fighter ace of the war, Lt. Edward O'Hare from the LEXINGTON in action off Rabaul.
February 22, 1942 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders General MacArthur out of the Philippines.
February 23, 1942 - First Japanese attack on the U.S. mainland as a submarine shells an oil refinery near Santa Barbara, California.
February 24, 1942 - ENTERPRISE attacks Japanese on Wake Island.
February 26, 1942 - First U.S. carrier, the LANGLEY, is sunk by Japanese bombers.
February 27- March 1 - Japanese naval victory in the Battle of the Java Sea as the largest U.S. warship in the Far East, the HOUSTON, is sunk.
March 4, 1942 - Two Japanese flying boats bomb Pearl Harbor ENTERPRISE attacks Marcus Island, just 1000 miles from Japan.
March 7, 1942 - British evacuate Rangoon in Burma Japanese invade Salamaua and Lae on New Guinea.
March 8, 1942 - The Dutch on Java surrender to Japanese.
March 11, 1942 - Gen. MacArthur leaves Corregidor and is flown to Australia. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright becomes the new U.S. commander.
March 18, 1942 - Gen. MacArthur appointed commander of the Southwest Pacific Theater by President Roosevelt.
March 18, 1942 - War Relocation Authority established in the U.S. which eventually will round up 120,000 Japanese-Americans and transport them to barb-wired relocation centers. Despite the internment, over 17,000 Japanese-Americans sign up and fight for the U.S. in World War II in Europe, including the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the most decorated unit in U.S. history.
March 23, 1942 - Japanese invade the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal.
March 24, 1942 - Admiral Chester Nimitz appointed as Commander in Chief of the U.S. Pacific theater.
April 3, 1942 - Japanese attack U.S. and Filipino troops at Bataan.
April 6, 1942 - First U.S. troops arrive in Australia.
April 9, 1942 - U.S. forces on Bataan surrender unconditionally to the Japanese.
April 10, 1942 - Bataan Death March begins as 76,000 Allied POWs including 12,000 Americans are forced to walk 60 miles under a blazing sun without food or water toward a new POW camp, resulting in over 5,000 American deaths.
April 18, 1942 - Surprise U.S. 'Doolittle' B-25 air raid from the HORNET against Tokyo boosts Allied morale.
April 29, 1942 - Japanese take central Burma.
May 1, 1942 - Japanese occupy Mandalay in Burma.
May 3, 1942 - Japanese take Tulagi in the Solomon Islands.
May 5, 1942 - Japanese prepare to invade Midway and the Aleutian Islands.
May 6, 1942 - Japanese take Corregidor as Gen. Wainwright unconditionally surrenders all U.S. And Filipino forces in the Philippines.
May 7-8, 1942 - Japan suffers its first defeat of the war during the Battle of the Coral Sea off New Guinea - the first time in history that two opposing carrier forces fought only using aircraft without the opposing ships ever sighting each other.
May 12, 1942 - The last U.S. Troops holding out in the Philippines surrender on Mindanao.
May 20, 1942 - Japanese complete the capture of Burma and reach India.
June 4-5, 1942 - Turning point in the war occurs with a decisive victory for the U.S. against Japan in the Battle of Midway as squadrons of U.S. torpedo planes and dive bombers from ENTERPRISE, HORNET, and YORKTOWN attack and destroy four Japanese carriers, a cruiser, and damage another cruiser and two destroyers. U.S. loses YORKTOWN.
June 7, 1942 - Japanese invade the Aleutian Islands.
June 9, 1942 - Japanese postpone further plans to take Midway.
July 21, 1942 - Japanese land troops near Gona on New Guinea.
August 7, 1942 - The first U.S. amphibious landing of the Pacific War occurs as 1st Marine Division invades Tulagi and Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.
August 8, 1942 - U.S. Marines take the unfinished airfield on Guadalcanal and name it Henderson Field after Maj. Lofton Henderson, a hero of Midway.
August 8/9 - A major U.S. naval disaster off Savo Island, north of Guadalcanal, as eight Japanese warships wage a night attack and sink three U.S. heavy cruisers, an Australian cruiser, and one U.S. destroyer, all in less than an hour. Another U.S. cruiser and two destroyers are damaged. Over 1,500 Allied crewmen are lost.
August 17, 1942 - 122 U.S. Marine raiders, transported by submarine, attack Makin Atoll in the Gilbert Islands.
