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1. June 6, 1914: A Pachyderm Party
Boston schoolchildren donated their pennies, nickels and dimes in 1914 to purchase three circus elephants for the city’s zoo, and Fenway Park was the venue for their coming-out party. A crowd small in stature, but not in size, turned out to welcome Mollie, Waddy and Tony. Police estimated that an overflow crowd of 60,000 shrieking kids and their parents turned out to attend the affair, which included clowns, acrobats, a marching band and even a Teddy Roosevelt impersonator clad in a safari outfit. The Boston Post reported it was the “greatest crowd in enclosure in America’s history,” and it still remains one of the biggest throngs ever to gather at Fenway Park.
2. June 29, 1919: Irish Eyes Are Smiling
Fenway’s emerald diamond morphed into a piece of the Auld Sod when a crowd of nearly 60,000 attended a rally for Irish independence headlined by Irish president Eamon de Valera. Scores of women fainted in the crush to get close to the dais decorated with flags of the United States and the Irish Republic. In a fiery speech, de Valera delivered an impassioned plea for Americans to support Ireland’s battle for independence from Great Britain. “If America fails the good people of small nations seeking to wrest themselves from tyranny and oppression, then, democracy dies or else goes mad,” he told the audience.
3. May 30, 1931: Yankees Call Fenway Home
It’s mind-blowing to think that, at least for one day, the New York Yankees called Fenway Park home. Red Sox fans can take consolation in the fact that those Yankees played soccer, not baseball. As 8,000 fans cheered, the Yankees of the American Soccer League defeated Scottish power Glasgow Celtic FC 4-3 behind three goals by Billy Gonsalves. Johnny Reder, the Yankees’ goalkeeper that day, would return to Fenway the following year to take the field as a Red Sox first baseman.
4. October 8, 1933: Hail to the Redskins
The National Football League made its Fenway debut before a crowd of 15,000 when the Boston Redskins defeated the New York Giants 21-20, the difference being a blocked extra point in the third quarter. The former Boston Braves had played at Braves Field for their inaugural 1932 season, but with a new home field came a new name. Team owner George Preston Marshall—frustrated by a lack of support from Boston fans—moved the Redskins to Washington after the 1936 season.
5. November 28, 1942: The Silver Lining
Undefeated and top-ranked Boston College was a huge favorite going into its gridiron tilt against Jesuit archrival Holy Cross. Boston College players were so confident that before kickoff they scheduled a victory party at a Boston nightclub called the Cocoanut Grove. Holy Cross, however, scored a stunning upset in a 55-12 rout before a sellout crowd of 41,300. The defeat turned out to be a monumental blessing for the despondent Eagles, who canceled their merrymaking plans. That night, the Cocoanut Grove was destroyed by an inferno that killed 492 people.
6. November 4, 1944: FDR’s Final Campaign Speech
It would be the final campaign rally of an incredible political career. Three days before his election to an unprecedented fourth term, President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered his last speech of the 1944 campaign at Fenway Park. Seated in an open automobile and bathed in floodlights, Roosevelt gave a rousing defense of his war record and the New Deal before a crowd of 40,000 and a nationwide radio audience. “Does the average American believe that those who fought tooth and nail against progressive legislation during the past 12 years can be trusted to cherish and preserve that legislation?” Roosevelt asked. Frank Sinatra sang the national anthem, and Orson Welles was among the entertainers warming up the crowd.
7. July 29, 1954: Outdoor Basketball
Hardball gave way to the hardwood when the Harlem Globetrotters came to Fenway Park as part of a basketball doubleheader. On a makeshift court over the infield, the Trotters showed off their usual comedic routines and ball-handling skills against a team of all-stars before a crowd of 13,344. The Harlem Globetrotters won—naturally—and would repeat the performance on return trips in 1955 and 1963.
8. June 28, 1969: Fenway Smackdown
A crowd of 17,000 passed through Fenway’s turnstiles to watch a professional wrestling card featuring stars such as George “The Animal” Steele, Lou Albano and “Slave Girl Moolah.” In the main event, Bruno Sammartino grappled with Killer Kowalski in a no-holds-barred, no-referee bout, much of which spilled onto the infield grass surrounding the ring. Despite a miraculous recovery by the villainous Kowalski after he rolled off a stretcher onto the field and had beer poured on him by raucous fans, Sammartino emerged victorious and held onto his championship belt.
15 Swinging Facts About Fenway Park
Boston's Fenway Park has been around officially since April 20, 1912, making it the oldest ballpark still standing in Major League Baseball. A lot of historical events—some of which are curious—have gone down over the last several decades at 4 Yawkey Way. Here are some facts about the home of the Green Monster, the Citgo Sign, and a Williamsburg you probably have never heard about.
1. IT MIGHT HAVE BEEN THE FIRST CORPORATELY NAMED STADIUM.
When Red Sox owner John I. Taylor, who also owned the new ballpark (which cost $650,000 to build), was asked why he chose Fenway Park for a name, he said, "Well, it's in the Fenway, isn't it?" Taylor wasn't wrong, but historians note that his family held "considerable stock" in the Fenway Realty Company at the time.
2. ITS OFFICIAL DEBUT WAS DELAYED MULTIPLE TIMES.
The first official baseball game at Fenway took place on April 9, 1912, when the Sox beat Harvard University 2-0. The first regular season game between two professional teams was scheduled for April 18, 1912, but was rained out. April 19 was a new day, but the same weather. So April 20, 1912 became known as the Fenway Park opener, a Red Sox victory over the New York Highlanders (they became the New York Yankees the following season), 7-6 in 11 innings. Most people didn't pay attention because of the unfolding tragedy of the Titanic sinking. The formal dedication ceremony for the ballpark was thus delayed until May 17, 1912.
3. ELEPHANTS TOOK OVER IN 1914.
The city zoo purchased three circus elephants named Mollie, Waddy, and Tony. Fenway Park held their coming out party, which was attended by 60,000 kids and their parents and included clowns, acrobats, a marching band, and a Teddy Roosevelt impersonator in safari gear. Two months later, the real Theodore Roosevelt showed up for the Progressive Field Day at Fenway Park but Roosevelt had been advised by his doctors not to give open air speeches, so after a quick meet and greet at Fenway, they went to nearby Boston Arena (now Matthews Arena) for the speech.
4. SUNDAY GAMES WERE BANNED UNTIL 1932.
Even though Massachusetts voters decided in 1928 to allow sports on the Lord's Day between 2 p.m. and 6 p.m., it was still illegal to play a professional game on Sundays within 1000 feet of a church, which Fenway was. As a result, the Red Sox played the first Boston Sunday game ever on April 28, 1929—at Braves Field, home of the then other professional Boston baseball team, the Boston Braves. Eventually, the church rule was lifted, so the Red Sox got to play a Sunday game at Fenway for the first time on July 3, 1932. The Yankees beat the hell out of them that day by a score of 13-2.
5. THE PARK ALMOST BURNED DOWN.
A fire on May 8, 1926 burned the bleachers along the left-field foul line down so severely that Fenway Park’s owners decided against replacing them. On January 5, 1934, a five-alarm, four-hour blaze almost completely destroyed the already-underway construction of new features to Fenway. Part of the estimated $220,000 worth of loss in the fire was the destruction of the 25-foot wall made of wood in left field. It was replaced with a 37-foot wall made of tin over wooden railroad ties. In 1947 it was painted green. In 1976, it was replaced with hard plastic.
6. A FAMILIAR FACE HIT THE FIRST HOME RUN HIT BY AN OPPOSING PLAYER OVER THE NEW LEFT FIELD WALL IN 1934.
The feat was accomplished by a former Red Sox player named Babe Ruth.
7. THERE IS MORSE CODE ON THE GREEN MONSTER.
The lines on the side of the scoreboard are the initials of Thomas A. Yawkey and Jean R. Yawkey, who owned the Red Sox from 1933 to 1992 (and whose trust would own the team until 2002).
8. THE BULLPENS WERE IN FAIR TERRITORY UNTIL 1940.
In 1940, the bullpens were moved to right field, behind a fence that was moved in 23 feet closer to home plate, helping lefty Ted Williams hit more home runs at home. It was known as "Williamsburg."
9. TED WILLIAMS SHOT PIGEONS THERE.
In May of 1957 Williams reportedly shot 30 to 40 pigeons from "Williamsburg," to the consternation of construction workers on duty during a Red Sox off-day. Apparently, shooting pigeons at Fenway was a tradition started by Hall of Fame pitcher Lefty Grove. Even after the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals talked to Williams, Fenway's pigeons still weren't safe during a 1974 game, Detroit Tiger Willie Horton hit a foul ball at Fenway that killed a low-flying pigeon.
10. WILLIAMS HIT THE LONGEST HOME RUN AT FENWAY EVER. IT LANDED ON SOMEONE'S HEAD.
Williams' home run on June 9, 1946 off the Tigers' Fred Hutchinson went 502 feet, landing in Section 42, Row 37, Seat 21. It hit a 56-year-old, straw hat-wearing construction worker named Joseph A. Boucher right in the head. "I didn't even get the ball," Boucher said later. "They say it bounced a dozen rows higher, but after it hit my head I was no longer interested. I couldn't see the ball. Nobody could. The sun was right in our eyes. All we could do was duck. I'm glad I didn't stand up."
11. IT WAS THE SITE OF THE LAST SPEECH OF FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT'S 1944 ELECTION CAMPAIGN.
