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Amenhotep III Timeline

Amenhotep III Timeline


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Amenhotep III Timeline - History

Amenhotep III ruled the Egyptian Empire during the peak of its international power and prosperity. It was a time of peace when art and Egyptian culture flourished.

Amenhotep III was the son of Pharaoh Thutmose IV and the great-grandson of the legendary Pharaoh Thutmose III. He grew up in the royal palace as the crown prince of Egypt. He would have been educated on the workings of the Egyptian government as well as the religious responsibilities of the pharaoh.

When Amenhotep was around twelve years old his father died and Amenhotep was crowned pharaoh. He likely had an adult regent who ruled for him for the first few years as he grew older and learned how to lead.

Amenhotep took over Egypt at a time when the country was very rich and powerful. He was a very capable politician. He maintained his power over Egypt by reducing the power of the priests of Amun and elevating the sun god Ra. He also made strong alliances with foreign powers by marrying the daughters of foreign kings from Babylon and Syria.

Just a few years after becoming pharaoh, Amenhotep married his wife Tiye. Tiye became his queen and "Great Royal Wife." They had several children together including two sons. Amenhotep's first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, died at a fairly young age. This made his second son Amenhotep IV first in line for the crown. Amenhotep IV would later change his name to Akhenaten when he became pharaoh.

In order to strengthen alliances with foreign nations, Amenhotep married several princesses from bordering kingdoms. Despite having so many wives, it seems that Amenhotep had strong feelings for his first wife Queen Tiye. He built a lake in her honor in her home town and also had a mortuary temple built for her.

During his time as pharaoh, Amenhotop III built many monuments to himself and the gods. Perhaps his most famous construction was the Temple of Luxor in Thebes. This temple became one of the grandest and most famous temples in Egypt. Amenhotep also built hundreds of statues of himself including the Colossi of Memnon. These two giant statues tower around 60 feet tall and show a giant Amenhotep in a sitting position.

Amenhotep III died around the year 1353 BC. He was buried in the Valley of Kings in a tomb along with his wife Tiye. His son, Amenhotep IV, became pharaoh upon his death. His son would change his name to Akhenaten and make huge changes to the Egyptian religion.


Amenhotep III (c.1391 - c.1354 BC)

Wall carving of Amenhotep III in the tomb of the governor of Thebes © The reign of the pharaoh Amenhotep III marks the zenith of ancient Egyptian civilisation, both in terms of political power and cultural achievement.

As the son of Tuthmosis IV and his minor wife Mutemwia, Amenhotep became king at around the age of 12 with his mother acting as regent. Early in his reign he chose the daughter of a provincial official as his great royal wife, and for the rest of the reign Queen Tiy featured prominently alongside the king.

Having inherited an empire that stretched from the Euphrates to the Sudan, Amenhotep maintained Egypt's position largely through diplomacy and intermarriage with the royal families of Mitanni (Syria), Babylonia and Arzawa (Anatolia). He was the first pharaoh to issue royal news bulletins about his marriages, hunting trips and building projects, the information being inscribed on large stone scarab seals and sent out across the empire.

At the imperial capital Thebes, the king's sprawling palace at Malkata lay close to his funerary temple, the largest ever built with its original location marked by the two 'Colossi of Memnon' statues. A vast harbour and canal network linked these buildings to the Nile and allowed direct access to the king's new temple at Luxor and the great state temple of Amun at Karnak.

Although Amenhotep greatly embellished Karnak as part of his nationwide building programme, the growing power of Amun's clergy was skilfully countered by promoting the ancient sun god Ra. The sun was also worshipped as the solar disc the Aten, with whom the king identified himself by taking the epithet 'Dazzling Aten'.

Amenhotep III died in around 1354 BC and was buried in his huge tomb in the secluded western branch of the Valley of the Kings. He was succeeded by his son Amenhotep IV, better known as Akhenaten.


Amenhotep III Ruling Period

Amenhotep III ruled Ancient Egypt during the 18 th dynasty and his reign started roughly in 1391 BC to 1353 BC. He had a lot of campaigns in Syro-Palestine and in addition to this he constructed many shrines, temples, statues in Memphis & Thebes.

His father Thutmose IV left him Egypt while being in its highest power. He reached Egypt’s throne when he was only 12 years old and then he married Tiya and after a short period of time, she has elevated the rank of the Great Royal Wife, which the mother of Amenhotep had never obtain when she was the wife of the pharaoh.

Amenhotep continued the policies of his father and he started new building programs throughout Egypt & most notably about him is that he was the master of diplomacy and he enjoyed profitable relationships with the surrounding nations.

He was also an adept military leader and he maintained the honor of Egyptian women in refusing requests to send them as wives to foreign rulers. He claimed that no daughter of Egypt had ever been sent to a foreign land and would not be sent under his reign.

How was Egypt During The Reign of Amenhotep III?

His reign is known with unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendor as Egypt during his reign reached its peak of her artistic and international power.

This can be seen within the diplomatic correspondence from the Assyria, Mitanni, Babylon, and Hatti rulers and fortunately, it is preserved in the Amarna Letters archive and the letters show that he ruled for 30 years and they also show that he refused to let one of his daughters to marry the Babylonian monarch and this mainly shows that the Egyptian traditional royal practices didn’t allow such a thing.

During the reign period of Amenhotep III, Egypt lived its uneventful period except for the only one recorded military activity throughout the 5th year of his reign.
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Chronology and Timeline of Ancient Egypt | Famous Pharaohs and their Rules

The timelines of Pharaohs and major events in Egypt presented in a series of simple, easy to follow graphs. I thought this would be helpful to many who want a “bird’s eye view” to this fascinating civilization.

We always have many questions.

How many pharaohs were there?(About 170-190 since old Kingdom)

How many were native Pharaohs? (Most of them!)

Who else ruled Egypt?(Persians, macedonians,…)

How long did they rule?

Well, you’ll find some answers and more in the post below.

This post got recommended by Medium’s curators as well!

Most of us know Egypt is an ancient civilization and we’ve heard of some famous rulers like Rameses or Tutankhamun or Khufu (Cheops), and yet few have a good idea of where these rulers were in the timeline, how long they ruled, and who else was notable. I will always remember something I read long ago (Unfortunately I don’t remember the source) that…

When Julius Caesar and Cleopatra were doing a boat trip along the Nile and saw the Pyramids, they were looking at monuments that were more ancient to them as they (Caesar and Cleopatra) are to us!

This series of charts here lays out a chronology of ancient Egypt with some interesting facts. There are tons of websites with details on individuals or dynasties but few that capture the essence by the numbers.

The key source for the chronology and the list is The Metropolitan Museum of Art with minor adjustments from me to account for the final names in the Ptolemaic rule. Please be aware that there are many disputes in Egyptian chronology and you will find different lists and sources with slightly different dates. More notes below.

The timeline begins with Zanakt in

2650 B.C. and ends with Cleopatra (Cleopatra VII Philopater) in 30 B.C. The 1st and 2nd dynasties, starting from around 5,500 B.C. are not included, as the more prominent Pharaonic rule and defined chronology began around Zanakt’s time.