August 21, 1942 - U.S. Marines repulse first major Japanese ground attack on Guadalcanal.
August 24, 1942 - U.S. And Japanese carriers meet in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons resulting in a Japanese defeat.
August 29, 1942 - The Red Cross announces Japan refuses to allow safe passage of ships containing supplies for U.S. POWs.
August 30, 1942 - U.S. Troops invade Adak Island in the Aleutian Islands.
September 9/10 - A Japanese floatplane flies two missions dropping incendiary bombs on U.S. forests in the state of Oregon - the only bombing of the continental U.S. during the war. Newspapers in the U.S. voluntarily withhold this information.
September 12-14 - Battle of Bloody Ridge on Guadalcanal.
September 15, 1942 - A Japanese submarine torpedo attack near the Solomon Islands results in the sinking of the Carrier WASP, Destroyer O'BRIEN and damage to the Battleship NORTH CAROLINA.
September 27, 1942 - British offensive in Burma.
October 11/12 - U.S. cruisers and destroyers defeat a Japanese task force in the Battle of Cape Esperance off Guadalcanal.
October 13, 1942 - The first U.S. Army troops, the 164th Infantry Regiment, land on Guadalcanal.
October 14/15 - Japanese bombard Henderson Field at night from warships then send troops ashore onto Guadalcanal in the morning as U.S. planes attack.
October 15/17 - Japanese bombard Henderson Field at night again from warships.
October 18, 1942 - Vice Admiral William F. Halsey named as the new commander of the South Pacific Area, in charge of the Solomons-New Guinea campaign.
October 26, 1942 - Battle of Santa Cruz off Guadalcanal between U.S. And Japanese warships results in the loss of the Carrier HORNET.
November 14/15 - U.S. And Japanese warships clash again off Guadalcanal resulting in the sinking of the U.S. Cruiser JUNEAU and the deaths of the five Sullivan brothers.
November 23/24 - Japanese air raid on Darwin, Australia.
November 30 - Battle of Tasafaronga off Guadalcanal.
December 2, 1942 - Enrico Fermi conducts the world's first nuclear chain reaction test at the University of Chicago.
December 20-24 - Japanese air raids on Calcutta, India.
December 31, 1942 - Emperor Hirohito of Japan gives permission to his troops to withdraw from Guadalcanal after five months of bloody fighting against U.S. Forces
January 2, 1943 - Allies take Buna in New Guinea.
January 22, 1943 - Allies defeat Japanese at Sanananda on New Guinea.
February 1, 1943 - Japanese begin evacuation of Guadalcanal.
February 8, 1943 - British-Indian forces begin guerrilla operations against Japanese in Burma.
February 9, 1943 - Japanese resistance on Guadalcanal ends.
March 2-4 - U.S. victory over Japanese in the Battle of Bismarck Sea.
April 18, 1943 - U.S. code breakers pinpoint the location of Japanese Admiral Yamamoto flying in a Japanese bomber near Bougainville in the Solomon Islands. Eighteen P-38 fighters then locate and shoot down Yamamoto.
April 21, 1943 - President Roosevelt announces the Japanese have executed several airmen from the Doolittle Raid.
April 22, 1943 - Japan announces captured Allied pilots will be given "one way tickets to hell."
May 10, 1943 - U.S. Troops invade Attu in the Aleutian Islands.
May 14, 1943 - A Japanese submarine sinks the Australian hospital ship CENTAUR resulting in 299 dead.
May 31, 1943 - Japanese end their occupation of the Aleutian Islands as the U.S. completes the capture of Attu.
June 1, 1943 - U.S. begins submarine warfare against Japanese shipping.
June 21, 1943 - Allies advance to New Georgia, Solomon Islands.
July 8, 1943 - B-24 Liberators flying from Midway bomb Japanese on Wake Island.
August 1/2 - A group of 15 U.S. PT-boats attempt to block Japanese convoys south of Kolombangra Island in the Solomon Islands. PT-109, commanded by Lt. John F. Kennedy, is rammed and sunk by the Japanese Cruiser AMAGIRI, killing two and badly injuring others. The crew survives as Kennedy aids one badly injured man by towing him to a nearby atoll.
August 6/7, 1943 - Battle of Vella Gulf in the Solomon Islands.
August 25, 1943 - Allies complete the occupation of New Georgia.