Before 40,000 supporters and a nationwide radio audience, Roosevelt delivered his final campaign speech on November 4, 1944, three days before getting elected as POTUS for the fourth time. He was seated in an open automobile. Sinatra sang the national anthem, and Orson Welles was one of the warm-up acts.
12. THE HARLEM GLOBETROTTERS WON A GAME THERE.
In addition to hosting high school football, college football, professional football, soccer, professional hockey, boxing, and professional wrestling, the Harlem Globetrotters defeated the George Mikan United States All-Stars on July 29, 1954 by the score of 61-41, on a basketball court placed in the Fenway infield. The biggest cheer from the 13,344-person crowd, according to The Boston Globe, came when Goose Tatum punched the ball over the third base dugout into the grandstand.
13. THE CITGO SIGN HAS HAD A TUMULTUOUS HISTORY.
The 60' x 60' sign over 660 Beacon Street has been around since 1940, when it was a green and white Cities Service sign. In 1965, the company changed its brand to CITGO. Its lights were shut off during the oil crisis of 1973. After 1974, the electricity was only turned on from 8 p.m. to midnight. The Massachusetts energy office asked the owners to turn it off "as a symbol of the state's effort to reduce energy waste" in 1979, and they acquiesced for four years.
Thanks to a last-minute intervention by the Boston Landmarks Commission, the sign was saved and re-lit on August 10, 1983. During the 2004 season—which ended with the Red Sox's first championship since 1918—workers replaced the original neon lighting with 8000 feet of LEDs. In 2008, the sign caught fire, causing $5000 in damage. In 2010, the sign had to be renovated because the LED lights installed just six years earlier were no longer being produced. It was re-lit during a Red Sox game on September 17, 2010, during the seventh inning stretch.
Earlier this year, new concern for the sign's future arose when Boston University announced it was going to be selling several of the buildings in Kenmore Square, including the one on which the sign hangs. This has led to a push to finally designate the sign as a landmark to protect it for generations.
14. YOU CAN GET MARRIED THERE, BUT BEN AFFLECK MIGHT RUIN IT.
While The Knot calls the price range to tie the knot at the ballpark "affordable," some claim it can cost up to $25,000. One wedding took place during the filming of The Town (2010), which shot at the ballpark for 13 days. "So we were shooting with automatic weapons there and we fired off a full mag and, we didn’t know it, but there were some people getting married," Affleck recalled. "People were screaming! They thought they were under attack! I don’t know if we ruined a wedding or if it will end up a great story."
15. IT HAS HAD HISTORICALLY LOW AND HIGH ATTENDANCE.
On September 29, 1965, only 409 fans were in the building to watch the Red Sox face the California Angels. Winning can change things. All 820 games from May 15, 2003 through April 8, 2013 were sellouts (which broke the NBA's Portland Trail Blazers' record of 814 for most consecutive sellouts by a professional sports franchise).
100 Fenway Park Facts: 1-51
BOSTON (CBS) &ndash Fenway Park turns 100 on Friday, and the Red Sox have a big birthday bash planned for one of America&rsquos favorite ballpark.
To get you ready for the big day, we’re bringing you 100 interesting, stat-filled and a few downright crazy Fenway Facts. Here are the first 51!
1. Charles Logue Building Company broke ground on Fenway Park on Sept. 25, 1911 with James McLaughlin serving as chief architect and Osborn Engineering of Cleveland handling civil engineering.
2. It cost $650,000 to build in the park in 1912.
3. The park was named by then Red Sox owner John I. Taylor. He said, “It’s in the Fenway section of Boston, isn’t it? Then call it Fenway Park.”
4. Yawkey Way was originally named &ldquoJersey Street.&rdquo It was changed in the 1970&rsquos in honor of owner Tom Yawkey.
5. When first completed, Fenway sat 24,400 fans: 11,400 grandstand seats, 8,000 in pavilion seating and 5,000 in the bleachers.
6. When Fenway opened, there were no stands in right field. The area was used as a parking lot for players.
7. Fenway Park hosted its first professional baseball game on April 20, 1912, with the Red Sox beating the New York Highlanders 7-6 in 11 innings.
8. 27,000 fans attended the opener.
9. The opener was postponed twice due to rain.
10. JFK&rsquos grandfather, John F. Fitzgerald, threw out the first “first pitch.”
11. The first official game played in Fenway occurred on April 9, 1912 when the Sox beat Harvard University, 2-0.
12. In 1912, the team won a franchise-record 105 games and the World Series.
13. After the 1912 season, 5,000 stands were added on the third-base side, 4,500 in right field and 1,200 bleacher seats, increasing stadium capacity to about 38,600 (including standing room).
14. Some games were still played away from Fenway after it opened. Games Three and Four of the 1915 World Series against the Philadelphia Phillies were played at Braves Field to accommodate crowds of over 42,000.
15 . There were two fires at Fenway in the early years. One in 1926 burnt the left field bleachers to the ground, while another in 1934 that damaged the center field bleachers.
16. The team installed an all-electric scoreboard in 1934, the first to use red lights for strikes and green lights for balls.
17. Until 1933, there was a 10-foot incline in front of the then 25-foot wall in left field wall at Fenway Park, known as &ldquoDuffy&rsquos Cliff.&rdquo
18. It was named after outfielder Duffy Lewis, who mastered the 15-degree incline.
19. &ldquoDuffy&rsquos Cliff&rdquo served two purposes: It was a support for the wall in left, and was to compensate for the difference in grades between the field and Lansdowne Street.
20. Upper deck seats were not added to Fenway until 1946.
Not Just The Red Sox
21. Fenway Park hosted recreational league and high school baseball games until the 1950s.
22. The Boston Braves played the 1914 World Series and 1915 season at Fenway prior to Braves Field being completed.
23. Fenway has its first boxing show on October 9, 1920 featuring a bout against Battling McCreary and John Lester Johnson.
24. The AFL&rsquos Boston Bulldogs and Boston Patriots were among the many football teams to call Fenway Park home. The Patriots played at Fenway from 1963-1968. BC, BU and Dartmouth also played college games at Fenway.
25. On September 8, 1942, the Philadelphia Stars defeated the Baltimore Elite Giants, 8-7, in the first Negro League exhibition game at Fenway Park.
26. The first basketball game was played at Fenway on July 29, 1954 when the Harlem Globe Trotters beat the George Mikan All-Stars.
27. Since 1990 (except for in 2005), Fenway Park has hosted a baseball Beanpot Tournament each April.
28. The Boston Bruins beat the Philadelphia Flyers in the 2010 Winter Classic at Fenway Park. The park has since hosted college and high school games during the winter, coined Frozen Fenway.
29. Fenway has hosted 19 soccer matches, with the first played in 1931.
30. Fan tours of Fenway did not begin until 1993.
31. Current Seating Capacity: 37,493 at Night, 37,065 during the day.
32. Fenway currently has the fourth lowest maximum capacity in the majors.
33. Current dimensions: Left Field: 310 feet Left-Center Field: 379 feet Center Field: 390 feet Deep Center Field: 420 feet Deep Right Field: 380 feet Right Field : 302 feet
34. Fenway has the smallest foul territory in the majors.
35. The bullpens were originally in fair territory and were not moved to the outfield until 1940.
36. Light towers were not built in Fenway until 1947.
37. The message board was installed above the center field bleachers in 1976 and had a major effect on wind gusts.
38. The padding at the center field wall was not added until the mid-&lsquo70s.
39. The fence in right field is just three feet high, the lowest in the major leagues.
40. The center field wall is 17 feet tall.
41. The 600 Club, a glass-in seating area behind home plate, was added in 1988. It was renamed the .406 club in 2002 after the passing of Ted Williams (in honor of his .406 batting average in 1941) until the glass was removed in 2006 and the section was renamed the EMC Club.
42. The screen behind home plate, which protects fans from foul balls by allowing them to roll back into fair ground, was the first of its kind.
43. Fenway Park has seven retired Red Sox numbers: 1 for Bobby Doerr, 4 for Joe Cronin, 6 for Johnny Pesky, 8 for Carl Yastrzemski, 9 for Ted Williams, 14 for Jim Rice and 27 for Carlton Fisk.
44. Of those seven numbers, three were added in the year 2000 or later (Fisk, Pesky and Rice). That ended an 11-year stretch in which no Sox numbers were retired (though Jackie Robinson&rsquos No. 42 was retired by MLB in 1997).
45. The four retired numbers prior to 2000 were hung in order — 9-4-1-8 &ndash which incidentally spelled out the date one day prior to the Red Sox&rsquo final successful World Series appearance (Sept. 4, 1918) prior to their &rsquo04 victory.
46. On March 7, 2012, it was announced that the park had been added to the National Register of Historic Places.
47. Red Sox fans have sold out every Red Sox home game since May 15, 2003 in 2008, the park sold out its 456th consecutive Red Sox game, breaking a Major League Baseball record.
48. Fenway didn&rsquot always have great ticket sales though. In 1965, there were two games that had a paid attendance of under 500.
49. The Red Sox have the most expensive tickets in MLB at more than $53 for 2012. The average ticket price in 2012 around the league is roughly half that, at $26.92.
50. Fenway Park also leads the league in beer prices, at $7.25 a pop.
51. The Prudential Tower, Boston&rsquos second tallest building, prominently displayed &ldquoGo Sox&rdquo with its lights during the 2004 playoff run. The building can be seen from Fenway behind the right field bleachers.
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Fenway Park, baseball park in Boston that is home to the Red Sox, the city’s American League (AL) team. Opened in 1912, it is the oldest stadium in Major League Baseball and one of its most famous.