The exact year of ascension and duration of many kings is disputed, and in some cases, there was more than one ruler at the same time either in a co-regency or ruling different parts of the country. The rule of the Hyksos in Lower Egypt (remember: Lower Egypt is the North of Egypt and Upper Egypt is South of Egypt) is a good example where Egypt had two rulers at the same time, not in a co-regency.

There may have been other rulers that we are unaware of and have not been recorded (or the records have been lost)

Women rulers are also termed “King/Pharaoh”

Chronology From the 3rd to the 30th Dynasty

From Zanakt to Cleopatra there were about 190-200 rulers over the span of

2,500 years. This chronology does not include the Hyksos rulers of Egypt as we have scant and unreliable information about their names or individual rule. The vertical bars signify the beginning of a rule and therefore the gap in the timeline after the bar is because the ruler sat on the throne a long time — Pepi II being one prime example. You will notice a rather unusually large gap in the 1700–1500 range and we will talk about that later below.

The “Top 10” Egyptian Pharaohs by Years of Rule

It is impressive that we know of at least 10 rulers who ruled for nearly 50 years or more, with Pepi II taking the honors at 95!

Pepi II: Yes, records indicate that Pepi II, who ruled from around 2240 B.C., sat on the throne for nearly a century. It appears he lived for over a hundred years and was quite likely crowned when he about 6 years old. Let’s ponder that for a moment — this man was King practically since his earliest memories, and died being one. He knew no life except being a ruler. Read more on Encyclopaedia Britannica

Ramesses II: Also called Ramesses the Great, considered by many as the greatest Egyptian Pharaoh. He ruled for over 65 years, lived to be 96, had over 200 wives and concubines, over 150 children, expanded Egyptian territory beyond its boundaries, built incredible monuments at Abu Simbel and Luxor, and took Egypt to its zenith. A truly impressive man and ruler. While some tales and movies indicate that Ramesses is the Pharaoh in the Biblical Exodus, there is no archeological evidence to suggest that this may be true. Read more on Ancient.eu.

Thutmose III: Also known as Thutmosis III. A powerful ruler from the New Kingdom of Egypt, Thutmose continued the expansionist policies started by his co-regent and predecessor Hatshepsut — the famous woman Pharaoh. Thutmose would prove to be a superb military strategist and commander and is considered one of the great Pharaohs of Egypt. Read more on Ancient.eu

Some of the other famous Pharaohs and Kings like Amenhotep, Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, Cambyses, Alexander the Great, or Cleopatra don’t appear in our top 10 list!

Number of Rulers and Decades of Rule

It is impressive when you think that 70+ rulers remained in power for over 20 years, especially considering the fleeting nature of power. One of the salient features of Egyptian chronology is the fact that it appears most rulers died of natural causes, and there’s not much by the way of coups and back-stabbing. But then it is very well possible that the records kept such incidences secret and we just don’t know.

On the flip side, over 100 Kings (I refer to women rulers as Kings as well) lasted a lot less.

Famous Rulers and their Appearance in the Chronology

The chart above should give you a good indication of where the “Rich and the Famous” appeared on the timeline. Let’s talk about a few.

Khufu — called Cheops by the Greeks — was the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza, an astonishing monument that has withstood the ravages of times and continues to be one of the greatest (if not the) symbols of the ancient world.

Amenemhat III — was a powerful 12th dynasty ruler who is known to have brought the Middle Kingdom to great economic prosperity. His reign was known to be relatively peaceful.

Ahmose I — was the first ruler of the powerful New Kingdom of Egypt, an era that took Egypt to its zenith. Ahmose likely drove the Hyksos (possibly Asiatic/Semitic people their source has never been conclusively established) out of Egypt. He was the son (or grandson) of Sequenenre Tao who, it appears, was the first Pharaoh to take on the Hyksos with some measure of success and died fighting them. Ahmose plays a prominent role in my novel, The Wrath of God.

Hatshepsut — the famous female Pharaoh with her spectacular mortuary temple. Hatshepsut came to power as the regent when Thutmose III was too young. But she maintained her grip and eventually assumed the title of Pharaoh (and even dressed as a man), not relinquishing it to Thutmose. Eventually, once Thutmose became sole Pharaoh, he had Hatshepsut’s name erased from most places.

Amenhotep III — One of the most accomplished Pharaoh’s of the New Kingdom, Amenhotep took Egypt to great heights in terms of architectural splendor and military prowess. Read up on the interesting Amarna letters on Amenhotep’s foreign relations. Amenhotep’s son was the (in)famous Akhenaten.

Tutankhamun (original name Tutankhaten)— If it were not for the astonishing tomb of King Tut (discovered by Howard Carter), this King would have remained practically unknown. Compared to many other Kings, Tut was quite unremarkable. He came to the throne quite young at nine, married his sister Ankhesenamun, as was custom, did a little in terms of building projects, and then died before his 20s likely as a result of an accident (there’s much speculation). He did play a role in reversing his heretic father Akhenaten’s practices. But it was his tomb, which probably wasn’t even close to the great rulers, that captivated the world’s attention on how a Pharaoh’s tomb could possibly be, and made “King Tut” world famous.

Alexander the Great — Alexander conquered Egypt, established Alexandria the city, and desired to be buried in Amon (Siwa Oasis). But Alexander never stayed and ruled Egypt as he turned East towards India and then died in Babylon. But Alexander’s general, Ptolemy (Ptolemy Soter), became the satrap of Egypt and then established the Ptolemaic dynasty that ruled for over 250 years until its end by the death of Cleopatra VII. Ptolemy and Alexander feature in The Atlantis Papyrus.

Some Famous Events over the course of Time

The Pyramid Builders — the most prominent and long-lasting pyramids were built in the Old Kingdom. For whatever reason, the Pyramid craze seems to have declined later on, or those that were built were simply not durable. The tombs changed in style from pyramids to intricate underground/cliff-side structures.

General Strife of the Second Intermediate Period— somewhere around 1700 BC, Egypt descended into a period of general weaknesses in centralized rule and allowed incursion of the Hyksos (whose origins are debated, but quite likely Asiatics from Canaan). We have scant records for this period and lack of clarity on the rulers, their ruling periods, and what was happening during this time period. Egypt emerged from this when Sequenenre Tao took on the Hyksos (and a Hyksos King makes an appearance in my novel), his son (or grandson) Kamose upped the ante…

Rise of the New Kingdom …And then finally Ahmose (Kamose’s brother and son or grandson of Sequenenre Tao), the first ruler of the New Kingdom successfully established Egyptian rule over the land by driving out the Hyksos.

Zenith of the Egyptian Empire — a period of expansion, with strong Pharaohs like Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Amenhotep III and Ramesses II who solidified their control and built a powerful empire that stretched South, East, and North of Egypt.

Late Bronze Age Collapse — this period saw the broad decline of most bronze age civilizations — from Egypt to Mycenae (Ancient Greece) to Hittites and Mitannis. There are many theories as to what happened, from invasion by the mysterious “Sea Peoples” to natural disasters like earthquakes and droughts. With this, after the reign of Ramesses III, the glorious period of native Egypt rule pretty much came to end.