September 4, 1943 - Allies recapture Lae-Salamaua, New Guinea.
October 7, 1943 - Japanese execute approximately 100 American POWs on Wake Island.
October 26, 1943 - Emperor Hirohito states his country's situation is now "truly grave."
November 1, 1943 - U.S. Marines invade Bougainville in the Solomon Islands.
November 2, 1943 - Battle of Empress Augusta Bay.
November 20, 1943 - U.S. Troops invade Makin and Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands.
November 23, 1943 - Japanese end resistance on Makin and Tarawa.
December 15, 1943 - U.S. Troops land on the Arawe Peninsula of New Britain in the Solomon Islands.
December 26, 1943 - Full Allied assault on New Britain as 1st Division Marines invade Cape Gloucester.
January 9, 1944 - British and Indian troops recapture Maungdaw in Burma.
January 31, 1944 - U.S. Troops invade Kwajalein in the Marshall Islands.
February 1-7, 1944 - U.S. Troops capture Kwajalein and Majura Atolls in the Marshall Islands.
February 17/18 - U.S. Carrier-based planes destroy the Japanese naval base at Truk in the Caroline Islands.
February 20, 1944 - U.S. Carrier-based and land-based planes destroy the Japanese base at Rabaul.
February 23, 1944 - U.S. Carrier-based planes attack the Mariana Islands.
February 24, 1944 - Merrill's Marauders begin a ground campaign in northern Burma.
March 5, 1944 - Gen. Wingate's groups begin operations behind Japanese lines in Burma.
March 15, 1944 - Japanese begin offensive toward Imphal and Kohima.
April 17, 1944 - Japanese begin their last offensive in China, attacking U.S. air bases in eastern China.
April 22, 1944 - Allies invade Aitape and Hollandia in New Guinea.
May 27, 1944 - Allies invade Biak Island, New Guinea.
June 5, 1944 - The first mission by B-29 Superfortress bombers occurs as 77 planes bomb Japanese railway facilities at Bangkok, Thailand.
June 15, 1944 - U.S. Marines invade Saipan in the Mariana Islands.
June 15/16 - The first bombing raid on Japan since the Doolittle raid of April 1942, as 47 B-29s based in Bengel, India, target the steel works at Yawata.
June 19, 1944 - The "Marianas Turkey Shoot" occurs as U.S. Carrier-based fighters shoot down 220 Japanese planes, while only 20 American planes are lost.
July 8, 1944 - Japanese withdraw from Imphal.
July 19, 1944 - U.S. Marines invade Guam in the Marianas.
July 24, 1944 - U.S. Marines invade Tinian.
July 27, 1944 - American troops complete the liberation of Guam.
August 3, 1944 - U.S. And Chinese troops take Myitkyina after a two month siege.
August 8, 1944 - American troops complete the capture of the Mariana Islands.
September 15, 1944 - U.S. Troops invade Morotai and the Paulaus.
October 11, 1944 - U.S. Air raids against Okinawa.
October 18, 1944 - Fourteen B-29s based on the Marianas attack the Japanese base at Truk.
October 20, 1944 - U.S. Sixth Army invades Leyte in the Philippines.
October 23-26 - Battle of Leyte Gulf results in a decisive U.S. Naval victory.
October 25, 1944 - The first suicide air (Kamikaze) attacks occur against U.S. warships in Leyte Gulf. By the end of the war, Japan will have sent an estimated 2,257 aircraft. "The only weapon I feared in the war," Adm. Halsey will say later.
November 11, 1944 - Iwo Jima bombarded by the U.S. Navy.
November 24, 1944 - Twenty four B-29s bomb the Nakajima aircraft factory near Tokyo.
December 15, 1944 - U.S. Troops invade Mindoro in the Philippines.
December 17, 1944 - The U.S. Army Air Force begins preparations for dropping the Atomic Bomb by establishing the 509th Composite Group to operate the B-29s that will deliver the bomb.
January 3, 1945 - Gen. MacArthur is placed in command of all U.S. ground forces and Adm. Nimitz in command of all naval forces in preparation for planned assaults against Iwo Jima, Okinawa and Japan itself.
January 4, 1945 - British occupy Akyab in Burma.
January 9, 1945 - U.S. Sixth Army invades Lingayen Gulf on Luzon in the Philippines.
January 11, 1945 - Air raid against Japanese bases in Indochina by U.S. Carrier-based planes.