In 1911 Red Sox owner John I. Taylor was looking for locations to build a new ballpark, and later that year his father bought more than 365,000 square feet (33,900 square metres) of land in the Boston neighborhood of Fenway-Kenmore. In September work began on a stadium that Taylor called Fenway Park while he claimed the name was inspired by the location, some suggested it promoted his family’s company, Fenway Realty. The steel-and-concrete park was largely designed by James McLaughlin and cost some $650,000.
The first baseball game at the stadium was played on April 9, 1912, with the Red Sox defeating Harvard College in an exhibition match. The first professional game there was held on April 20, a 7–6 Red Sox victory over the New York Highlanders (later Yankees). (Navin Field [later Tiger Stadium] also officially opened that day in Detroit, but the ballpark closed in 1999 and was demolished in 2008–09.) At the time, however, Fenway was unfinished. Plans for a second deck had been scrapped, and much of the seating was not in place. Construction continued throughout the season, with right- and left-field bleachers being installed by the start of the World Series, which Boston won over the New York (later San Francisco) Giants.
In the ensuing years, Fenway underwent a number of changes. A fire in 1926 destroyed the left-field bleachers, but new team owner Bob Quinn opted not to replace them, instead leaving just the back wall, which had been built with the original stadium, designed to prevent non-paying spectators from watching the game. After buying the Red Sox in 1933, Tom Yawkey initiated a major revitalization project that—despite another damaging fire—was completed before opening day in April 1934. Notable changes included a new, massive left-field wall that was 37 feet (11 metres) high. In 1946 an upper deck was finally added to Fenway, and the following year lights were installed, thus allowing for night games. Also in 1947 the left-field wall was painted green, and it eventually became one of the park’s most iconic features, known as the “Green Monster.” After a change of ownership in 2002, a 10-year renovation project was undertaken that cost an estimated $285 million and impacted nearly every part of the park the upgrades included the addition of seating on top of the “Green Monster.” The area around Fenway also underwent various developments, especially in the early 21st century, when residential properties, hotels, and restaurants were built.
In 1944, President Roosevelt gave the last speech of his presidency in front of a 40,000-visitor crowd at Fenway Park.
The Red Sox held their first night game at Fenway Park on June 13, 1947, according to Fenway Fanatics. They were victorious on this night, defeating the Chicago White Sox 1-0.
It was also 1947 when Yawkey would paint the new wall, which had been extended from 25 to 27 feet in 1934, its’ trademark shade of green. Before getting its first green coat of paint, “The Green Monster”, as its known today, had been a display for advertisements.
Also added to the stadium that year were lights as the Red Sox became the third-to-last team to play night games.
Historical Events on May 8
Medieval painting from 1353 showing the citizens of Tournai (today in Belgium) burying victims of the Black Death
- Treaty of Brétigny signed by English & French, ending the first phase of the Hundred Years' War Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen revolt against King Henry VI
The Protestant Reformation
1521 Parliament of Worms installs edict against Martin Luther
1517 copy of Martin Luther's 95 theses, the publication of which began the Protestant Reformation in Europe
Hernando de Soto's Expedition lands in Florida
1541 Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto and his expedition discover the Mississippi River
Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto lands on the coast of Florida, somewhere between present-day Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor
Treaty of Interest
1624 Hungarian King Bethlen Gabor & Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II sign Treaty of Vienna
Event of Interest
1660 English parliament declares Charles Stuart to be King Charles II of England
- Michelangiolo dei Conti succeeds Pope Clement XI, as Innocent XIII France & Bavaria sign Covenant of Nymphenburg Only known deaths by hailstones in US (Winnsborough, South Carolina)
1835 1st installment of Hans Christian Andersen "Fairy Tales" published by C. A. Reitzel in Copenhagen, Denmark
- Alexander Wolcott patents Photographic Process Versailles to Paris train catches fire 50 die 1st major battle of Mexican War fought at Palo Alto, Texas Scot Robert Thompson patents rubber tyre Second London protocol signed reaffirming Danish federation control of independent Duchies of Holstein, Lauenburg and Schleswig
Conference of Interest
1858 John Brown holds antislavery convention
- Richmond, Virginia, is named the capital of the Confederacy Valley Campaign: Federals repulsed at Battle of McDowell, Virginia Confederación Granadina becomes Estados Unidos de Colombia Actions at Stony Creek/Nottoway bridge, Virginia (Drewry's Bluff) Atlanta Campaign: Severe fighting near Dalton Battle of Spotsylvania Court House begins British-US treaty ends Alabama dispute
Event of Interest
1878 David Edward Hughes' paper on the idea for a microphone is read before the Royal Society of London by Thomas Henry Huxley
Contract of Interest
1881 Henry Morton Stanley signs the first of many contracts with the Congolian monarch
- David Belasco's "La Belle Russe" premieres in NYC Sarah Ann Henley survives 76-m jump from Clifton Bridge in Bristol, England Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta sells the first Coca-Cola (contained cocaine) China cedes Taiwan to Japan under Treaty of Shimonoseki Yorkshire Cricket all out for 887 against Warwickshire 22nd Preakness: T Thorpe aboard Paul Kauvar wins in 1:51¼ The first games of the Italian Football League are played The Irish Literary Theatre in Dublin opens
1899 Ernest Rutherford publishes his discovery of two different kinds of radiation (Alpha and Beta Particles)
- John McGraw & Wilbert Robinson sign with Cardinals In their long-delayed AL home opener, Boston defeats Philadelphia 12-4 A British appointed commission estimates today that some 1,250,000 Indians have died after a severe drought, lasting since 1899 Mount Pelée on the French overseas island of Martinique erupts, wiping out the city of Saint-Pierre, killing 30,000 and leaving only two survivors Union of Unions organizes In Russia under the chairmanship of Paul Miliukov and joins liberal groups demanding parliamentary government and universal suffrage Philadelphia A's pitcher Chief Benders plays outfield & hits 2 HRs
Boxing Title Fight
1907 Canadian Tommy Burns retains his world heavyweight boxing title after beating "Philadelphia" Jack O'Brien on points in 20 rounds in Los Angeles, California
- American Albert Raines runs world record marathon (2:46:04.6) in NYC British runner Henry Barrett runs world record marathon (2:42:31) in the Polytechnic Marathon in London Film and television production and distribution studio Paramount Pictures is founded 41st Kentucky Derby: Joe Notter aboard Regret wins in 2:05.4 German munitions bunker in Fort Douaumont explodes killing 679 German soldiers Irishmen Eamon Kent, Michael Mallin, Con Colbert and Sean Houston are executed by British authorities following the Easter Rising at Kilmainham Gaol, Dublin 1st transatlantic flight take-off by a navy seaplane Appingedam soccer team forms
End of World War I
1919 Edward George Honey first proposes the idea of a moment of silence to commemorate The Armistice of World War I, leads to the creation of Remembrance Day
- 46th Kentucky Derby: Ted Rice aboard Paul Jones wins by a head from Upset in 2:09 Sweden abolishes capital punishment Hobbs scores his 100th 100, 116* v Somerset at Bath
Event of Interest
- Memel territories given to Lithuania Workers at Werkspoor in Amsterdam strike against 3rd wage cut 50th Preakness: Clarence Kummer aboard Coventry wins in 1:59 French colonial army beats Rifkabylen in Morocco A Philip Randolph organizes Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
Event of Interest
1929 NY Giants pitcher Carl Hubbell no-hits Pittsburgh Pirates, 11-0 at the Polo Grounds, NYC
Contract of Interest
1929 Soviet government contract Albert Kahn Associates architectural firm to design the USSR's 1st tractor plant
Event of Interest
1933 Mahatma Gandhi begins a 21-day fast in protest against British oppression in India
- Cincinnati Red Ernie Lombardi doubles in 6th, 7th, 8th & 9th beat Phils 15-4 Jockey Ralph Neves unexpectedly revived after being declared dead after a fall. His wife faints when he returned to track 63rd Kentucky Derby: Charley Kurtsinger on War Admiral wins 2:03.2 Stravinsky's "Dumbarton Oaks" premieres in Washington, D.C. German Q-ship Pinguin sinks in Indian Ocean Aircraft carrier USS Lexington sunk by Japanese air attack in Coral Sea German summer offensive opens in Crimea 1st twilight game in 24 years, the Dodgers top Giants 7-6 raising $60,000 for Navy Relief Fund 68th Preakness: Johnny Longden aboard Count Fleet wins in 1:57.4 Admiral Cunningham of British fleet: "Sink, burn & destroy let nothing pass" 33 communist resistance fighter sentenced to death Canadian troops move into Amsterdam Chinese counter attack at Tsjangte, supports by 14th air fleet
Nazi Germany Surrenders
1945 German General Wilhelm Keitel formally surrenders to the Allies represented by the United States, the UK, France and the Soviet Union in Berlin
German commander Wilhelm Keitel signs the final unconditional surrender of Germany in the ruins of Berlin
- V-E Day: World War II ends in Europe after Germany signs an unconditional surrender Red Sox Johnny Pesky scores 6 runs in 1 game Estonian school girls Aili Jõgi and Ageeda Paavel blow up the Soviet memorial that preceded the Bronze Soldier in Tallinn
Event of Interest
1947 A movement among Card players to protest its 1st meeting with Jackie Robinson & the Dodgers is aborted by a talk from owner Sam Breadon
Event of Interest
1947 Polish resistance fighter Witold Pilecki, who had volunteered to be imprisoned in Auschwitz to gain information about the Holocaust, is arrested by Polish communist police
Event of Interest
- Dacron men's suits introduced US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Enwetak "Of Thee I Sing" opens at Ziegfeld Theater NYC for 72 performances "Shuffle Along" opens at Broadway Theater NYC for 4 performances 5th British Film and Television Awards (BAFTAS): "La Ronde" Best Film WIPB TV channel 49 in Muncie, IN (PBS) begins broadcasting 1st shot-put over 60' (18.29 m)-Parry O'Brien, Los Angeles, CA John Osborne's "Look Back in Anger" premieres in London
Event of Interest
1957 South Vietnamese President, Ngô Đình Diệm, arrives in the United States on a state visit
Little Rock Crisis
1958 US President Eisenhower orders National Guard out of Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas
Event of Interest
1958 US VP Richard Nixon is shoved, stoned, booed and spat upon by protesters in Peru
1958 "Dracula" film starring Christopher Lee as the eponymous vampire, directed by Terence Fisher is the first Hammer Horror film released
Facts and Figures
Seating Capacity (Night): 37,755
Seating Capacity (Day): 37,305
Dell Technologies and State Street Levels: 5,440
Box Seats: 13,778
Green Monster: 269
Right Field Sam Deck: 202
Left Field: 310 feet
Left-Center Field: 379 feet
Center Field: 390 feet
Deep Center Field: 420 feet
Deep Right Field: 380 feet
Right Field : 302 feet
HEIGHT OF OUTFIELD WALLS
Left Field: 37 feet
Center Field: 17 feet
Bullpens: 5 feet
Right Field: 3-5 feet
LENGTH OF LEFT FIELD WALL
231 feet (228 feet in fair territory)
The new ballpark was constructed for the 1912 season and was named by then Red Sox owner John I. Taylor. He said, "It&aposs in the Fenway section of Boston, isn&apost it? Then call it Fenway Park." It was also Taylor who changed the club&aposs name from Americans to Red Sox prior to the 1908 season.