Persian Rule — Egypt became of a vassal state of the vast and influential Persian empire, with notable Persian rulers exerting their dominance under Cyrus, Cambyses, Darius, and Xerxes. The Persian rule (technically the Achaemenid Empire) came to end by the defeat of Darius by Alexander the Great. An interesting tidbit from Cambyses’ rule in Egypt is the setting for my novel “Curse of Ammon”

Macedonian and Ptolemaic Dynasties — Egypt came under the Macedonians under Alexander the Great. After Alexander’s death, Ptolemy I Soter, one of Alexander’s generals, began the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt until its eventual fall to the Roman empire. This dynasty contributed significantly to the richness of Egyptian heritage through the development of major cities like Alexandria and Heraklion, construction of temples and monuments, the establishment of the Library of Alexandria, and expanding trade.

End of the Ancient Egyptian Rule — After Octavian’s defeat of Cleopatra VII Philopater, finally bringing an end to the Ancient Egyptian chronology. Egypt became a state of the Roman empire. If you’re interested, you can read The Last Pharaoh trilogy where you can learn more about Cleopatra, an enigmatic ruler herself.


King Solomon

In the Bible, (1) King Solomon is said to have:

  1. Inherited a vast empire conquered by his father David that extended from the Nile in Egypt to the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia (1 Kings 4:21 Gen. 15:18 Deut. 1:7,11:24 Joshua 1:4 2 Sam. 8:3 1 Chron. 18:3).
  2. Accumulated great wealth and wisdom (1 Kings 10:23).
  3. Administered his kingdom through a system of 12 districts (1 Kings 4:7).
  4. Possessed a large harem, which included "the daughter of Pharaoh" (1 Kings 3:1 1 Kings 11:1,3 1 Kings 9:16).
  5. Honored other gods in his old age (1 Kings 11:1-2,4-5).
  6. Devoted his reign to great building projects (1 Kings 9:15,17-19), including:

  1. the Temple (1 Kings 6).
  2. the Royal Palace (1 Kings 7:2-12).
  3. the walls of Jerusalem,
  4. the Millo (an earthen fill made to enlarge Jerusalem) (1 Kings 11:27)
  5. the royal cities of Megiddo, Hazor, and Gezer
  6. the store cities, the cities for his horsemen and the cities for his chariots throughout his empire.

To be consistent with the pattern of other great Bronze and Iron Age cultures in the ancient Near East (Egyptian, Babylonian, Assyrian, and Hittite), it would be expected that numerous documents, art, and inscriptions on buildings or public monuments would have been left by such a great king or by his descendants later in honor of him. (2) Yet no article of any kind bearing his name has ever been found. (3)

The cities of Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer have now been extensively excavated. A stratum containing large palaces, temples and strong fortifications was found in each of these cities. The name of Solomon was not found, but the cartouche of the 18 th Dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep III instead. (4) In Jerusalem, it has not been possible to excavate the temple mount, however, extensive excavations in the city, including the areas adjacent to the temple mount have not revealed the existence of a Solomaic palace complex. (5) Moreover, excavation of the Millo has revealed (due to pottery found in the Millo) that its original construction was also contemporary with the Egyptian 18 th Dynasty of Amenhotep III. (6)

Amenhotep III, known in ancient times as the "King of Kings" and "Ruler of Ruler's," (7) was a Pharaoh of Egypt's glorious 18th Dynasty. He, like Solomon, inherited a vast empire whose influence extended quite literally from the Nile to the Euphrates. (8) In contrast to the empire of Solomon, the empire of Amenhotep is indisputable. (9) The buildings, monuments, documents, art, and numerous other vestiges of his reign are ubiquitous and unparalleled (with the possible exception being those left by the 19th Dynasty Pharaoh, Ramses II).

The entire reign of Amenhotep III was devoted to monumental construction throughout Egypt, Canaan, and Syria. (10) In addition to the ancient world's most glorious temple at Luxor, (11) he built many other temples of similar design throughout Egypt and in the rest of his empire, (12) including the Canaanite garrison cities of Hazor, Megiddo, Gezer, (13) Lachish and Beth-shean. (14)

According to Egyptian records, Amenhotep's father Thutmose IV and grandfather Amenhotep II deported over 80,000 Canaanites. The Canaanite inhabitants of Gezer were specifically included in this deportation. (15) It was during Amenhotep III's reign that Gezer and other major Palestine cities were refortified as royal Egyptian garrisons, and endowed with fine temples and palaces.

The Bible states that in Solomon's day, the Pharaoh of Egypt captured the Canaanite city of Gezer and presented it to his daughter as a dowry upon her marriage to Solomon (1 Kings 9:16-17). (16)

It was customary and obligatory for Amenhotep III to marry "the daughter of Pharaoh" in order to secure the throne. (17) This is precisely what was done when he was married to Sitamun, the daughter of his father, Pharaoh Thutmose IV.

The network of Egyptian 18th Dynasty garrison cities also included Jerusalem. If construction by Amenhotep III at Gezer, Hazor, Megiddo and other garrison cities is any indication, then a magnificent temple undoubtedly was also built by Amenhotep on Jerusalem's venerated Temple Mount. (18) The structure adjacent to Jerusalem's Temple Mount, known traditionally as "Solomon's stables," is consistent with the architecture of Amenhotep's garrison cities. (19) Archaeology has also confirmed that chariots were kept in these cities during his reign in groups of between thirty to one hundred and fifty each. (20)

The ancient mining operations at Timna in the Negev desert, known as "Solomon's mines," "are earlier than Solomon by some three hundred years [in the conventional chronology]," (21) dating once again to the time of Amenhotep III. Copper from Timna, gold from the Sudan, (22) other precious metals, jewels and high quality stone were used in great abundance in Amenhotep's temples, just as they were in Solomon's. (23) A stela from Amenhotep's mortuary temple boasts that the temple was "embellished with gold throughout, its floor shining with silver . with royal statues of granite, of quartzite and precious stones." (24) The list of materials used in another temple built by Amenhotep is also "staggering: 3.25 tons of electrum [an alloy of silver and gold], 2.5 tons of gold, 944 tons of copper. " (25)

The Biblical Solomon's greatest satisfaction is said to have been the challenge of completing grand projects (Ecclesiastes 2:4-11). The same was said of Amenhotep III. A royal Egyptian text of the period reads, "Lo, His Majesty's heart was satisfied with making very great monuments, the like of which had never come into being since the primeval age of the Two Lands." (26) Only an enormously wealthy king of a long established empire could have built so splendidly and in so many widely distributed locations in the ancient world. Amenhotep III was arguably the ancient world's wealthiest king. The completion of such magnificent projects required management of a considerable and constant source of labor and revenue extending over a period of many decades.