January 28, 1945 - The Burma road is reopened.
February 3, 1945 - U.S. Sixth Army attacks Japanese in Manila.
February 16, 1945 - U.S. Troops recapture Bataan in the Philippines.
February 19, 1945 - U.S. Marines invade Iwo Jima.
March 1, 1945 - A U.S. submarine sinks a Japanese merchant ship loaded with supplies for Allied POWs, resulting in a court martial for the captain of the submarine, since the ship had been granted safe passage by the U.S. Government.
March 2, 1945 - U.S. airborne troops recapture Corregidor in the Philippines.
March 3, 1945 - U.S. And Filipino troops take Manila.
March 9/10 - Fifteen square miles of Tokyo erupts in flames after it is fire bombed by 279 B-29s.
March 10, 1945 - U.S. Eighth Army invades Zamboanga Peninsula on Mindanao in the Philippines.
March 20, 1945 - British troops liberate Mandalay, Burma.
March 27, 1945 - B-29s lay mines in Japan's Shimonoseki Strait to interrupt shipping.
April 1, 1945 - The final amphibious landing of the war occurs as the U.S. Tenth Army invades Okinawa.
April 7, 1945 - B-29s fly their first fighter-escorted mission against Japan with P-51 Mustangs based on Iwo Jima U.S. Carrier-based fighters sink the super battleship YAMATO and several escort vessels which planned to attack U.S. Forces at Okinawa.
April 12, 1945 - President Roosevelt dies, succeeded by Harry S. Truman.
May 8, 1945 - Victory in Europe Day.
May 20, 1945 - Japanese begin withdrawal from China.
May 25, 1945 - U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff approve Operation Olympic, the invasion of Japan, scheduled for November 1.
June 9, 1945 - Japanese Premier Suzuki announces Japan will fight to the very end rather than accept unconditional surrender.
June 18, 1945 - Japanese resistance ends on Mindanao in the Philippines.
June 22, 1945 - Japanese resistance ends on Okinawa as the U.S. Tenth Army completes its capture.
June 28, 1945 - MacArthur's headquarters announces the end of all Japanese resistance in the Philippines.
July 5, 1945 - Liberation of Philippines declared.
July 10, 1945 - 1,000 bomber raids against Japan begin.
July 14, 1945 - The first U.S. Naval bombardment of Japanese home islands.
July 16, 1945 - First Atomic Bomb is successfully tested in the U.S.
July 26, 1945 - Components of the Atomic Bomb "Little Boy" are unloaded at Tinian Island in the South Pacific.
July 29, 1945 - A Japanese submarine sinks the Cruiser INDIANAPOLIS resulting in the loss of 881 crewmen. The ship sinks before a radio message can be sent out leaving survivors adrift for two days.
August 6, 1945 - First Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima from a B-29 flown by Col. Paul Tibbets.
August 8, 1945 - U.S.S.R. declares war on Japan then invades Manchuria.
August 9, 1945 - Second Atomic Bomb is dropped on Nagasaki from a B-29 flown by Maj. Charles Sweeney -- Emperor Hirohito and Japanese Prime Minister Suzuki then decide to seek an immediate peace with the Allies.
August 14, 1945 - Japanese accept unconditional surrender Gen. MacArthur is appointed to head the occupation forces in Japan.
August 16, 1945 - Gen. Wainwright, a POW since May 6, 1942, is released from a POW camp in Manchuria.
August 27, 1945 - B-29s drop supplies to Allied POWs in China.
August 29, 1945 - The Soviets shoot down a B-29 dropping supplies to POWs in Korea U.S. Troops land near Tokyo to begin the occupation of Japan.
August 30, 1945 - The British reoccupy Hong Kong.
September 2, 1945 - Formal Japanese surrender ceremony on board the MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay as 1,000 carrier-based planes fly overhead President Truman declares VJ Day.
September 3, 1945 - The Japanese commander in the Philippines, Gen. Yamashita, surrenders to Gen. Wainwright at Baguio.
September 4, 1945 - Japanese troops on Wake Island surrender.
September 5, 1945 - British land in Singapore.
September 8, 1945 - MacArthur enters Tokyo.
September 9, 1945 - Japanese in Korea surrender.
September 13, 1945 - Japanese in Burma surrender.
October 24, 1945 - United Nations is born.