More Fenway Park Facts
In 1914, the "Miracle Boston Braves" played the latter part of their season, including the 1914 World Series sweep over the Philadelphia Athletics, ,and the first part of the 1915 season at Fenway Park while Braves Field was under construction. The Braves also visited Fenway Park regularly to play preseason exhibition games against the Red Sox until they moved to Milwaukee before the 1953 season.
Starting in its very first year, Fenway Park hosted recreational league and high school baseball games until the 1950s. Some of the games included state and regional tournaments, college all-stars, park league games, teams from local newspapers and many others.
On September 8, 1942, the Philadelphia Stars defeated the Baltimore Elite Giants, 8-7, in the first Negro League exhibition game at Fenway Park. In 1942, Quincy&aposs Fore River Shipyard played a series of four games against a succession of Negro League teams: the New York Black Yankees, New York Cuban Stars, Kansas City Monarchs and the Birmingham Black Barons.
From 1975 to 1987, on a biennial basis, Fenway Park hosted an all-star game between the Cape Cod Baseball League and the Atlantic Collegiate Baseball League. The all-star game alternated between Fenway Park and sites closer to the ACL&aposs teams, such as Yankee Stadium and Veterans Stadium. In 1988, the Cape Cod Baseball League went back to an intra-league format for their all-star game and in 2009, the Cape Cod League All-Stars returned to Fenway park for the Cape Cod League All-Star Game, which was played again in 2010.
Since 1990, the Red Sox have hosted a four-college Beanpot Tournament each April. Boston College, Harvard, Northeastern and Boston University competed the first six years. When BU dropped baseball, UMass replaced the Terriers in 1996. On April 22, 1997, UMass pitcher Scott Barnsby no-hit Northeastern in the semifinals, 1-0. It was the first no-hitter at Fenway since Dave Morehead&aposs in 1965.
Things to do in the Fenway neighborhood
1. Fenway Park
Seeing a game at Fenway Park has been a rite of passage among most locals since it opened in 1912. The catch? As the oldest ballpark in the majors, it&rsquos one the smallest, with a capacity of around 38,000, meaning tickets can be hard to come by for most games. (A smattering of big-name concerts and other sporting events provide additional access to the venue.) Fortunately, public tours are offered year-round, wowing even non-baseball types by detailing the park&rsquos colorful history and intricate details. If you get the chance, take a seat atop the stadium&rsquos most distinctive feature, the 37-foot-high left-field wall known as the Green Monster.
2. Cask ’n Flagon
A legendary Fenway hangout, the Cask is housed on a busy corner in the shadow of the Green Monster. Multi-generational groups of Sox fans pack the sprawling interior alongside fair-weather college kids and eager out-of-towners. Upscale bar snacks share table space with classic fried treats, and a lengthy beer list ensures there&rsquos something for every taste. During the warmer-weather months, the sidewalk patio is a must for people-watching before or after a game.
3. House of Blues
The House of Blues is one of New England's busiest and most popular music clubs you can &rsquo t beat the big name acts that parade through the cavernous expanses. Veteran concertgoers know not to get stuck too many rows back in the balcony, while also being wary of busy Landsdowne Street when the Sox are in town.
4. Back Bay Fens
This pretty park is a reminder of the very thing that gave the Fenway its name: wetlands. It&rsquos hard to believe that this was once tidal saltwater marshland connected to the Atlantic Ocean. But, as part of the massive landfill operation that created the Back Bay, it was cut off from the sea. As part of the Emerald Necklace development, Frederick Law Olmsted created a fresh water lagoon amongst the park&rsquos shrubbery and trees. The Fens actually houses many interesting memorials, several sports fields, and space to wander and feel free of urban cares. Highlights include the Kelleher Rose Garden, where spring blooms bring color and fragrance, the Westland Gate, Duck House, Fire Alarm Office, and Japanese Temple Bell.
5. Bleacher Bar
A tour of Fenway Park isn &rsquo t complete without a stop at Bleacher Bar. Featuring a full-on view from underneath the field, this annex of the oldest ballpark in the country offers an unparalleled environment for die-hard sports fans. Beer is the order of the day here &mdash there &rsquos an extensive menu of bottles and drafts. A varied menu of accessible bar snacks helps to fuel the crowds.
6. Citizen Public House & Oyster Bar
One of the classier joints near Fenway Park, Citizen Public House offers a strong bar program whose main draw is 100+ whiskeys. (Try them all and you&rsquoll get your own bottle of single barrel bourbon and an engraved whiskey glass.) If you're looking to consume some solids, the eponymous oyster bar is a great option, with local options including Wellfleets and Island Creeks shucked to order. Pop in on weekends to brunch on huevos rancheros or buttermilk ricotta pancakes.
7. Audubon Boston
Compared to the busy, sporty bars near Fenway Park, this great neighborhood spot &mdash brought to you by the owners of Somerville gem Trina&rsquos Starlite Lounge &mdash provides a sleek, adult alternative. The curated beer list includes highbrow and lowbrow choices, and the creative cocktails feature house-made syrups and unlikely combinations. There&rsquos also an inventive food menu, served from lunchtime until late. During the summer, head out back for one of the best (and semi-secret) patios in the city.
In 1911, while the Red Sox were still playing on the old Huntington Avenue Grounds, owner John I. Taylor purchased the land bordered by Brookline Avenue, Jersey Street, Van Ness Street and Lansdowne Street and developed it into a larger baseball stadium, Fenway Park. 
Taylor claimed the name Fenway Park came from its location in the Fenway neighborhood of Boston, which was partially created late in the nineteenth century by filling in marshland or "fens",  to create the Back Bay Fens urban park. However, given that Taylor's family also owned the Fenway Realty Company, the promotional value of the naming at the time has been cited as well.  Like many classic ballparks, Fenway Park was constructed on an asymmetrical block, with consequent asymmetry in its field dimensions.  The park was designed by architect James E. McLaughlin, and the General Contractor was the Charles Logue Building Company. 
The first game was played April 20, 1912, with mayor John F. Fitzgerald throwing out the first pitch and Boston defeating the New York Highlanders, 7–6 in 11 innings. Newspaper coverage of the opening was overshadowed by continuing coverage of the Titanic sinking a few days earlier. 
In June 1919 a rally supporting Irish Independence turned out nearly 50,000 supporters to see the President of the Irish Republic, Éamon de Valera, and it was allegedly the largest crowd ever in the ballpark. 
Fenway Park had historically drawn low attendance, its lowest occurring late in the 1965 season with two games having paid attendance under 500 spectators.  Its attendance has risen since the Red Sox' 1967 "Impossible Dream" season, and on September 8, 2008, with a game versus the Tampa Bay Rays, Fenway Park broke the all-time Major League record for consecutive sellouts with 456, surpassing the record previously held by Jacobs Field in Cleveland.  On Wednesday, June 17, 2009, the park celebrated its 500th consecutive Red Sox sellout. According to WBZ-TV, the team joined three NBA teams which achieved 500 consecutive home sellouts.  The sellout streak ended on April 11, 2013 in all the Red Sox sold out 794 regular season games and an additional 26 postseason games during this streak. 
The park's address was originally 24 Jersey Street. In 1977, the section of Jersey Street nearest the park was renamed Yawkey Way in honor of longtime Red Sox owner Tom Yawkey, and the park's address was 4 Yawkey Way until 2018, when the street's name was reverted to Jersey Street. The address is now 4 Jersey Street. 