The administration and taxation system of Amenhotep with its 12 districts (27) is identical to that of Solomon as described in the Bible (1 Kings 4:2-7,27 5:13 9:23). Amenhotep also dedicated himself to rediscovering the wisdom, mysteries and traditions of earlier Egyptian Dynasties. (28) A strong relationship has been established between the "Proverbs of Solomon" in the Bible and the "Maxims of Amenhotep III" found in Egypt. (29)

In addition to the projects already mentioned, Amenhotep also built a completely new palace complex in Thebes. The new royal residence included all of the elements contained in the palace complex of Solomon which are described in the Bible (1 Kings 7:2-12), (30) namely:

  1. a house made almost entirely out of cedars of Lebanon (built for Amenhotep's Jubilee festival) (31)
  2. a colonnade (hall of columns) fronted by a portico (porch) and surrounded by a column-lined courtyard (32)
  3. a throne room built with many wooden columns and whose floor was a painted lake scene (identical to the one crossed in wonder by the Queen of Sheba when she approached the throne of Solomon, as described in the Koran) (33)
  4. a separate palace built for Sitamun, "the daughter of Pharaoh" (34)
  5. a royal palace (consisting of his own residence, the residence of his Great Wife, Tiye, and a residence for the royal harem). (35)

Amenhotep, like Solomon, was relentless in his pursuit of women for his harem, especially beautiful foreign women of both royal and common backgrounds alike. (36) Amenhotep's harem included two princesses from Babylon, (37) two princesses from Syria, two princesses from Mitanni, and like Solomon's harem, it included a princess from each of the seven nations listed in 1 Kings 11:1. (38) As the mightiest king of the Middle East, Amenhotep did not send any of his own daughters to other kings in exchange, nor did any other Pharaoh of this dynasty (or likely any other throughout Egypt's history). (39) He specifically denied a request by the king of Babylon for an Egyptian wife. (40) Importantly, the Bible emphasizes Solomon's Egyptian bride, but does not mention that Solomon had any Hebrew wives. (41) Rehoboam, who is said to have succeeded Solomon, was the son of an Ammonite princess. (42)

The court of Amenhotep III was an extremely liberal one, and reflected every possible excess of an affluent and secure kingdom. (43) Eroticism in art and court life reached its height during the reign of Amenhotep. (44) The famous "nude dancing girls" mural dates to Amenhotep's reign. (45) As with Solomon, Amenhotep denied himself nothing "his eyes desired" and "refused his heart no pleasure" (Ecclesiastes 2:10). However, the last years of Amenhotep's thirty-eight year reign were not pleasant ones. The long years of indulgence had taken their toll and he had many ailments. As a compassionate gesture, his Mitanni brother-in-law (46) sent him an idol of the goddess Ishtar (i.e., Asherah)(1 Kings 11:5).

The "inescapable conclusion" (47) is that the story of Solomon was patterned specifically after the life of Amenhotep III. The name Solomon itself, which literally means "peace" or "safety" points to Amenhotep III whose long and pervasive reign in the 14th Century B.C. did not include any major military campaigns, but was characterized by unprecedented stability throughout the Near East. (48) After the Egyptian 18th Dynasty, the region between the two great rivers was not controlled by a single power again until the Assyrian empire of Ashurbanipal (the grandson of Sennacherib) who invaded Egypt and pillaged Thebes in the 7th Century B.C., (49) and the 6th Century B.C. empire of Cyrus, who also conquered Egypt and made it a Persian province. (50) There is no evidence of any empire at any time controlling this region whose capital was Jerusalem. (51)

Solomon is said to have had "a thousand and four hundred" chariots (1 Kings 1:26). This represents a prodigious army by ancient standards, and one which could only have been amassed over a long period of time by an established civilization. (52) Yet we are told that only five years after the great King Solomon's death, the Egyptian Pharaoh Shishak and his allies invaded Judah and captured its fortified cities with little or no military resistance (2 Chron. 12). The Bible adds that Jerusalem itself was spared only after delivering up the entirety of King Solomon's accumulated wealth to Shishak.

The rapidness with which Solomon's empire was established, as described by the Bible, and the ease with which it shortly thereafter submitted to a foreign power is also not consistent with the pattern set by other great ancient civilizations.


Amenhotep III Timeline - History

  • 3100 - The Egyptians develop hieroglyphic writing.
  • 2950 - Upper and Lower Egypt are united by Menes, the first Pharaoh of Egypt.
  • 2700 - Papyrus is developed as a writing surface.
  • 2600 - The first pyramid is built by the Pharaoh Djoser. Imhotep, the famous advisor, is the architect.




Suez Canal from an Aircraft Carrier


Brief Overview of the History of Egypt

One of the oldest and longest lasting civilizations in world history was developed in Ancient Egypt. Starting in about 3100 BC, Menes became the first Pharaoh uniting all of Ancient Egypt under one rule. The Pharaohs ruled the land for thousands of years building great monuments, pyramids, and temples that still survive to this day. The height of Ancient Egypt was in the time of the New Empire from 1500 to 1000 BC.


In 525 BC the Persian Empire invaded Egypt taking over until the rise of Alexander the Great and the Greek Empire in 332 BC. Alexander moved the capital to Alexandria and put the Ptolemy dynasty in power. They would rule for around 300 years.

Arab forces invaded Egypt in 641. Arab Sultanates were in power for many years until the Ottoman Empire arrived in the 1500s. They would remain in power until its power started to wane in the 1800s. In 1805, Mohammed Ali became Pasha of the country and founded a new dynasty of rule. Ali and his heirs would rule until 1952. During this time the Suez Canal was completed as well as the building up of the modern city of Cairo. For some years between 1882 and 1922, the Ali dynasty was a puppet of the British Empire while the country was part of the British Empire.

In 1952, Egypt the monarchy was overthrown and the Republic of Egypt was established. One of the main leaders, Abdel Nasser came into power. Nasser took control of the Suez Canal and became a leader in the Arab world. When Nasser died, Anwar Sadat was elected President. Prior to Sadat becoming president, Egypt and Israel had fought several wars. In 1978, Sadat signed the Camp David accords which led to a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel.


Amenhotep III Timeline - History

The Identification of the Egyptian Dynasty of the Exodus

The data gained from the chariot wheels placed the Exodus at the time of the 18th Dynasty. Amazingly, this is the most well documented group of kings in all of ancient Egypt. A "dynasty", to give a definition, is basically a continuous family line of rulers. "A more or less arbitrary and artificial but convenient subdivision of these epochs, beginning with the historic age, is furnished by the so-called dynasties of Manetho This native historian of Egypt, a priest of Sebennytos, who flourished under Ptolemy I (305-285 B.C.), wrote a history of his country in the Greek language.

The work has perished, and we only know it in an epitome by Julius Africanus and Esebius, and extracts by Josephus. The value of the work was slight, as it was built up on folk tales and popular traditions of the early kings. Manetho divided the long succession of Pharaohs as known to him, into thirty royal houses or dyanasties, and although we know that many of his divisions are arbitrary, and that there was many a dynastic change where he indicates none, yet his dynasties divide the kings unto convenient groups, which have so long been employed in modern study of Egyptian history, that it is now impossible to dispense with them." This quote from "A History of Egypt" by James Henry Breasted (1905) p. 13-14, tells us from the pen of one of the leading authorities on ancient Egypt, that the basis on which the information of ancient Egyptian dynasties rests, is unreliable, yet it continues in use.