The History Place - World War II in the Pacific - Selected Battle Photos
Copyright © 1999 The History Place All Rights Reserved
Armenian Genocide Begins
On April 24, 1915, the Armenian genocide began. That day, the Turkish government arrested and executed several hundred Armenian intellectuals.
After that, ordinary Armenians were turned out of their homes and sent on death marches through the Mesopotamian desert without food or water.
Frequently, the marchers were stripped naked and forced to walk under the scorching sun until they dropped dead. People who stopped to rest were shot.
At the same time, the Young Turks created a “Special Organization,” which in turn organized “killing squads” or 𠇋utcher battalions” to carry out, as one officer put it, “the liquidation of the Christian elements.”
These killing squads were often made up of murderers and other ex-convicts. They drowned people in rivers, threw them off cliffs, crucified them and burned them alive. In short order, the Turkish countryside was littered with Armenian corpses.
Records show that during this “Turkification” campaign, government squads also kidnapped children, converted them to Islam and gave them to Turkish families. In some places, they raped women and forced them to join Turkish “harems” or serve as slaves. Muslim families moved into the homes of deported Armenians and seized their property.
Though reports vary, most sources agree that there were about 2 million Armenians in the Ottoman Empire at the time of the massacre. In 1922, when the genocide was over, there were just 388,000 Armenians remaining in the Ottoman Empire.
Did you know? American news outlets have also been reluctant to use the word “genocide” to describe Turkey’s crimes. The phrase 𠇊rmenian genocide” did not appear in the New York Times until 2004.
The sultan was also referred to as the Padishah (Ottoman Turkish: پادشاه , romanized: pâdişâh, French: Padichah). In Ottoman usage the word "Padisha" was usually used except "sultan" was used when he was directly named.  In several European languages, he was referred to as the Grand Turk, as the ruler of the Turks,  or simply the "Great Lord" (il Gran Signore, le grand seigneur) especially in the 16th century.
- : In some documents "Padishah" was replaced by "malik" ("king")  : In earlier periods Bulgarian people called him the "tsar". The translation of the Ottoman Constitution of 1876 instead used direct translations of "sultan" (Sultan) and "padishah" (Padišax)  : In earlier periods the Greeks used the Byzantine Empire-style name "basileus". The translation of the Ottoman Constitution of 1876 instead used a direct transliterations of "sultan" (Σουλτάνος Soultanos) and "padishah" (ΠΑΔΙΣΑΧ padisach).  : Especially in older documents, El Rey ("the king") was used. In addition some Ladino documents used sultan (in Hebrew characters: שולטן and סולטן). 
The Ottoman Empire was an absolute monarchy during much of its existence. By the second half of the fifteenth century, the sultan sat at the apex of a hierarchical system and acted in political, military, judicial, social, and religious capacities under a variety of titles. [a] He was theoretically responsible only to God and God's law (the Islamic شریعت şeriat, known in Arabic as شريعة sharia), of which he was the chief executor. His heavenly mandate was reflected in Islamic titles such as "shadow of God on Earth" ( ظل الله في العالم ẓıll Allāh fī'l-ʿalem) and "caliph of the face of the earth" ( خلیفه روی زمین Ḫalife-i rū-yi zemīn).  All offices were filled by his authority, and every law was issued by him in the form of a decree called firman ( فرمان ). He was the supreme military commander and had the official title to all land.  Osman (died 1323/4) son of Ertuğrul was the first ruler of the Ottoman state, which during his reign constituted a small principality (beylik) in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire.
After the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed II, Ottoman sultans came to regard themselves as the successors of the Roman Empire, hence their occasional use of the titles caesar ( قیصر qayser) of Rûm, and emperor,    as well as the caliph of Islam. [b] Newly enthroned Ottoman rulers were girded with the Sword of Osman, an important ceremony that served as the equivalent of European monarchs' coronation.  A non-girded sultan was not eligible to have his children included in the line of succession. 
Although absolute in theory and in principle, the sultan's powers were limited in practice. Political decisions had to take into account the opinions and attitudes of important members of the dynasty, the bureaucratic and military establishments, as well as religious leaders.  Beginning in the last decades of the sixteenth century, the role of the Ottoman sultans in the government of the empire began to decrease, in a period known as the Transformation of the Ottoman Empire. Despite being barred from inheriting the throne,  women of the imperial harem—especially the reigning sultan's mother, known as the valide sultan—also played an important behind-the-scenes political role, effectively ruling the empire during the period known as the Sultanate of Women. 