Changes to Fenway Park Edit
Some of the changes include: 
- In 1934, a hand-operated scoreboard was added, with (what was then considered cutting-edge technology) lights to indicate balls and strikes.  The scoreboard is still updated by hand today from behind the wall. The National League scores were removed in 1976, but restored in 2003 and still require manual updates from on the field. 
- In 1946, upper deck seats were installed  Fenway Park is essentially the first double-tiered ballpark in Boston since the South End Grounds of the 1880s.
- In 1947, arc lights were installed at Fenway Park.  The Boston Red Sox were the third-to-last team out of 16 major league teams to have lights in their home park.
- In 1976, metric distances were added to the conventionally stated distances because it was thought at the time that the United States would adopt the metric system. As of 2019, only Miami's Marlins Park and Toronto's Rogers Centre list metric distances. Fenway Park retained the metric measurements until mid-season 2002, when they were painted over.  Also, Fenway's first electronic message board was added over the center field bleachers.
- In 1988, a glass-protected seating area behind home plate named The 600 Club was built. After Ted Williams' death in 2002, it was renamed the .406 Club in honor of his 1941 season in which he produced a .406 batting average. The section was renamed again in 2006 to the EMC Club. 
- In 1993 the public restrooms were renovated and the original trough urinals were removed from the men’s rooms.
- In 1999 the auxiliary press boxes were added on top of the roof boxes along the first and third base sides of the field. 
- In 2000, a new video display from Daktronics, measuring 23 feet (7.0 m) high by 30 feet (9.1 m) wide, was added in center field.
- Before the 2003 season, seats were added to the Green Monster. 
- Before the 2004 season, seats were added to the right field roof, above the grandstand, called the Budweiser Right Field Roof. In December 2017 Samuel Adams renamed the deck the "Sam Deck." 
- Before the 2008 season, the Coke bottles, installed in 1997, were removed to return the light towers to their original state.  The temporary luxury boxes installed for the 1999 All-Star Game were removed and permanent ones were added to the State Street Pavilion level. Seats were also added down the left field line called the Coca-Cola Party-Deck. 
- Before the 2011 season, three new scoreboards beyond right-center field were installed: a 38 ft × 100 ft (12 m × 30 m) scoreboard in right-center field, a 17 ft × 100 ft (5.2 m × 30.5 m) video screen in center field, a 16 ft × 30 ft (4.9 m × 9.1 m) video board in right field,  along with a new video control room. The Gate D concourse has undergone a complete remodel with new concession stands and improved pedestrian flow. The wooden grandstand seats were all removed to allow the completion of the waterproofing of the seating bowl and completely refurbished upon re-installation.
New Fenway Park Edit
On May 15, 1999, then Red Sox CEO John Harrington announced plans for a new Fenway Park to be built near the existing structure.  It was to have seated 44,130 and would have been a modernized replica of the current Fenway Park, with the same field dimensions except for a shorter right field and reduced foul territory. Some sections of the existing ballpark were to be preserved (mainly the original Green Monster and the third base side of the park) as part of the overall new layout. Most of the current stadium was to be demolished to make room for new development, with one section remaining to house a baseball museum and public park.  The proposal was highly controversial it projected that the park had less than 15 years of usable life, would require hundreds of millions of dollars of public investment, and was later revealed to be part of a scheme by current ownership to increase the marketable value of the team as they were ready to sell.  Several groups (such as "Save Fenway Park") formed in an attempt to block the move.  Discussion took place for several years regarding the new stadium proposal. One plan involved building a "Sports Megaplex" in South Boston, where a new Fenway would be located next to a new stadium for the New England Patriots. The Patriots ultimately built Gillette Stadium in Foxborough, their home throughout most of their history, which ended the Megaplex proposal. The Red Sox and the city of Boston failed to reach an agreement on building the new stadium, and in 2005, the Red Sox ownership group announced that the team would stay at Fenway Park indefinitely. The stadium has since been renovated, and will remain usable until as late as 2062. 
|Year(s)||Seating Capacity||Year(s)||Seating Capacity|
|Unless noted otherwise, all capacity figures are from Green Cathedrals: The Ultimate Celebrations of All 273 Major League and Negro League Ballparks Past and Present by Philip Lowry |
The park is located along Lansdowne Street and Jersey Street in the Kenmore Square area of Boston. The area includes many buildings of similar height and architecture and thus it blends in with its surroundings. When pitcher Roger Clemens arrived in Boston for the first time in 1984, he took a taxi from Logan Airport and was sure the driver had misunderstood his directions when he announced their arrival at the park. Clemens recalled telling the driver "No, Fenway Park, it's a baseball stadium . this is a warehouse." Only when the driver told Clemens to look up and he saw the light towers did he realize he was in the right place. 
Fenway Park is one of the two remaining jewel box ballparks still in use in Major League Baseball (the other being Wrigley Field), and both have a significant number of obstructed view seats, due to pillars supporting the upper deck. These are sold as such, and are a reminder of the architectural limitations of older ballparks. 
George Will asserts in his book Men at Work that Fenway Park is a "hitters' ballpark", with its short right-field fence (302 feet), narrow foul ground (the smallest of any current major league park), and generally closer-than-normal outfield fences. By Rule 1.04, Note(a),  all parks built after 1958 have been required to have foul lines at least 325 feet (99 m) long and a center-field fence at least 400 feet (120 m) from home plate. (This rule had the unintended consequence of leading to the "Cookie-Cutter Stadium" era, which ended when Camden Yards opened in 1993.) Regarding the narrow foul territory, Will writes:
The narrow foul territory in Fenway Park probably adds 5 to 7 points onto batting averages. Since World War II, the Red Sox have had 18 batting champions (through 1989). Five to 7 points are a lot, given that there may be only a 15- or 20-point spread between a good hitting team and a poor hitting team.  : p. 175
Will states that some observers might feel that these unique aspects of Fenway give the Red Sox an advantage over their opponents, given that the Red Sox hitters play 81 games at the home stadium while each opponent plays no more than nine games as visiting teams but Will does not share this view.  : p. 177
Fenway Park's bullpen wall is much lower than most other outfield walls outfielders are known to end up flying over this wall when chasing balls hit that direction, such as with Torii Hunter when chasing a David Ortiz game-tying grand slam that direction in Game 2 of the 2013 ALCS.
The Green Monster Edit
The Green Monster is the nickname of the 37.167 feet (11.329 m)  left field wall in the park. It is located 310 to 315 feet (94 to 96 m) from home plate this short distance often benefits right-handed hitters. 
Part of the original ballpark construction of 1912, the wall is made of wood, but was covered in tin and concrete in 1934 when the scoreboard was added. The wall was covered in hard plastic in 1976. The scoreboard is manually updated throughout the game. The inside walls of the Green Monster are covered with players signatures from over the years. Despite the name, the Green Monster was not painted green until 1947 before that it was covered with advertisements. The Monster designation is relatively new for most of its history it was simply called "the wall."  In 2003, terrace-style seating was added on top of the wall. 
"The Triangle" Edit
"The Triangle" is a region of center field where the walls form a triangle whose far corner is 420 feet (130 m) from home plate. That deep right-center point is conventionally given as the center field distance. The true center is unmarked, 390 feet (120 m) from home plate, to the left of "The Triangle" when viewed from home plate. 
There was once a smaller "triangle" at the left end of the bleachers in center field, posted as 388 feet (118 m). The end of the bleachers form a right angle with the Green Monster and the flagpole stands within that little triangle. That is not the true power alley, but deep left-center. The true power alley distance is not posted. The foul line intersects with the Green Monster at nearly a right angle, so the power alley could be estimated at 336 feet (102 m), assuming the power alley is 22.5° away from the foul line as measured from home plate. 
"Williamsburg" was the name, invented by sportswriters, for the bullpen area built in front of the right-center field bleachers in 1940. It was built there primarily for the benefit of Ted Williams, to enable him and other left-handed batters to hit more home runs, since it was 23 feet (7.0 m) closer than the bleacher wall. 
The Lone Red Seat Edit
The lone red seat in the right field bleachers (Section 42, Row 37, Seat 21) signifies the longest home run ever hit at Fenway. The home run, hit by Ted Williams on June 9, 1946,  was officially measured at 502 feet (153 m) – well beyond "Williamsburg". According to Hit Tracker Online, the ball, if unobstructed, would have flown 520 to 535 feet (158 to 163 m). 
The ball landed on Joseph A. Boucher, penetrating his large straw hat and hitting him in the head. A confounded Boucher was later quoted as saying,
How far away must one sit to be safe in this park? I didn't even get the ball. They say it bounced a dozen rows higher, but after it hit my head, I was no longer interested. I couldn't see the ball. Nobody could. The sun was right in our eyes. All we could do was duck. I'm glad I did not stand up. 
There have been other home runs hit at Fenway that have contended for the distance title. In the 2007 book The Year Babe Ruth Hit 104 Home Runs, researcher Bill Jenkinson found evidence that on May 25, 1926, Babe Ruth hit one in the pre-1934 bleacher configuration which landed five rows from the top in right field. This would have placed it at an estimated 545 feet (166 m) from home plate.  On June 23, 2001, Manny Ramirez hit one that struck a light tower above the Green Monster, which would have cleared the park had it missed. The park's official estimate placed the home run one foot short of Williams' record at 501 feet (152.7 m).  An April 2019 home run by Rowdy Tellez of the Toronto Blue Jays was initially reported as 505 feet (154 m), but later found to be significantly shorter, approximately 433 feet (132 m). 