The "Hyksos"
This so-called 18th Dynasty consisted of a family who ruled in Thebes. At the time this family came to the throne, it was apparent that other dynastic families were ruling as pharaohs in other areas of Egypt. In the north, or the delta region, there lived at this time a people whom the Egyptians thought of as "foreign"- these included the descendants of Jacob, or the Israelites. It appears that other Asiatic peoples had moved into the region along with them- people who were ambitious and wanted to rule themselves as the Egyptians did. And they did not conform to the Egyptian religion.

We know that the Israelites, by decree of the pharaoh of Joseph's time, were allowed to live as "independents" and that their leaders were considered "royal"- when Jacob died, the description of his funeral was exactly the same as that of the pharaohs: GEN 50:2 And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father: and the physicians embalmed Israel. 3 And forty days were fulfilled for him for so are fulfilled the days of those which are embalmed: and the Egyptians mourned for him threescore and ten days. 7 and Joseph went up to bury his father: and with him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and all the elders of the land of Egypt, 9 And there went up with him both chariots and horsemen: and it was a very great company.

So, for many, many years the Israelites live peacefully among themselves, setting up their own rulers. And doesn't it seem reasonable to assume that relatives and friends of the Israelites would want to move down to the Delta region with them when they saw what a "garden of Eden" it was there? Well, whether it was friends and relatives, or not, someone moved in and lived along side of them. And these foreigners soon became a "thorn in the side" of the native Egyptians.

At the end of the 17th Dynasty, ancient records tell of the Egyptians in Thebes claiming to expel the "Hyksos" from the delta. Inscriptions document the presence of these "Shepherd Kings" in the delta region beginning with the 6th dynasty and terminating with the 17th.

When the native Egyptian Theban rulers "expelled" the Hyksos, what occurred was that they ran these other peoples who had settled along with the Israelites out of Egypt. And although no mention is made of the Israelites by name, we know that it was at this time, at the beginning of the 18th dynasty, that they were enslaved. With the trouble-making outsiders gone, the peaceful Israelites were at the mercy of the Theban rulers.

There is an interesting inscription by Hatshepsut of the 18th dynasty which refers to the restoration of Egypt after the "Hyksos" had been expelled from the delta region: "I have restored that which was in ruins, I have raised up that which was unfinished. Since the Asiatics were in the midst of Avaris of the Northland [Delta], and the barbarians were in the midst of them [the people of the Northland], overthrowing that which had been made, while they ruled in ignorance of Re."

This wonderful passage tells us that whoever lived in the Delta (the Israelites and the "barbarians" from Asia) did not worship RE, the Egyptian sun god. And we know this was true of the Israelites. So they simply "kicked out" the trouble-makers, who had no right to be there in the first place. Then, the Israelites, who had been given the right to live there, had their special "status" canceled. The Egyptians had no reason to expel them- after all, they were peaceful, industrious and hardy people. Instead, they were enslaved.

THE KINGS OF THE 18TH DYNASTY
The kings of the 18th Dynasty are stated by historians as being named either Amenhotep and Thutmoses. But, there is a big problem with this fluctuation between names. The pharaoh was considered the earthly embodiment of the main god and his name reflected the supreme god of his royal family. Does it make sense to anyone that one king would consider Thoth (Thutmoses) the supreme god while the next considered Amen (Amenhotep) the supreme god, and continue to alternate gods through a succession of several kings? Of course not.

As we read earlier, the list of dynasties and kings that the Egyptologists base their information on is quite inaccurate. The inscriptions found in temples and tombs indicate that the "Thutmoses" name is indicative of one of the offices of the pharaoh, just as was the "Amenhotep" name-and that each pharaoh was both a "Thutmoses" as well as an "Amenhotep" as he advanced in the royal line from co-regent to emperor. From our research, it appears that the crown prince received his "Thutmoses" title upon being appointed co-regent, and then became "Amenhotep" in addition to his earlier names, when he became emperor.

Let me stress that it appears that this is the order he received each name however, it may possibly have been reversed. But we have no doubts that each ruler possessed both names. And each ruler left inscriptions relating to his reign in both names-sometimes he referred to himself as Thutmoses, while at other times Amenhotep. Each individual king left inscriptions in both names, dating his regnal years sometimes from the date of his co-regency and sometimes from the date of his emperorship. We don't fully understand the "rules" governing these practices yet.

PHARAOH "RAMESES"
Yes, most people think of the pharaoh of the Exodus as "Rameses". And why not? The name "Rameses" is mentioned in the Bible as early as the story of Joseph. Was there a "Rameses" in the l8th dynasty? Yes. but that was more a title than a name- much like the title "pharaoh".
Not only was "Thutmoses" also to become "Amenhotep"- he, as main emperor of all Egypt, was also titled "Rameses". If you will recall, in the story of Joseph, the land of Goshen was also referred to as the land of "Rameses":

GEN 47:11 And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded.

Egyptian evidence shows that every native Egyptian king from the time of the so-called 5th dynasty was titled "Son of the Sun" or "Rameses" in addition to his other names. This has caused massive confusion among the Egyptian scholars, who have zeroed in on one particular pharaoh, "Rameses II", and proclaimed him the "greatest pharaoh of all Egypt". All one needs to do is go to the museum in Cairo and view the 4 statues of "Rameses II" in the main entrance hall- each one is clearly a different person. The inscriptions referring to "Rameses" refer to many different pharaohs.

Also, let's go back to the inscription of Hatshepsut in the section on the Hyksos- remember that she said these people lived "in ignorance of RE? This inscription makes its quite clear that whoever lived in the delta (Goshen/Rameses) region, did not worship the native Egyptian god, Re. "Re" is the "Ra" of "Rameses"- and this verifies the supremacy of "Re/Ra" during the time of the 18th dynasty,- and that "Rameses" would indeed be one of the titles of the pharaoh.

We are going to do a great deal of talking about the 18th dynasty kings. To make it easier for you to follow, we will state now that we believe Thutmoses 1 became Amenhotep 1 when he went from co-regent to emperor. Therefore, these 2 names are the same person.

This list will tell you who we believe were the names of each royal person we will be discussing. You can reference this list if you get confused.

Pharaoh at Moses' birth THUTMOSES 1/AMENHOTEP 1

"Pharaoh's daughter" NEFURE/HATSHEPSUT

Pharaoh when he fled THUTMOSES 3/AMENHOTEP 2

Pharaoh of the Exodus THUTMOSES 4/AMENHOTEP 3

1st-born son of Pharaoh TUTANKHAMEN

1KI 6:1 And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD.

If you go to your encyclopaedia or most any reference book, you will be able to discover that the date of Solomon's rule is fairly well established and the date of the 4th year of his reign would be 967/966 BC. In our opinion, the most accurate and authoritative book on the subject of dating the Hebrew Kings is "The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings" by Edwin R. Thiele. You can order this book from any book store if they do not have it in stock.

With this date established (967/966 Bc) we need to go back 480 years, as the above scripture indicates. This would place the date of the Exodus at 1447/1446 BC. I will state at this point that we do not consider any outside source above the scriptural reference, so we will look no further for more information as to the date.