Constitutionalism was established during the reign Abdul Hamid II, who thus became the empire's last absolute ruler and its reluctant first constitutional monarch.  Although Abdul Hamid II abolished the parliament and the constitution to return to personal rule in 1878, he was again forced in 1908 to reinstall constitutionalism and was deposed. Since 2021, the head of the House of Osman has been Harun Osman, a great-grandson of Abdul Hamid II. 
The table below lists Ottoman sultans, as well as the last Ottoman caliph, in chronological order. Continuingly, the tughras were the calligraphic seals or signatures used by Ottoman sultans. They were displayed on all official documents as well as on coins, and were far more important in identifying a sultan than his portrait. The "Notes" column contains information on each sultan's parentage and fate. For earlier rulers, there is usually a time gap between the moment a sultan's reign ended and the moment his successor was enthroned. This is because the Ottomans in that era practiced what historian Quataert has described as "survival of the fittest, not eldest, son": when a sultan died, his sons had to fight each other for the throne until a victor emerged. Because of the infighting and numerous fratricides that occurred, a sultan's death date therefore did not always coincide with the accession date of his successor.  In 1617, the law of succession changed from survival of the fittest to a system based on agnatic seniority ( اکبریت ekberiyet), whereby the throne went to the oldest male of the family. This in turn explains why from the 17th century onwards a deceased sultan was rarely succeeded by his own son, but usually by an uncle or brother.  Agnatic seniority was retained until the abolition of the sultanate, despite unsuccessful attempts in the 19th century to replace it with primogeniture.  Note that pretenders and co-claimants during the Ottoman Interregnum are also listed here, but they are not included in the formal numbering of sultans.
- Son of Ertuğrul Bey  and an unknown woman. 
- Reigned until his death.
- Son of Osman I and Malhun Hatun. 
- Reigned until his death. 
- Son of Orhan and Nilüfer Hatun. 
- Reigned until his death.
- Killed on the battlefield at the Battle of Kosovo on June 15, 1389. 
- Son of Murad I and Gülçiçek Hatun. 
- Captured on the battlefield at the Battle of Ankara against Timur(de facto end of reign)
- Died in captivity in Akşehir on 8 March 1403. 
- After the Battle of Ankara on July 20, 1402, İsa Çelebi defeated Musa Çelebi and began controlling the western part of Anatolian territory of the empire for approximately two years.
- Defeated by Mehmed Çelebi in the battle of Ulubat in 1405.
- Murdered in 1406.
- Acquired the title of The Sultan of Rumelia for the European portion of the empire, a short period after the Ottoman defeat of The Battle of Ankara on 20 July 1402
- Murdered on 17 February 1411. 
- Acquired the title of The Sultan of Rumelia for the European portion of the empire  on 18 February 1411, just after the death of Süleyman Çelebi.
- Killed on 5 July 1413 by Mehmed Çelebi’s forces in the battle of Çamurlu Derbent near Samokov in Bulgaria. 
- Acquired the control of the eastern part of the Anatolian territory as the Co-Sultan just after the defeat of the Battle of Ankara on 20 July 1402.
- Defeated İsa Çelebi in the battle of Ulubat in 1405.
- Became the sole ruler of the Anatolian territory of the Ottoman Empire upon İsa’s death in 1406.
- Acquired the title of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed I Khan upon Musa’s death on 5 July 1413.
- Son of Bayezid I and Devlet Hatun. 
- Reigned until his death. 
- Son of Bayezid I
- Executed by Murad II
- Son of Mehmed I and Emine Hatun 
- Abdicated of his own free will in favour of his son Mehmed II. 
- Son of Murad II and Hüma Hatun. 
- Surrendered the throne to his father after having asked him to return to power, along with rising threats from Janissaries. 
- Second reign
- Forced to return to the throne following a Janissary insurgence 
- Reigned until his death.
- Second reign in 1453
- Reigned until his death. 
- Son of Mehmed II and Gülbahar Sultan. 
- Died near Didymoteicho on 26 May 1512. 
- Son of Mehmed II
- Acquired the title Cem bin Mehmed Han. 
- Died in exile
- in 1516–1517.
- First Ottoman Caliph
- Son of Bayezid II and Gülbahar Hatun.