Foul poles Edit
Pesky's Pole is the name for the pole on the right field foul line, which stands 302 feet (92 m) from home plate,  the shortest outfield distance (left or right field) in Major League Baseball.  Like the measurement of the left-field line at Fenway Park, this has been disputed. Aerial shots show it to be noticeably shorter  than the (actual) 302 foot line in right field, and Pesky has been quoted as estimating it to be "around 295 feet".
Despite the short wall, home runs in this area are relatively rare, as the fence curves away from the foul pole sharply. The pole was named after Johnny Pesky, a light-hitting shortstop and long-time coach for the Red Sox, who hit some of his six home runs at Fenway Park around the pole but never off the pole. Pesky (playing 1942 to 1952, except for 1943 to 1945) was a contact hitter who hit just 17 home runs in his career (6 at Fenway Park).  It's not known how many of these six actually landed near the pole. The Red Sox give credit to pitcher and Sox broadcaster Mel Parnell for coining the name. The most notable for Pesky is a two-run homer in the eighth inning of the 1946 Opening Day game to win the game. According to Pesky, Mel Parnell named the pole after Pesky won a game for Parnell in 1948 with a home run down the short right field line, just around the pole. However, Pesky hit just one home run in a game pitched by Parnell, a two-run shot in the first inning of a game against Detroit played on June 11, 1950. The game was eventually won by the visiting Tigers in the 14th inning on a three-run shot by Tigers right fielder Vic Wertz and Parnell earned a no-decision that day. 
The term, though it had been in use since the 1950s, became far more common when Parnell became a Red Sox broadcaster in 1965. Mark Bellhorn hit what proved to be the game-winning home run off of Julián Tavárez, in Game 1 of the 2004 World Series off that pole's screen.
On September 27, 2006, on Pesky's 87th birthday, the Red Sox organization officially dedicated the right field foul pole as Pesky's Pole with a commemorative plaque placed at its base. 
The seat directly on the foul side of Pesky's Pole in the front row is Section 94, Row E, Seat 5 and is usually sold as a lone ticket.
In a ceremony before the Red Sox' 2005 game against the Cincinnati Reds, the pole on the left field foul line atop the Green Monster was named the Fisk Foul Pole, or Pudge's Pole, in honor of Carlton Fisk.  Fisk provided one of baseball's most enduring moments in Game 6 of the 1975 World Series against the Reds. Facing Reds right-hander Pat Darcy in the 12th inning with the score tied at 6, Fisk hit a long fly ball down the left field line. It appeared to be heading foul, but Fisk, after initially appearing unsure of whether or not to continue running to first base, famously jumped and waved his arms to the right as if to somehow direct the ball fair. It ricocheted off the foul pole, winning the game for the Red Sox and sending the series to a seventh and deciding game the next night, which Cincinnati won. Like Johnny Pesky's No. 6, Carlton had his No. 27 player number retired by the team.
"Duffy's Cliff" Edit
From 1912 to 1933, there was a 10-foot (3.0 m) high incline in front of the then 25-foot (7.6 m)-high left field wall at Fenway Park, extending from the left-field foul pole to the center field flag pole (and thus under "The Triangle" of today). As a result, a left fielder had to play part of the territory running uphill (and back down). Boston's first star left fielder, Duffy Lewis, mastered the skill so well that the area became known as "Duffy's Cliff". 
The incline served two purposes: it was a support for a high wall and it was built to compensate for the difference in grades between the field and Lansdowne Street on the other side of that wall. The wall also served as a spectator-friendly seating area during the dead ball era when overflow crowds, in front of the later Green Monster, would sit on the incline behind ropes. 
As part of the 1934 remodeling of the ballpark, the bleachers, and the wall itself, Red Sox owner Tom Yawkey arranged to flatten the ground along the base of the wall, so that Duffy's Cliff no longer existed. The base of the left field wall is several feet below the grade level of Lansdowne Street, accounting for the occasional rat that might spook the scoreboard operators. 
There has been debate as to the true left field distance, which was once posted as 315 feet (96 m). A reporter from The Boston Globe was able to sneak into Fenway Park and measure the distance. When the paper's evidence was presented to the club in 1995, the distance was remeasured by the Red Sox and restated at 310 feet (94 m).  The companion 96-metre (315 ft) sign remained unchanged until 1998, when it was corrected to 94.5 metres (310 ft). 
Dell EMC Club Edit
In 1983, private suites were added to the roof behind home plate. In 1988, 610 stadium club seats enclosed in glass and named the "600 Club", were added above the home plate grandstand replacing the existing press box. The press box was then added to the top of the 600 Club.  The 1988 addition has been thought to have changed the air currents in the park to the detriment of hitters.  In 2002, the organization renamed the club seats the ".406 Club" (in honor of Ted Williams' batting average in 1941). 
Between the 2005 and 2006 seasons the existing .406 club was rebuilt as part of the continuing ballpark expansion efforts. The second deck now features two open-air levels: the bottom level is the new "Dell EMC Club" featuring 406 seats and concierge services and the upper level, the State Street Pavilion, has 374 seats and a dedicated standing room area. The added seats are wider than the previous seats. 
Program hawkers Edit
In 1990, Mike Rutstein started handing out the first issue of Boston Baseball Magazine (originally called Baseball Underground) outside of the park.  He was frustrated with the quality of the program being sold inside the park, which also came out once every two months.  The program was sold for $1, half the cost of the programs inside the park. To sell the program, Rutstein's employees would stand outside the park wearing bright red shirts and greet fans by holding a program up and shouting "Program, Scorecard, One Dollar!".  By 1992, the Red Sox organization filed complaints with the city code enforcement arguing that the scorecard inside the magazine was not covered under the First Amendment protecting magazines and that Rutstein's employees were operating on the streets without a permit.  Despite a lot of attention in the news, Rutstein said the charges were not pursued and no further legal action was taken.  In 2012, one of Rutstein's long time employees Sly Egidio  quit Boston Baseball to start "The Yawkey Way Report" named after Yawkey Way. By that time, Boston Baseball was selling for $3 per program, $2 cheaper than the in-park programs selling for $5. The Yawkey Way Report cost $1 and Egidio stationed his hawkers close to Boston Baseball's hawkers, starting a "hawker war."  The Yawkey Way Report also came with baseball cards, ponchos and tote bags, which caused Rutstein to file his own complaints with Boston city code enforcement. Despite the rivalry, both programs continue to be hawked outside of Fenway Park and are often the first thing fans see when they approach the stadium on game-day.
The Red Sox' one-time cross-town rivals, the Boston Braves, used Fenway Park for the 1914 World Series and the 1915 season until Braves Field was completed ironically, the Red Sox would then use Braves Field – which had a much higher seating capacity – for their own World Series games in 1915 and 1916. 
Neil Diamond's "Sweet Caroline" has been played at Fenway Park since at least 1997,  and in the middle of the eighth inning at every game since 2002 (plus since 2020, in doubleheaders upon a home win thru 6.5 innings).  On opening night of the 2010 season at Fenway Park, the song was performed by Diamond himself.
Since 1990 (except in 2005 when, because of field work, it was held in a minor league ballpark, and 2020, as the tournament was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic), Fenway Park has also hosted the final round of a Boston-area intercollegiate baseball tournament called the Baseball Beanpot, an equivalent to the more well-known hockey Beanpot tourney. The teams play the first rounds in minor league stadiums before moving on to Fenway for the final and a consolation game.  Boston College, Harvard University, Northeastern University, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst compete in the four-team tournament. 
Beginning in 2006, the Red Sox have hosted the "Futures at Fenway" event, where two of their minor-league affiliates play a regular-season doubleheader as the "home" teams. Before the Futures day started, the most recent minor-league game held at Fenway had been the Eastern League All-Star Game in 1977. 
The 2009 Atlantic Coast Conference Baseball Tournament was scheduled to be held at Fenway Park, but a scheduling conflict caused the 2010 tournament to be scheduled at Fenway Park instead.  Due to economic reasons, the ACC elected to move the 2010 tournament from Fenway Park to NewBridge Bank Park in Greensboro, North Carolina, but is still looking to host a tournament at Fenway Park in the future. 
From 1970 to 1987, the Cape Cod Baseball League (CCBL) played its annual all-star game at various major league stadiums. The games were interleague contests between the CCBL and the Atlantic Collegiate Baseball League (ACBL). The 1975, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1983, 1985 and 1987 games were played at Fenway. The MVP of the 1977 contest was future major league slugger Steve Balboni, who clobbered two home runs over the Green Monster that day. The CCBL returned to Fenway in 2009, 2010 and 2011 for its intraleague all-star game matching the league's East and West divisions. The 2009 game starred East division MVP and future Boston Red Sox Chris Sale of Florida Gulf Coast University. The CCBL also holds an annual workout day at Fenway where CCBL players are evaluated by major league scouts.  
On October 9, 1920, Fenway Park was the site of the first open-air boxing show in Boston. The card featured four bouts. Although Eddie Shevlin and Paul Doyle fought in the feature bout, Daniel J. Saunders of the Boston Daily Globe described heavyweights Battling McCreery and John Lester Johnson as "the only boxers who caused any excitement". McCreery, who according to Saunders, "was to take a flop in five rounds", won by judge's decision in ten rounds. After the fight, Johnson punched McCreery while McCreery was trying to shake his hand. McCreery then knocked Johnson out of the ring and hit him over the head with his chair. The card drew 5,000 spectators (half of what was expected) and brought in $6,100 (several thousand less than what was promised to the fighters). 
In 1928, New England Welterweight Champion Al Mello headlined three cards at Fenway. He defeated Billy Murphy in front of a crowd of 12,000 on June 26, Charlie Donovan on August 31, and Murphy again on September 13.   
On July 2, 1930, future World Heavyweight Champion James J. Braddock made his debut in that weight class. He defeated Joe Monte in ten rounds. 
On September 2, 1930, Babe Hunt defeated Ernie Schaaf in what The Boston Daily Globe described as a "dull bout" and a "big disappointment". The undercard included future light heavyweight champion George Nichols, who defeated Harry Allen of Brockton, Massachusetts in ten rounds. 
In 1932, Eddie Mack promoted ten cards at Fenway Park. The August 2 card featured World Light Heavyweight Champion Maxie Rosenbloom defeating Joe Barlow of Roxbury and Taunton' Henry Emond defeating The Cocoa Kid.  On August 23, Dave Shade defeated Norman Conrad of Wilton, New Hampshire in front of 3,500 attendees.  The September 6 card was headlined by World junior lightweight champion Kid Chocolate, who defeated Steve Smith. 
On June 25, 1936, former world heavyweight champion Jack Sharkey defeated Phil Brubaker in what would be his final career victory. 
In 1937, Rip Valenti and the Goodwin Athletic Club promoted five cards at Fenway. Three of these were headlined by New England Heavyweight Champion Al McCoy. On June 16 McCoy defeated Natie Brown in front of a crowd of 4,516.  On July 29 he knocked out Jack McCarthy in the third round.  On August 24 he and Tony Shucco fought to a draw.  Future WBA featherweight champion Sal Bartolo fought one of his first professional fights on the May 24 undercard. 
On June 25, 1945, Tami Mauriello knocked out Lou Nova in 2:47. An estimated crowd of 8,000 was in attendance. 
On July 12, 1954, Tony DeMarco knocked out George Araujo 58 seconds into the fifth round in front of 12,000 spectators. 
The most recent boxing event at Fenway took place on June 16, 1956. The undercard consisted of Eddie Andrews vs. George Chimenti, Bobby Courchesne vs. George Monroe for the New England Lightweight Championship, and Barry Allison vs. Don Williams for the New England Middleweight Championship. In the main event, Tony DeMarco defeated Vince Martinez by decision. An estimated 15,000 were in attendance - far below promoter Sam Silverman's expectations. 
On October 17, 1925, the Boston Soccer Club and the Fall River Marksmen of the American Soccer League played a scoreless tie before 4,000 fans.  Boston also hosted the Providence Clamdiggers and Indiana Flooring at Fenway later that season.   On June 18, 1928, Boston played Rangers F.C. to a 2–2 tie in front of a crowd of 10,000.   In 1929, Boston hosted two more matches at Fenway Park a 3–2 victory over the New Bedford Whalers on August 10 and a 3–2 loss to Fall River on August 17.  
On May 30, 1931 8,000 fans were on hand to see the American Soccer League champion New York Yankees defeat Celtic 4–3.  The Yankees goalkeeper, Johnny Reder, would later return to play for the Boston Red Sox. During 1968, the park was home to the Boston Beacons of the now-defunct NASL. 
On July 21, 2010 Fenway hosted an exhibition game between European soccer clubs Celtic F.C. and Sporting C.P. in an event called "Football at Fenway". A crowd of 32,162 watched the two teams play to a 1–1 draw. Celtic won 6–5 on penalty shoot out, winning the first Fenway football challenge Trophy.  Recent matches have taken place between Liverpool, an English Premier League club owned by Fenway Sports Group, and A.S. Roma, an Italian Serie A club owned by FSG partner Thomas R. DiBenedetto. The July 25, 2012 match ended in a 2–1 win for AS Roma before a crowd of 37,169.  AS Roma also won the rematch on July 23, 2014 by a score of 1–0.  On July 21, 2019 Liverpool returned to Fenway for a preseason match against Sevilla, the Spanish team won 2–1 at the end of full-time.
American Football Edit
Football has been played at Fenway since at least 1916  In 1926, the first American Football League's Boston Bulldogs played at both Fenway and Braves Field the Boston Shamrocks of the second AFL did the same in 1936 and 1937. The National Football League's Boston Redskins played at Fenway for four seasons (1933–1936) after playing their inaugural season in 1932 at Braves Field as the Boston Braves. The Boston Yanks played there in the 1940s and the American Football League's Boston Patriots called Fenway Park home from 1963 to 1968 after moving there from Nickerson Field. At various times in the past, Dartmouth College, Boston College, Brown University, and Boston University teams have also played football games at Fenway Park.  Boston College and Notre Dame played a game at Fenway in 2015 as part of Notre Dame's Shamrock Series.  The annual Harvard–Yale game in November 2018 was played at Fenway.  Beginning in 2021, a new bowl game at Fenway called the Fenway Bowl will pit a team from the Atlantic Coast Conference against a team from the American Athletic Conference. 
Team records at Fenway Edit
The third annual NHL Winter Classic was held at Fenway on New Year's Day in 2010.  The Boston Bruins beat the Philadelphia Flyers 2–1 in sudden-death overtime, securing the first home-team victory in the relatively short history of the NHL Winter Classic. The Winter Classic paved the way for the Frozen Fenway series of ice skating and hockey events at the ballpark. Frozen Fenway is an annual series of collegiate and amateur games featuring ice hockey teams from local and regional high schools, colleges, and universities, including the University of Connecticut, University of Massachusetts Amherst, University of New Hampshire, University of Maine, University of Vermont, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Northeastern University, Boston College, and Boston University, and is held during the first part of the event. After the completion of the hockey series, the rink was opened to the public for free ice skating. 
Hurling and Gaelic Football Edit
Fenway has hosted Gaelic games over the years. On June 6, 1937, the All-Ireland Football Champions from County Mayo defeated a Massachusetts team, 17–8,   and on November 8, 1954, the All-Ireland Hurling champions County Cork beat an American line-up, 37–28.  In more recent times, the Fenway Hurling Classic for the Players Champions Cup has been staged, first in November 2015 when Galway beat Dublin,  and subsequently in November 2017  and November 2018. 
Fenway has been home to several concerts beginning in 1973 when Stevie Wonder and Ray Charles first played there.  No further concerts were played there until 2003 when Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band played a leg of their The Rising Tour.  Since 2003, there has been at least one concert every year at Fenway by such artists as Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band, Jimmy Buffett, Billy Joel, The Rolling Stones, Neil Diamond, The Police, Jason Aldean, Dave Matthews Band, Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers, Aerosmith, Phish, Roger Waters, Paul McCartney, James Taylor, Pearl Jam, Foo Fighters, and Dead & Company. In 2017, Lady Gaga brought her Joanne World Tour to the stadium,  making her the first woman to headline a concert there. In 2019, The Who played their first ever show at the stadium with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. 
Ski and snowboard Edit
Polartec Big Air At Fenway is the first big air snowboarding and skiing competition that was held on February 11–12, 2016. This event was part of the U.S. Grand Prix Tour and the International Ski Federation's World Tour. Notable winter athletes that competed are Ty Walker, Sage Kotsenburg, and Joss Christensen. The big air jump was constructed to be about 140 feet (43 m) tall, standing above the lights of the stadium. 
Frank Fallon was the first public address (PA) announcer for the Red Sox, and held the job from 1953 to 1957. Fred Cusick, better known for his career of announcing Boston Bruins hockey games, joined him in 1956 and also left after 1957.  Jay McMaster took over in 1958, until his replacement by Sherm Feller in 1967.  Feller served as the announcer for 26 years until his death after the 1993 season.  He was known for beginning his games by welcoming the fans with "Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls. Welcome to Fenway Park", and ending them by saying "Thank you."  Leslie Sterling took the job for the 1994 season, becoming the second female PA announcer in the history of Major League Baseball.  Ed Brickley took over in 1997, and was replaced by Carl Beane in 2003.   Beane was regarded as an "iconic" announcer, and served until his death in 2012, which was caused by a heart attack suffered while driving.   Fenway used a series of guest announcers to finish the 2012 season [note 2] before hiring its current announcers: Henry Mahegan, Bob Lobel, and Dick Flavin. 
There are eleven retired numbers above the right field grandstand. All of the numbers retired by the Red Sox are red on a white circle. Jackie Robinson's 42, which was retired by Major League Baseball, is blue on a white circle. The two are further delineated through the font difference Boston numbers are in the same style as the Red Sox jerseys, while Robinson's number is in the more traditional "block" numbering found on the Dodgers jerseys.
Until the late 1990s, the numbers originally hung on the right-field facade in the order in which they were retired: 9-4-1-8. It was pointed out that the numbers, when read as a date (9/4/18), marked the eve of the first game of the 1918 World Series, the last championship that the Red Sox won before 2004. After the facade was repainted, the numbers were rearranged in numerical order.  The numbers remained in numerical order until the 2012 season, when the numbers were rearranged back into the order in which they were retired by the Red Sox.
The Red Sox policy on retiring uniform numbers was once one of the most stringent in baseball—the player had to be elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame, play at least 10 years with the team, and retire as a member of the Red Sox. The final requirement was waived for Carlton Fisk as he had finished his playing career with the Chicago White Sox. However, Fisk was assigned a Red Sox front office job and effectively "finished" his baseball career with the Red Sox in this manner.  In 2008, the ownership relaxed the requirements further with the retirement of Johnny Pesky's number 6. Pesky has not been inducted into the Hall of Fame, but in light of his over 50 years of service to the club, the management made an exception. Pesky would have had 10 seasons, but he was credited with the three seasons he served as an Operations Officer in the U.S. Navy during World War II.  The most recent number retired was 34, worn by 2013 World Series Most Valuable Player David "Big Papi" Ortiz.
|Red Sox retired numbers |
|No.||Player||Position||Red Sox Years||Date Retired||Notes|
|1||Bobby Doerr||2B||1937–44 |
|May 21, 1988||US Army, 1945|
|4||Joe Cronin||SS||1935–45||May 29, 1984||Player-Manager|
|6||Johnny Pesky||SS, 3B, 2B||1942, 46–52||September 28, 2008||US Navy, 1943–45|
|8||Carl Yastrzemski||LF, 1B, DH||1961–83||August 6, 1989|
|9||Ted Williams||LF||1939–42 |
|May 29, 1984||US Marines, 1943–45, 52–53|
|14||Jim Rice||LF, DH||1974–89||July 28, 2009|
|26||Wade Boggs||3B||1983–1992||May 26, 2016|
|27||Carlton Fisk||C||1969, 71–80||September 4, 2000|
|34||David Ortiz||DH||2003–2016||June 23, 2017||3× World Series Champion (2004, 2007, 2013)|
2004 ALCS MVP, 2013 World Series MVP
|45||Pedro Martínez||P||1998–2004||July 28, 2015||World Series Champion 2004|
|42||Jackie Robinson||Brooklyn Dodgers 1947–1956, retired by Major League Baseball, April 15, 1997|
- A ball going through the scoreboard, either on the bounce or fly, is a ground rule double.
- A fly ball striking left-center field wall to right of or on the line behind the flag pole is a home run.
- A fly ball striking wall or flag pole and bouncing into bleachers is a home run.
- A fly ball striking line or right of same on wall in center is a home run.
- A fly ball striking wall left of line and bouncing into bullpen is a home run.
- A ball sticking in the bullpen screen or bouncing into the bullpen is a ground rule double.
- A batted or thrown ball remaining behind or under canvas or in tarp cylinder is a ground rule double.
- A ball striking the top of the scoreboard in left field in the ladder below top of wall and bouncing out of the park is a ground rule double.
- A fly ball that lands above the red line on top of the Green Monster and bounces onto the field of play is ruled a home run. 
- A fly ball that hits the rail in the right-center triangle is a home run.
It is a misconception among fans that a fly ball that gets stuck in the ladder above the scoreboard on the left field wall is ruled a ground rule triple. There is no mention of it in the Red Sox ground rules list. 
Historical Events in 1934
- While robbing the First National Bank in East Chicago, Indianapolis, Dillinger is shot several times by officer William O'Malley, but survives because he is wearing a bullet proof vest. Electric Home & Farm Authority incorporated
Contract of Interest
Jan 17 NY Giants reward NL MVP pitcher Carl Hubbell with a huge $18,000 contract
Event of Interest
Jan 18 Eugene O'Neill's "Days Without End" premieres in NYC
Event of Interest
Jan 19 Kenesaw Mountain Landis denies Joe Jackson's appeal for reinstatement
- Japan sends Henry Pu Yi as regent to emperor of Manchuria Parisian baker and "student of medieval life" Henri Littière appears in court charged with forcing his adulterous wife Juliette to wear a chastity belt. Having committed the same offence in 1932, he was sentenced to three months in prison and fined 50 francs for cruelty to his wife
Event of Interest
Jan 22 Dmitri Shostakovich's opera "Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District" debuts in Leningrad
- New York Rangers' left wing Murray Murdoch plays his 400th straight NHL game in a 5-2 win over Ottawa Senators at Madison Square Garden, NYC streak reaches 508 consecutive games Dmitri Shostakovich's opera "Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District" is performed in Moscow roundly criticized by the Communist Party, it was banned in the Soviet Union until 1961
Event of Interest
Jan 26 Australian cricket batting icon Don Bradman scores 128 in just 96 minutes for NSW v Victoria in Sydney smashes 17 x fours, 4 x sixes
- Nazi Germany & Poland sign 10-year non-aggression treaty The Apollo Theater reopens in Harlem, New York City. French government of Chautemps falls (Stavisky Affair) VARA refuses to hire after commemoration of Marinus Van de Lubbe Australian Championships Women's Tennis, Sydney: Joan Hartigan Bathurst retains title beats Margaret Molesworth 6-1, 6-4 Australian Championships Men's Tennis: Englishman Fred Perry wins his only Australian title beats Jack Crawford of Australia 6-3, 7-5, 6-1 1st US ski tow (rope) begins operation (Woodstock, Vermont) 1st theatrical presentation sponsored by US government, NYC Former Australian cricket spin bowler Bert Ironmonger ends Sheffield Shield career age 51 years 298 days as Victoria draws with NSW at the Sydney Cricket Ground
Event of Interest
Jan 30 Hitler proclamation on German unified states
Event of Interest
Jan 31 FDR devalues US dollar in relation to gold at $35 per ounce
- Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss dissolves all political parties but his Dutch RC Bishops warn against fascism and Nazism Reds purchase 43-year-old Dazzy Vance from the Cards for $7,500 Far right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup against the French Third Republic, creating a political crisis in France 1st contract for TVA power, Tupelo, Miss Export-Import Bank organizes in Washington, D.C. Gaston Doumergue forms new French government -14.3°F (-25.7°C), coldest day in New York City -51°F (-46°C), Vanderbilt, Michigan (state record) Balkan Entente alliance forms (Yugoslavia, Greece, Turkey & Romania) 1st Jewish immigrant ship to break the English blockade in Palestine Byrd souvenir sheet issued, NYC 1st unperforated ungummed US stamp
Event of Interest
- Export-Import Bank incorporates France hit by a general strike against fascists & royalists The four-day February Uprising, sometimes called the Austrian Civil War, begins. Austrian Dollfuss government bans socialist party The Soviet steamship Cheliuskin sinks in the Arctic Ocean. NHL Ace Bailey Benefit Game: Toronto beats All-Stars 7-3 in Toronto Austrian Civil War ends with the defeat of the Social Democrats and the Republican Schutzbund
Feb 22 "It Happened One Night" directed by Frank Capra and starring Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert opens at NY's Radio City Music Hall (Academy Awards Best Picture, Director, Actor, Actress and Screenplay 1935)
Event of Interest
Feb 22 André Malraux and Édouard Corniglion-Molinier set out to find the lost capital of the Queen of Sheba, as mentioned in the Old Testament
Event of Interest
Feb 23 Casey Stengel becomes manager of Brooklyn Dodgers
Boxing Title Fight
Mar 1 Italian boxer Primo Carnera beats American challenger Tommy Loughran by unanimous points decision at Madison Square Garden, NYC for the NYSAC and NBA heavyweight titles
Event of Interest
Mar 3 John Dillinger breaks out of jail using a wooden pistol
- Easter Cross on Mt. Davidson (San Francisco) dedicated Mother-in-law's day 1st celebrated (Amarillo, Texas) Sidney Howard & Paul de Kruif's "Yellowjacket" premieres in NYC
Mar 8 Edwin Hubble photo shows as many galaxies as Milky Way has stars
- Longest undefeated streak in Toronto Maple Leaf history ends - 18 games with 15 wins, 3 ties US Ladies' Figure Skating championship won by Suzanne Davis US Men's Figure Skating championship won by Roger Turner
Event of Interest
Mar 12 Josip Broz (Tito) freed from jail
Event of Interest
Mar 12 Paul Hindemith's "Mathis der Maler" premieres in Berlin
- US Information Service opens US Congress passes Migratory Bird Conservation Act Academy Award gold statuette 1st called Oscar in print by Sidney Skolsky
Mar 16 6th Academy Awards: "Cavalcade" and its director Frank Lloyd, Charles Laughton (The Private Life of Henry VIII), and Katharine Hepburn (Morning Glory) win host Will Rogers announces "Come and get it, Frank" and Frank Capra gets up
Treaty of Interest
Mar 17 Dollfuss, Mussolini & Gombos sign Donau Pact (protocols of Rome)
- England beats Scotland, 6-3 at Twickenham, London to win the Home Nations Rugby Championship and Triple Crown Rudolf Kuhnold demonstrates radar in Kiel Germany American all-round female super athlete Babe Didrikson Zaharias pitches a hitless inning for Philadelphia A's in their exhibition pre-season baseball game against Brooklyn Dodgers Fire destroys Hakodate Japan, killing about 1,500 Fire destroys Hakodate, Japan, kills 1,500, injures 1,000 93rd Grand National: Gerry Wilson wins aboard 8/1 Golden Miller in race record 9:20.04 becomes only horse to win both UK's premier steeplechases with Cheltenham Gold Cup victory 1934 U.S. Congress passes the Tydings-McDuffie Act, declaring the Philippines independent after a period of 10 years 1st Augusta National Invitation Tournament (Masters) Golf: Horton Smith wins with 20-foot birdie putt at the 17th hole, 1 stroke ahead of Craig Wood Driving tests introduced in Britain Bank of Travail in Belgium, socialist workers' movement bankrupt Netherlands Indies BC Ltd begins radio transmission (Indonesia)
Murder of Interest
Apr 1 Clyde Barrow kills two young highway patrolmen, H. D. Murphy and Edward Bryant Wheeler, at the intersection of Route 114 near Grapevine, Texas. Bonnie Parker's role in the murders helps turn public perception against the gang for good