We will, however, look for historical references and inscriptions which may verify this date. The following information is just such a verification, and is from the "Encyclopaedia Britannica" 1985 ed. vol. 4 pp. 575,6: "The next date is given by a medical papyrus, to which a calendar is added, possibly to insure a correct conversion of dates used in the receipts to the actual timetable. Here it is said that the 9th day of the 11th month of year 9 of King Amenhotep I was the day of the helical rising of Sothis- ie., 1538 BC. This date, however, is only accurate provided the astronomical observations were taken at the old residence of Memphis if observed at Thebes in Upper Egypt, the residence of the 18th dynasty, the date must be lowered by 20 years- ie., 1518 BC."

When we came across this information, we had already constructed our chronology of the 18th dynasty, which took about 3 years. We show year 9 of Amenhotep 1 to be 1519 BC- and this reference places his year 9 at 1518 BC, if the observance was noted at Thebes, which is where their royal headquarters were. This was a very exciting confirmation which is based on solid astronomical evidence. It, at the very least, placed the 18th dynasty at exactly the right place in the time scale. For it to have fit so extremely well was far more than we could have asked for!

For more information on Biblical chronology, see our chronology later in this volume with references, etc.

WHO WAS PHARAOH'S DAUGHTER?
The next question that must be addressed is whether there existed in the 18th dynasty, a pharaoh without a royal son to pass the throne to, and whether that pharaoh had a royal daughter of note. The answer is a most resounding "yes"! Not only did "Thutmoses I/Amenhotep I" not have a royal son who lived, he had a daughter who is the most well-known and well-documented female personage of all ancient Egyptian history, next to Cleopatra. Her names were Nefure and Hatshepsut. She was referred to as "Nefure" when we first learn of her in the inscriptions. At that time, she is a royal princess- her father was co-regent for the emperor, "pharaoh Ahmosis". She is referred to in the ancient records by this name, Nefure, until a point in time when she becomes known as the "royal queen"- we'll explain a little later.

Also, we want to explain that when Moses was born, the emperor of all Egypt was Ahmosis who lived in Thebes. In Memphis, Thutmoses 1 was co-regent, and also called "pharaoh". The word "pharaoh" comes from the Egyptian word "pero" which simply means "big house". This "pharaoh", whose daughter rescued baby Moses, didn't become emperor of all of Egypt until Moses was about 12 years old.

Let me interject here that Egyptian scholars have constructed a scenario whereas "Nefure" and "Hatshepsut" are 2 different people. However, again, we can with great confidence state that these 2 names belong to the same lady. It was young Nefure who rescued baby Moses from the Nile while she was living at the palace in Memphis- the royal residence of the co-regent. In the museums across the world are various statues, unlike any other ancient Egyptian statues, which are of a young girl holding a baby or small child- this child wears on his head the "royal side-lock" of a future prince. The names on these statues are "Nefure" and "Senmut"- Senmut being the baby's name. However, the scholars have designated the woman in these statues as being a man named "Senmut", who is the official nurse of princess "Nefure".

"Senmut" is the Egyptian name given to Moses when he first came to live at the palace. This name is of extreme importance for it means literally "mother's brother". To understand the significance, we must explain briefly a subject which normally would take several volumes- Egyptian religion and the pharaoh.

The ancient Egyptians believed that the first king of Egypt was Osiris. Osiris was married to Isis, his sister. Osiris' brother, Set, killed Osiris out of jealousy for the throne. To sum it up briefly, Isis brought Osiris back to life for one night by a magic spell- and during this one night she was impregnated by Osiris, who then returned to his death state. The child she bore was called Horus, and he was the reincarnation of Osirus. At the end of the story, the throne is returned to Horus, the rightful king.

Therefore, Isis' child was her son, her husband and her brother- all in one. All kings of Egypt were then said to be "Horus"- the reincarnation of Osiris. Confusing?- yes. But that's what they believed.
Do you see the significance of the name given to Moses? He was being "set up" in the Egyptian economy to possibly be the future king- the royal heir of his "grandfather-pharaoh". His "grandfather" (adopted, of course) had no royal male heirs- they had died. But he had one royal daughter, Nefure. The future king could only inherit the throne through the royal daughter. She (Nefure) convinced her father, the pharaoh, to make her little adopted boy his future heir. Nefure, as the symbolic Isis, had her little "Osiris/Horus", who was named "Senrout"- his "mother's brother". If all of this seems a bit complicated and silly, just compare it with the rules and regulations of the royal family of England today. The right to the throne doesn't pass that easily to someone inside the family, much less outside of the family. But, in times when there is no heir, preparations and steps must be taken to procure the right for whoever is determined.

With this understanding, there is a Scripture which sheds a great deal more light on the situation of Moses as Nefure (Hatshepsut)'s son:

HEB 11:24 By faith Moses, when he was come to years, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter

Our studies show that Moses came to live at the palace at about age 12, about the same time his "grandfather" became main emperor over all Egypt. At this time, they moved from the palace at Memphis where the co-regent ruled, to Thebes where the main palace was. At about age 18, Moses was designated the future "heir apparent", with his mother, Nefure as his regent. She was now given the additional royal name of "Hatshepsut" and referred to as "queen" instead of princess. It gets very confusing from this point on because the Egyptologists have come up with a very elaborate scenario whereby they say that Hatshepsut proclaimed herself king. Now, a few words about this theory may help give a little understanding.

For one thing, the Egyptian line of royalty descent was based on very sacred beliefs- beliefs- which would not in any way allow for a woman to become the "earthly embodiment'' of the god. She could become the "royal wife", the "great queen", and in some cases possess the royal power to appoint a new pharaoh in instances whereby the throne may be empty at one point in time. But this fantastic scenario whereby the scholars say Hatshepsut proclaimed herself "king" is simply not possible. In her temple at Deir El Bahri, there is a wall which depicts the birth of the future heir to the throne, which historians say is the birth of Hatshepsut. But there are a couple of problems with the scenario that these scholars have chosen to ignore. One, is that the baby is definitely a boy baby! And secondly, one scene shows the baby in the arms of Hatshepsut! One book we have explains this as "obviously a mistake on the part of the scribes who wrote the hieroglyphics- they must have gotten confused".

Moses = "Hatshepsut Xnem Amen"

The evidence on which they build the case for Hatshepsut declaring herself king are the inscriptions of "king Hatshepsut Xnem Amen / MaatKaRe". They assume that this is Hatshepsut with a few additions to her royal name. But let's examine this "king's" name: "Hatshepsut Xnem Amen" means "Hatshepsut united with Amen". "Amen" is the supreme god of the 18th dynasty, another name for "Re/Ra", the sun. This name means that the "king" of this name is the product of Hatshepsut being united with Amen, or the offspring, so to speak, of Hatshepsut by the god, Amen.
This "king", who was not really king, but was being designated as the future heir to the throne, was Moses, with Hatshepsut as his regent. Once someone was designated as the future heir to the throne, his inscriptions refer to him as "king".

That Moses was always closely associated with his adopted mother is very apparent- after all, she was his only connection to the royal family. To justify his elevation to such royal position had to be carefully documented in a manner that would be acceptable to the system.

The evidence shows that he was elevated to this position, as "heir apparent" when he was about 24 years old.

Finally, when Moses was about 33 years old, he was designated as the crown prince and became "Thutmoses II". Let us state at this point that the numbers after the Egyptian kings' names are not actually a part of their name- they are simply designations given them by the Egyptologists to identify each succeeding person of the same name.

Josephus tells that Moses, as Thutmoses, was the general of the army and that he was very popular with the Egyptians. He attributes Moses as the general who pacified Nubia, which in turn served to increase the wealth of Egypt greatly by the gold paid as tribute by the Nubians.

Finally, when Moses was 40, we know what happened at that time- and that he fled Egypt.

ROYAL TOMBS CONSTRUCTED FOR MOSES

Tomb No. 71
Near ancient Thebes, there is a magnificent building called "Deir el Bahri", which is a temple Moses built (as architect) for his adopted mother, Nefure. Above it is a tomb for Moses which has an unfinished statue carved above the entrance, in the virgin rock of the mountain, of a woman holding a small child. We, of course, recognize this as Moses and his adoptive mother.

The records of the building of this tomb show that it was begun when Moses was about 18- the year he was designated as the royal son of pharaoh's daughter and placed in line as the possible future heir-apparent. The name "Senmut" and "Nefure" are the names mentioned in this tomb.

Just below this tomb, excavators found a small rock-cut chamber that held the mummies of Hatnofer and Ramose, the Egyptian names for Moses' parents. His mother was embalmed and given a royal funeral, which indicates that she was buried here at the time of her death. The body of her husband, Ramose, however, was clearly a secondary burial- his body had been removed from its original burial and transferred to this grave- and it was clearly a non-royal burial.

This tomb was never finished and no one was ever buried in it. One reason being that another more elaborate, royal tomb was begun for Moses when he was about age 33/34- the year he was designated as Thutmoses II.

Tomb No. 353
This tomb is equally as fascinating as the first, for there was never a burial in it either. This was the second tomb built for Moses and this one would have been his royal tomb. It is very exciting to go down into that tomb and see how, at the time Moses fled and gave up his claim to the future throne, all work stopped on this tomb and it remains exactly as it was left to this day. It is finished down to the lower section of hieroglyphs and pictures- then, where the workmen stopped work, the pictures are drawn onto the wall in black ink. Equally amazing is the fact that, unlike other Egyptian tombs where the deceased is pictured with a wife and family, Moses is shown with only his mother and father, Hatnofer and Ramose. After all, Moses was never married while he was in Egypt.

SIR MARSTON & JOSEPHUS KNEW HATSHEPSUT

At this point, I would like to state that those of you who decide to research this subject- and we definitely recommend that you do just that- will find that the facts we have presented will be totally different from those as presented by historians and scholars. But view the evidences in the light that we have presented them and see for yourself how the evidence fits. It is amazing to us that the majority of scholars have missed this altogether.

There have been a few, however, who have made the connection. One of these is Sir Charles Marston, who, in his book "New Bible Evidence", 1934, recognizes that the Exodus had to occur during the 18th dynasty and that Hatshepsut was indeed the "pharaoh's daughter". If he had had the information that the Thutmoses and the Amenhoteps of this dynasty were in fact the same people- (they were Thutmoses when they were co-regents in Memphis, and Amenhoteps when they arose to main emperor),- he would have figured it all out.

Marston brings out the fact that Josephus gives some vital information as to this pharoah's daughter's identity on p. 162 of his above mentioned book: "He does, however, mention the name of the princess who found Moses in the ark of bulrushes. He says it was 'Termuthis,' in which we see an echo of the name Thotmes, or Tahutmes, which was borne by each of the three Pharaohs in whose reigns Hatshepsut played such a leading part."

THE MAN "WHO TOOK MOSES' PLACE"
When Moses fled Egypt at age 40, the emperor, Amenhotep 1 was very elderly- he had been preparing Moses for the throne for the past 22 years. Now, there was a big problem. Who would now be the future king?

In Memphis, a young man was being groomed to be appointed co-regent for Moses when he became emperor. This young man was immediately elevated to the rank of co-regent and given the same name of Thutmoses. The records show that he assumed the throne on his year 22. Now, this is a strange statement and tells much more than one might at first notice. A co-regent, or royal heir-apparent, begins counting his years when he is designated as the "heir-apparent". That becomes his year one. Here, we have a man assuming office in year 22 and he assumes it under that same name as Moses had.

Keep in mind, that as the royal heir assumes each stage of office, "heir-apparent", crown prince and co-regent, he also in some places counts his years from that particular appointment. This is why the years of "Thutmoses III are given as 54 years, while the years of Amenhotep II are given as 26 to 32 years (depending on what author you are reading). The problem with Thutmoses III, who took Moses' place, is that there are no records of his rise through the ranks. He just suddenly appears in year 22 as taking the throne.

Now, what happened here is that when Moses fled, in order to continue the reign of the earthly embodiment of "Thoth" in the "Thutmoses" co-regent, this man simply assumed the years that Moses had held that position. In other cases, when a royal personage would die, the god is said to "fly to the heavens" and then redescend into the body of whoever becomes the next earthly embodiment of the god. In this case, there was no death- there had to be an immediate transfer, which is exactly what took place. Everything that had belonged to Moses was simply figuratively transferred to this "new" "Thutmoses" and things went along without missing a step. This man is now referred to by scholars as Thutmoses III. All of the statuary attributed to him are actually the statues that were made of Moses.

And it was to this Thutmoses that scholars attribute 54 years of rule. However, 22 of those years belonged to the man he replaced, Moses. And the historic evidence proves this, too. If we subtract the 22 years from the 54 year total, we are left with 32 years. Now, instead of going through all the evidence, let's just read what one historian has to say about this Thutmoses III: "He passed away after a rule of thirty-two (some say fifty-four) years, having made Egyptian leadership in the Mediterranean world complete." This is from "The Story of Civilization" Vol. 1 by Will Durant, (1954) p. 155.

And it truly was 32 years later when the man who became emperor after taking Moses' place, died. Amenhotep II was perhaps the greatest ruler Egypt ever had. By the time of his death, Egypt was truly the world power and the wealthiest nation. Hatshepsut remained alive for many years after Moses fled, and is named as queen on monuments very late into this king's rule.

THE PHARAOH OF THE EXODUS

Upon Amenhotep II's death, his co-regent for 29 years, the 4th Thutmoses, became Amenhotep III. Upon his becoming emperor, he appointed his young son, Tutankhamen, as "crown-prince" and for the next 8/9 years, this pharaoh ruled Egypt. He inherited the throne at a time when Egypt was well established as the world ruler. All he basically had to do was sit back and collect the foreign tribute as it arrived. Egypt had military troops stationed in all the vassal territories and maintained their empire peaceably. In his inscriptions, this emperor makes claims to be a triumphant warrior, but these references are to the time of his co-regency, when he accompanied Amenhotep II in his triumphant exploits.

But most interesting about this man is the fact that historical data shows that he actually had no claim to the throne. He was not the first-born of the pharaoh, which was the standard mode of becoming emperor. The well-known "sphinx stele", still present between the paws of the sphinx at Giza, tells the strange story of how Thutmoses IV fell asleep one day in the shadow of the sphinx. He dreamed that the sun god came to him and told him that if he would clear away the sand from around the sphinx, he would make him king. This elaborate story would not have been needed if he had been entitled to the throne as rightful heir. But, it appears that Amenhotep II was also without a royal son. The inscriptions always call the new king the "son" of the previous king, but this is figurative- as referring to Osiris and Horus. But keep in mind that this new pharaoh was not the first born of the last pharaoh. This is important because this new king, Amenhotep III, was the pharaoh of the Exodus. Think about this- all the firstborn were killed by the Angel of Death if the pharaoh had been a first born, he would have died that night! So it is very important that we establish that this pharaoh was not a firstborn.

After reigning as emperor for 8/9 years, we reach the 40th year after Moses had fled Egypt. Remember, the pharaoh who took Moses' place reigned 32 years. Then, this last pharaoh reigned 8/9 years. This equalled the 40 years Moses was in the wilderness of Midian.

At this time at the end of the 40 years, Moses returns to the court of pharaoh Amenhotep III as commanded by God. And soon, the plagues began to fall upon Egypt. When the plague of the death of the first born fell by the hand of the Angel of Death, the pharaoh was not striken- but his son was:

EXO 11:5 And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill and all the firstborn of beasts.

This son was the young crown prince known to us all as "King Tut". However, the name is misleading, for we know he was never pharaoh, just crown prince. And while the historians all argue over who his father was, in an inscription on a statue of a lion dedicated by Tutankhamen to the temple of Soleb, he calls Amenhotep III his father. (Remember, Amenhotep III was also named Thutmoses IV.)

Another confusing factor in the identification of the kings and queens is the overabundance of royal mummies. In other words, although Thutmoses III and Amenhotep II are the same man, there have been found mummies for each name. Does this shoot down our theory? No, not in the least. First of all, it is necessary to have an understanding of the ancient Egyptian beliefs concerning death.

At death, they believed that a body was necessary for the ba, the ka and the akh to survive. These were, loosely translated, the various "spirit forms" which made up the psychic person and survived after death. However, in cases where the person was unavailable for burial, etc., any body would suffice as long as it was labeled with the name of the deceased. They believed that as long as a person's name was being spoken, or was on the walls of his tomb, his immortality was assured. The name was the most important factor. The following is from "Mummies, Myth and Magic in Ancient Egypt" by Christine El Mahdy (1989) p. 13: "The tomb, the mummy, the equipment, the paintings and reliefs were all designed to help preserve the name of the individual. The greatest horror was to have your name destroyed, cut out from a wall." (Emphasis ours)

If the mummy of the actual individual was so vital, why would they fear the desecration of their name? Because it was the key, in their belief, to their immortality. The mummy was important, as were the statues of the deceased. But the mummy could be supplied in a pinch- no problem.

Since it was considered a sacred duty of each king to protect the burials of his ancestor-kings, if a king couldn't find a mummy for a particular king, he would provide one as is written in numerous inscriptions.

Mummies have been found which the excavators claim to be the mummies of each of the Amenhoteps and each of the Thutmoses. However, a careful examination of all evidence leads one to conclude that the only mummies which are of the actual 18th Dynasty pharaohs in question are the mummy of Amenhotep I and Amenhotep II.

Amenhotep I (Thutmoses I) was found in his own tomb, as was Amenhotep II (Thutmoses III). Amenhotep I's mummy was never unwrapped but was x-rayed- and it revealed several genetic peculiarities which were shared by the mummies of several of his ancestors. The most obvious of these was the fact that he had the same type of malocclusion- a very prominent protrusion of the top front teeth- almost an overbite. This genetic feature was seen in all his female relatives- sister, mother, grandmother and daughter.

We believe the only authentic mummies of the 18th dynasty kings to be those of Amenhotep I and Amenhotep II. Of course, there wouldn't be a mummy for Amenhotep III as he drowned in the Red Sea. Nor would there be a mummy of Thutmoses II since he was Moses. The others, which are said to be Thutmoses I, III, IV and Amenhotep III we believe to be mummies supplied by later kings, as they were all found in other tombs, in other sarcophaguses, and as they were simply not royal burials.

Here are a couple of examples of the evidence which shows these mummies to be extremely doubtful. These concern the mummy said to be that of Thutmoses 1, who is known to have ruled a minimum of 21 years by existing inscriptions: "However, several eminent physical anthropologists who have seen these x-rays have been absolutely convinced that this mummy is that of a young man, perhaps 18 years of age, certainly not over twenty." "X-Raying the Pharaohs" by James E. Harris and Kent R. Weeks, (1973) p.131-2. The fact that this mummy is far too young to be this king is evidence enough.

But now, let's go back to when the mummy was actually identified as Thutmoses I: "Among the mummies discovered at Deir-el-Bahari was one, which on account of its having been found in a coffin bearing the name of Pinozen I of the XXIst Dynasty was formerly supposed to be the mummy of that king. Maspero, however, formed the opinion that it was the mummy of Thutmoses I on account of the facial resemblance which it bore to the Pharaoh's Thutmoses II and III" "Egyptian Mummies" by G. Elliot Smith and Warren R. Dawson (1924) p. 91.

This mummy was identified as Thutmoses 1 because he seemed to favor the other mummies. Not a strong basis for identification. Plus that fact that the mummy said to be Thutmoses III was also determined to be far too young- plus the fact that he was just barely five feet tall. Then, there is the mummy of Thutmoses IV, who was extremely emaciated and identified as just barely 30 years old. It doesn't even take careful study to realize that these mummies are "impostors".


Amenhotep I

Ahmose’s son and successor, Amenhotep I (ruled c. 1514–1493 bce ), pushed the Egyptian frontier southward to the Third Cataract, near the capital of the Karmah (Kerma) state, while also gathering tribute from his Asiatic possessions and perhaps campaigning in Syria. The emerging kingdom of Mitanni in northern Syria, which is first mentioned on a stela of one of Amenhotep’s soldiers and was also known by the name of Nahrin, may have threatened Egypt’s conquests to the north.

The New Kingdom was a time of increased devotion to the state god Amon-Re, whose cult largely benefited as Egypt was enriched by the spoils of war. Riches were turned over to the god’s treasuries, and as a sign of filial piety the king had sacred monuments constructed at Thebes. Under Amenhotep I the pyramidal form of royal tomb was abandoned in favour of a rock-cut tomb, and, except for Akhenaton, all subsequent New Kingdom rulers were buried in concealed tombs in the famous Valley of the Kings in western Thebes. Separated from the tombs, royal mortuary temples were erected at the edge of the desert. Perhaps because of this innovation, Amenhotep I later became the patron deity of the workmen who excavated and decorated the royal tombs. The location of his own tomb is unknown.


Attestation

Bebnum is only attested by an isolated fragment of the Turin canon, a king list redacted in the Ramesside period and which serves as the primary historical source for kings of the second intermediate period. The fact that the fragment on which Bebnum figures is not attached to the rest of the document made its chronological position difficult to ascertain. Α] However an analysis of the fibers of the papyrus led Ryholt to place the fragment on the 9th column, row 28 of the canon (Gardiner entry 9.30). ΐ]


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