- Reigned until his death. 
- Son of Selim I and Hafsa Sultan
- Died of natural causes in his tent during the Siege of Szigetvár in 1566. 
Fatih Cyprus (The Conqueror of Cyprus) Sarhoş (The Drunk)
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An Ice Cream Truck Jingle's Racist History Has Caught Up To It
With the U.S. Capitol as a backdrop, tourists wait in line to get ice cream from a food truck on the National Mall in Washington.
Back in June, Good Humor ice cream's Instagram account made an unusual departure from the normal items about new frozen treats. Instead, viewers saw a post about the racist history of popular ice cream truck jingles. Notably, "Turkey in the Straw," a melody that — despite a long, racist past — has piped through the speakers of ice cream trucks and into American neighborhoods for decades.
And, Good Humor said, it wanted to do something about it.
That "something" has taken the form of a collaboration between Good Humor and Wu-Tang Clan's singer, musician and producer RZA to create a new jingle. The brand, owned by Unilever, made the announcement on Thursday that it's helping drivers learn about the racist roots of "Turkey in the Straw" and how to replace the music box in the truck that plays it.
Recall That Ice Cream Truck Song? We Have Unpleasant News For You
Good Humor hasn't actually operated any trucks since 1976, explains Russell Lilly, a senior director at the company, but wanted to be "part of the solution."
Code Switch dove into the song's racist history in a blog post by Theodore R. Johnson III back in 2014. As he explained, "Turkey in the Straw" is a 19th century folk song that riffs on an Irish fiddle song, "The (Old) Rose Tree." Depending on the version you listen to, the lyrics change a little bit every time, but are generally nonsensical.
But it wasn't until the advent of traveling minstrel shows that the melody really lodged itself into American pop culture — and the tune acquired racist lyrics. In the 1830s, the minstrel performer George Washington Dixon popularized a song called "Zip C**n," set to the familiar tune and referencing a blackface character who, as Johnson wrote, was "the city-slicker counterpart to the dimwitted, rural blackface character whose name became infamous in 20th century America: Jim Crow."
And as those lyrics make clear, it's a cruel caricature of a free Black man trying to join white society by "dressing in fine clothes and using big words," Johnson wrote. (We won't write out the exact lyrics you can find them for yourself here.)
In 1916, Columbia Records released an even more racist version, called "N*gger Love A Watermelon Ha! Ha! Ha!," written by vaudeville actor Harry C. Browne. You can listen to it here, if you must, but be warned — it uses the n-word a lot.)
America Reckons With Racial Injustice
Breaking Down The Legacy Of Race In Traditional Music In America
The "Zip C**n" version, as Johnson detailed in a follow-up piece, became a popular song in ice cream parlors in the 1890s. And as ice cream trucks became ubiquitous following World War II, the jingle followed along.
RZA's new jingle is a marked departure from the 19th-century fiddle song. There are no lyrics — instead, bells chime over trap-esque drum beats. Good Humor says it's available to drivers starting this month, so stay tuned: Your next ice cream sandwich might be accompanied by some unexpected RZA beats.
Though wooed by filmmakers and advertisers, York was eager to return home to Tennessee. Doing so, he married Gracie Williams that June. Over the next several years, the couple had 10 children, eight of whom survived infancy. A celebrity, York took part in several speaking tours and eagerly sought to improve educational opportunities for area children. This culminated with the opening of the Alvin C. York Agricultural Institute in 1926, which was taken over by the State of Tennessee in 1937.
Though York possessed some political ambitions, these largely proved fruitless. In 1941, York relented and allowed a film to be made of his life. As the conflict in Europe increased in intensity, what had first been planned as a movie about his work to educate children in Tennessee became an overt statement for intervention in World War II. Starring Gary Cooper, who would win his only Academy Award for his portrayal, Sergeant York proved a box office hit. Though he opposed the U.S. entry into World War II prior to Pearl Harbor, York worked to found the Tennessee State Guard in 1941, serving as colonel of the 7th Regiment and became a spokesperson for the Fight for Freedom Committee, counter to Charles Lindbergh's isolationist American First committee.
With the beginning of the war, he attempted to re-enlist but was turned away due to his age and weight. Unable to serve in combat, he instead played a role in war bond and inspection tours. In the years after the war, York was plagued by financial problems and was left incapacitated by a stroke in 1954. He died on September 2, 1964, after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage.