News

Combat of San Pelayo, 24 March 1813

Combat of San Pelayo, 24 March 1813


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Combat of San Pelayo, 24 March 1813

The combat of San Pelayo (24 March 1813) saw the Spanish under Mendizabal attempt to defeat the French forces preparing to besiege Castro-Urdiales, but ended as a costly draw.

Early in 1813 Napoleon placed General Clausel in command of the Army of the North. One of his orders was to recapture the port of Castro-Urdiales, a few miles west of Bilbao, then the only fortified port in Anglo-Spanish hands on that stretch of the coast and a useful base for the Royal Navy. Clausel believed that the port was poorly fortified and could easy be captured. On 21 March he left Bilbao at the head of a force made up of most of General Palombini’s Italian division, and one French battalion, but when he reached the port on the following day it quickly became clear that it would probably need a formal siege. News then arrived that Bilbao was being threatened, so Clausel left with his French battalion.

Palombini was left at Castro-Urdiales, and camped at San Pelayo. There is a hamlet of that name twenty miles to the south. Although that seems a long way from the port, Gabriel de Mendizabal with 3,000-4,000 Spanish troops was in the area, so Palombini may have camped at that distance to avoid an early clash with the Spanish.

If that was the case, then the plan failed. On 24 March Mendizabel attacked the Italian camp. He split his force into several columns and attempted to support Palombini’s position. Palombini sortied from his camp, and forced the Spanish to retreat, although not without suffering fairly heavy losses. Vacani, the chief engineer in the force, claimed that the French lost 110 men killed and wounded, but Martinien’s lists of French casualties shows that the three units present, the 4th , 6th and 2nd Ligeros lost 3 officers and 16 wounded in the fighting, suggesting a total loss of nearer to 350 men.

Soon after this clash, Clausel returned to the front, only to decide that the port was too strong to attack with the forces at his disposal. Palombini was ordered to destroy the goods he had prepared for the siege, and move west to raise the siege of Santona.

Napoleonic Home Page | Books on the Napoleonic Wars | Subject Index: Napoleonic Wars


File:Church of San Pelayo, Villasila de Valdavia 005.JPG

Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.

Date/TimeThumbnailDimensionsUserComment
current21:10, 23 January 20152,896 × 1,944 (2.62 MB) Valdavia (talk | contribs) User created page with UploadWizard

You cannot overwrite this file.


Contents

Although the original 2nd Infantry Regiment was constituted in March 1791 and fought in the Miami Indian Campaign and the War of 1812 at Fort Bowyer in Alabama its history and lineage is not a part of the present regiment. That regiment became part of the 1st Infantry through the consolidations of 1815. For the history about the original 2d Infantry Regiment please refer to the page for the 1st Infantry Regiment

At the end of the War of 1812, an act of Congress dated 3 March 1815 reduced the size of the Regular Army to a maximum of 10,000 men. [2] Eight infantry regiments, one rifle regiment and an artillery regiment was formed from the remains of the 46 existing regiments, while the cavalry was eliminated. This was done with no regard for the traditions of the existing regiments. The old regiments which happened to be closest together were pooled to form new regiments and the numbers assigned the regiments were based on the seniority of the colonels commanding them.

In accordance with the act, on 17 May 1815 a new 2nd US Infantry was created by the consolidation of the 6th, 16th, 22nd, 23rd, and 32nd Regiments of Infantry, all then located in upper New York and Vermont. The date of organization of the present 2nd Infantry is that of the original 6th Infantry, 12 April 1808. The regiment's headquarters was in the cantonment at Sackett's Harbor. Colonel Hugh Brady became the regiment's commanding officer with Henry Leavenworth as major and Ninian Pinkney as lieutenant-colonel. [3] : 415 The regimental number was "2" because Brady was the second most senior regimental commander in the United States Army. Colonel Brady was in command of the 22nd Infantry at the time of the consolidation and, though he served in several other commands and reached the rank of major general, he remained colonel commandant of the 2nd Infantry Regiment from his residence in Detroit until his death on 15 April 1851. [4]

The War Department ruled that the present 2nd Infantry bear upon its colors the campaign honors of the regiments consolidated into its organization. Thus, the colors bear the campaign streamers for Canada, Chippawa and Lundy's Lane, even though it did not participate in any of the battles in Canada during the War of 1812. The present 2nd Infantry also bears the two battle honors earned by the original/old 2nd Infantry for the Miami Campaign (1790-1795) and Alabama 1814. [5]

First Indian War period Edit

In the ensuing years the regiment was primarily concerned with manning and constructing forts around the Great Lakes. When the Black Hawk War of 1832 erupted the 2nd Infantry was sent to Illinois but did not participate in any fighting. The regiment returned to its posts on the Great Lakes. During the Second Seminole War, from 1838 to 1842, the regiment was in Florida, where it was on the move daily, fighting and building roads and installations. In April 1840 with Colonel Brady attending to other duty assignments Lieutenant Colonel Bennett C. Riley assumed command of the regiment. Lieutenant Colonel Riley remained in command of the regiment until January 1850. In 1843 the regiment returned to its posts on Lakes Ontario and Champlain in upstate New York. [3] : 423

War with Mexico Edit

When war broke out with Mexico in 1846, the 2nd Infantry Regiment was sent to Camargo, Mexico and joined General David E. Twiggs' Brigade. From September 1846 to December 1847 the regiment campaigned from the Rio Grande to Mexico City, fighting in battles at Veracruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco, Moline del Rey and Chapultepec.

Second Indian War period Edit

In September 1848 because of conflicts with the Indians in Oregon and California the regiment was sent west. The regiment sailed via Rio de Janeiro, Cape Horn and Santiago, Chile, to California. Between 1849 and 1853 the regiment was in California occupying stations from Goose Lake on the north to Fort Yuma on the south and the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Sierra Nevada Mountains on the east, scouting, providing protection for the '49ers and fighting throughout the entire area. The regiment returned to New York in 1853 only to be sent to the Western Plains where it constructed or reconstructed forts, built roads and scouted the hills and plains along the Missouri River as far west as Fort Kearny, Nebraska and Fort Laramie, Wyoming.

American Civil War Edit

During the Civil War the 2nd Infantry fought in the early Battle of Wilson's Creek in Missouri and the first Battle of Bull Run. The regiment was assigned to the Army of the Potomac and fought in engagements such as Manassas, Antietam, Chancellorsville, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg. By June 1864 the commissioned and enlisted strength of the regiment had reached such a low figure, less than 100 men, that at the request of the regimental commander the remaining enlisted men were transferred to Company C, and that company was given a full complement of officers and non-commissioned officers. From then until December 1864 the entire regiment consisted of just Company C. On 18 April 1869 the 2nd Infantry was consolidated with the 16th Infantry and the consolidated unit was designated as the 2nd Infantry.

The 2nd Infantry bears nine battle honors from the Southern Campaign through its 1869 consolidation with the 16th Infantry. These honors were earned by the 16th Infantry: Atlanta, Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Georgia 1864, Kentucky 1862, Mississippi 1862, Murfreesboro, Shiloh, and Tennessee 1863

Third Indian War period Edit

From 1877 to 1886 the regiment was in Washington, Oregon and Idaho Territory campaigning against the Nez Perce, then the Bannocks and then a band of the Eastern Shoshones called the Sheepeaters. In 1886 it moved to Fort Omaha, Nebraska to help fight the Sioux. The 2nd Infantry was on the Pine Ridge Reservation on 29 December 1890 when the Wounded Knee Massacre occurred and, although the regiment was not involved, one officer from the regiment was wounded there. The regiment remained on the western plains until 1898.

Spanish–American War Edit

In 1898 the regiment was deployed to Cuba at the start of the Spanish–American War, with Headquarters, Staff, Band, and Companies C and G sailing on the same ship with the Rough Riders. The regiment, under the command of LTC William Wherry, (regimental commander COL John C. Bates had been promoted to brigadier general of volunteers) fought in battles along the road to San Juan Heights and the battle of Santiago, where it fought on the extreme left of San Juan Heights. In August 1898, the regiment returned to the United States only to return to Cuba in January 1899. The regiment stayed in Cuba until September 1899 when it returned to the United States to prepare for deployment to the Philippines.

Philippine Insurrection Edit

In August/September 1900 the 2nd Infantry was deployed to deal with the Philippine Insurrection during which it fought in over 25 engagements on several of the islands. In May 1903 the regiment returned to duty in the western United States, it was stationed at Fort Logan, Colorado and Fort D. A. Russell, Wyoming. In February 1906 the regiment was redeployed to the Philippines and remained there until returning to the United States in March 1908. The 3rd Battalion went to Fort Assinniboine, Montana and the balance of the regiment to Fort Thomas, Kentucky for training and garrison duties until deploying to Hawaii in 1911.

World War I Edit

When war broke out, the 2nd Infantry Regiment was on security duty in the Hawaiian Islands guarding interned German ships and sailors, as well as various U.S. installations. In July 1918, it returned to the United States and was assigned to the 19th Division at Camp Dodge, Iowa. The war ended just as the regiment was about to deploy to France. In 1919, the regiment was relieved from the 19th Division and resumed as a separate regiment.

Post-World War I Edit

In September 1919, following the 2nd Infantry Regiment's release from the 19th Division, it was stationed at Camp Sherman, Ohio. In October 1921 the 2nd Infantry Regiment was ordered to Fort Snelling, Minnesota and Fort Sheridan, Illinois but as they reached their destinations the 2nd and 3rd Battalions were eliminated and headquarters and 1st Battalion were at Fort Sheridan as a training battalion. In August 1922 the 2nd Infantry Regiment was redesignated a combat regiment and the 2nd and 3rd Battalions were reorganized using personnel from the 54th Infantry. In March 1923 the regiment was assigned to the 6th Division. Headquarters and 1st Battalion stayed at Fort Sheridan, 2nd Battalion was at Fort Wayne (Detroit), Michigan and 3rd Battalion was at Fort Brady, Michigan. Colonel Frederick B. Shaw, who wrote a history of the regiment, commanded from 1928 to 1930. [6] Between August 1922 and October 1939 no major changes were made and the 2nd Infantry Regiment participated in garrison training, maneuvers, field training and other duties.

World War II Edit

In 1939 prior to World War II, the 2nd Infantry Regiment was assigned to the 5th Infantry Division. In February 1942 the regiment was sent to Iceland for training, to provide security for U.S. bases located there, and to load and unload supply ships. It was then sent to England and then Ireland for training. In July 1944 the 2nd Infantry Regiment along with the 5th Infantry Division landed in Normandy, France. It became part of General George Patton's Third United States Army, leading the way in the breakout from the beaches of Normandy in Operation Cobra, capturing Rheims and then seized Metz after a major battle at Fort Driant.

When the Battle of the Bulge began the 2nd Infantry Regiment moved to the battle zone in the area of Nideranven, Luxembourg. In January 1945 the 2nd Infantry Regiment forced a crossing of the Sauer River and attacked into the Siegfried Line. The regiment then crossed the Rhine River near Oppenheim and secured the crossing for other Third Army units. The unit then spearheaded the attack into Czechoslovakia and was located near the town of Volary when the word came to cease all forward movement at 08:31 on 7 May 1945.

Post-World War II Edit

Following World War II the 2nd Infantry Regiment returned to the United States and was inactivated and activated several times and returned to Germany for a period. During the Korean War the regiment was stationed at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania with the 5th Infantry Division training recruits for deployment to Korea. In June 1957, at the time of the Pentomic reorganization, the 2nd Infantry Regiment was stationed at Fort Ord, California with the 5th Infantry Division, serving as a training regiment. The 2nd Battalion was reorganized and redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battle Group, 2nd Infantry and released from assignment with 5th Infantry Division and assigned to the 1st Infantry Division. At this time both the 1st and 3rd Battalions were inactivated.

In January 1959 the 2nd Battle Group was reassigned to the 24th Infantry Division in Germany. In February 1962 the 1st Battalion was activated and assigned to the 2nd Brigade, 5th Infantry Division. The 2d Battle Group, 2nd Infantry was reorganized and redesignated and concurrently relieved from assignment to the 24th Infantry Division and also assigned to the 2nd Brigade, 5th Infantry Division. Both battalions were stationed at Fort Devens, Massachusetts.

Vietnam War Edit

When the fighting in Vietnam escalated the 1st Infantry Division was restructured and Battle groups were redesignated as infantry battalions. On 12 July 1965 the 1st and 2nd Battalions, 2nd Infantry were relieved from assignment to the 5th Infantry Division and assigned to the 1st Infantry Division with no change of station and in September 1965 the two battalions deployed to Vietnam, landing on the beach at Vũng Tàu in October 1965. From there they proceeded to their assigned areas, Phước Vĩnh for the 1st Battalion and Lai Khe for the 2nd Battalion. The battalions initially fought as light infantry in the areas north and west of Saigon. On 2 January 1967 the 2nd Battalion officially became a mechanized infantry battalion.

The 1st Battalion sustained its first major casualties of the war on 21 December 1965 when the enemy ambushed the command group of Company B as the company was moving out of Bien Hoa on routine patrol. On 25 August 1966 during Operation Amarillo a patrol from Company C, 1st Battalion was ambushed after stumbling into a Viet Cong base camp, losing 6 men killed of the 15-man patrol, total US losses in the operation were 41 killed, 45 Viet Cong bodies were found, while later intelligence indicated that Viet Cong losses were 171 men killed. [7] The 2nd Battalion fought its first major battles at Ap Bau Bang on 12 November 1965 and Ap Nha Mat on 5 December 1965. Heavy losses were suffered at Ap Nha Mat and three soldiers are still listed as missing. [8]

During four and a half years the battalions were involved in major operations such as: Junction City, the largest operation conducted up to that time, Lam Son II, Paul Bunyan, Bù Đốp (aka Battle of Hill 172), An Lộc, and An Lộc II and numerous other operations and small unit actions. Contact with the enemy was almost daily. When the 1st Infantry Division stood down in March and April 1970 the 1st and 2nd Battalion's colors were cased and the soldiers were either reassigned to other units in Vietnam or returned to the United States to be discharged.

Post-Vietnam War Edit

In early April 1970 an honor guard returned Fort Riley, Kansas with the 1st Division and its assigned unit's colors. At that time the 1st Battalion became a mechanized infantry battalion and remained active with the 1st Infantry Division until it was inactivated on 1 October 1983. On 15 April 1970 the 2nd Battalion was inactivated.

On 21 March 1973 the 2nd Battalion was relieved from assignment to the 1st Infantry Division and reassigned to the 9th Infantry Division. It was activated at Fort Lewis, Washington with the reflagging of the 1st Battalion, 60th Infantry. In May 1991 the 2nd Battalion was inactivated and relieved from assignment to the 9th Infantry Division.

On 16 February 1996 the 2nd Battalion was reassigned to the 1st Infantry Division and on 27 March was activated at Rose Barracks, Vilseck, Germany as Task Force 2/2 Infantry with the reflagging of the 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry. The 2nd Battalion deployed to Bosnia in support of Operation Joint Guard in 1996. In 1997 the battalion, as part of Task Force Eagle Stabilization Force (SFOR), was awarded the Army Superior Unit Award for actions such as Brčko riots and Hill 562. [9] The 2nd Battalion redeployed to Vilseck in October 1997. On 24 November 1999, the battalion deployed to Camp Monteith, Kosovo. The battalion was redeployed to Vilseck in June 2000. The unit was again deployed to Camp Monteith, Kosovo in November 2002 until July 2003 as the last regular Army unit conducting operations. The national guard took formal command of operations from the 2nd Battalion.

Global War on Terrorism Edit

1st Battalion Edit

On 17 March 2008, for the first time in over 24 years, the 1st Battalion was activated in Schweinfurt, Germany with the reflagging of the 1st Battalion, 18th Infantry. 1-18 was a part of 2nd "Dagger" Brigade, 1st Infantry Division which was also reflagged as the 172nd Infantry Brigade (Separate). The 1st Battalion was assigned to 172nd Infantry Brigade and was a mechanized infantry battalion. The battalion had adopted the motto "Back in Black" and wore black scarves in recognition of the battalion's service in Vietnam.

In December 2008 the 1st Battalion (TF 1-2) deployed to Iraq and suffered its first casualty in April 2009 when a soldier was killed by an IED. In late October 2009 the first elements of the 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry and the 172nd Infantry Brigade began returning to Germany from Iraq. By mid November the entire battalion was back in Germany. TF 1-2 suffered four killed and three wounded during its deployment. The 1st Battalion had a change of command on 19 May 2010 and along with the entire 172d Infantry Brigade moved to Grafenwoehr, Germany.

In late July 2011 the 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry (TF 1-2) along with the entire 172nd Infantry Brigade deployed to Afghanistan. The transfer of authority from 1st Battalion, 61st Cavalry (101st Airborne Division) to Task Force 1-2 Infantry (TF 1-2) occurred on 13 August 2011 at 10:00. TF 1-2 was detached from the 172nd and worked for 3rd Brigade, 25th Infantry Division and was in control of Western Nangarhar.

On 14 August 2011 the 1st Battalion sustained its first casualties when two soldiers from Company A were killed by an IED while recovering a damaged vehicle. Company A, 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry had been attached to TF 3-66 Armor since 2008. Alpha Company, 3rd Battalion, 66th Armor (attached) worked in the Zio Haq area and Company B, 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry fought at FOB Altimur.

On 24 November 2011, the Black Scarves were ordered to move from Nangarhar to FOB Andar in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan to conduct a relief in place with the 2nd Battalion. On 3 January 2012 at 10:30, the transfer of authority between the two units occurred. Following the ceremony the 2nd Battalion began departing Afghanistan.

In early June 2012 the 1st Battalion began departing Afghanistan and returned to their base in Grafenwoehr, Germany with the last troops arriving back in Germany on 19 June. Task Force 1-2 suffered over 15 wounded during their latest deployment and A Company, 1st Battalion suffered 2 killed in action and 3 wounded while attached to Task Force 3-66 Armor. After returning to Germany the battalion trained and conducted Expert Infantryman Badge testing.

The 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry along with the entire 172nd Infantry Brigade was inactivated in a Casing of the Colors ceremony held on 31 May 2013. The effective date of the battalion's inactivation was 15 June 2013.

2nd Battalion Edit

In April 2003 with Operation Iraqi Freedom underway, Company B, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry deployed to Bashur Airfield in Northern Iraq as part of the 173rd Airborne Brigade's Task Force 1-63 Armor, to aid in opening a northern front in Iraq. This was called Operation Airborne Dragon, Northern Iraq with the entire task force being air lifted from Germany. Company B and the entire task force returned to Germany in February 2004.

In the spring of 2004 the 2nd Battalion, less Company B, deployed to Iraq with the 1st Infantry Division. On 20 July 2004 SSG Raymond Bittinger, 3rd Platoon, Company C, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry was awarded a Silver Star for leadership and heroism under fire on 9 April 2004 in Baqubah, Iraq. [10] SSG Bittinger was the first soldier of the 1st Infantry Division to receive a Silver Star during Operation Iraqi Freedom. During its year deployment to Iraq Task Force 2-2 Infantry also fought at Al Muqdadiyah, An Najaf, Al Fallujah, Mosul, and Baqubah.

In November 2004 Task Force 2-2, which comprised HHC Company A scouts of the 2/2 Company A, 2d Battalion, 63d Armor 2d Platoon, Company B, 1st Engineer Battalion 2d Platoon, Company A, 82d Engineer Battalion Troop F, 4th Cavalry and 1st Platoon, Battery A, 1/6 Field Artillery, fought alongside U.S. Marines in the Battle of Fallujah. [11] SSG David Bellavia was awarded a Medal of Honor for his actions during the Battle of Fallujah and Task Force 2-2 Infantry received a Presidential Unit Citation for their actions in the Battle of Fallujah.

The 2nd Battalion returned to Germany in February 2005. In May 2006 the battalion was disbanded and its colors were cased. On 19 April 2007 the 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry was activated as a light infantry battalion with the 1st Infantry Division, 3rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team at Fort Hood, Texas.

In June 2008 the 2nd Battalion, along with the 3rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, deployed to Afghanistan. The battalion conducted operations in the Maywand District of Kandahar Province. On 4 September 2008 Company C, 2nd Battalion suffered its first casualties when a Humvee was hit by an IED and a follow on enemy attack. On 6 May 2009 at FOB Ramrod, Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates presented awards to six members of Company C, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment, for their actions on 4 September. Bronze Star awards with "V" device went to SSG Anthony Roszko, SPC Kevin Tibbett, and CPL Justin Skotnicki. Army Commendation Medals with "V" device went to PFC Michael Kehrer, PVT Alexander Hayes and SGT Justin Chaney. [12] On 28 May 2009 PFC Robert Debolt, a rifleman with Company C, 2nd Battalion, was awarded a Silver Star for gallantry. SGT Ramin Berntsson was also awarded a Bronze Star with "V" device for his actions that day, upon redeployment to Fort Hood, Texas. The 2nd Battalion returned to Fort Hood in June 2009. On 10 September 2009 the 2nd Battalion had a change of command and on 16 October 2009 moved to Fort Knox, Kentucky.

In January 2011 the 2nd Battalion, along with the 3rd Brigade Combat Team once again deployed to Afghanistan. The battalion conducted operations in Ghazni Province. On 27 February 2011 the battalion sustained its first casualties when one soldier was killed and four wounded by an IED. In its one-year deployment 2nd Battalion suffered 3 killed and 49 wounded while conducting over 1,900 combat patrols and 22 air assaults as they and their Afghan partners captured 111 caches and killed 250 insurgents. On 3 January 2012, following a change of authority ceremony with 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry, the 2nd Battalion began departing Afghanistan. Since returning to Fort Knox the 2nd Battalion had a change of command and in training for its next deployment to Afghanistan.

In June 2013 the 2nd Battalion, along with the 3rd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, again deployed to Afghanistan. The unit took responsibility for the security forces assistance team mission in Zabul Province at a TOA ceremony when it relieved the 5th Troop, 7th Cavalry.

In late February 2014, following a transfer of authority with the 2nd Battalion, 12th Infantry at FOB Apache, the 2nd Battalion left Afghanistan and returned to Fort Knox.

The 2nd Battalion was inactivated as part of 3rd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division's inactivation on 21 May 2014.

On 13 January 2015 Company D 2d Battalion was activated as part of the 4th BSTB, 4th Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division in a ceremony on Fort Polk's Mountain Field. Company D was being activated as a "provisional" company, attached to the 4th Brigade Special Troops Battalion, in support of a security support tasking for SOUTHCOM. The mission will consist of CPT Andrews as the D Co Commander, SFC Ramos as the 1SG/NCOIC, and about 50 Soldiers selected from 2-4 IN, 2-30 IN & 3-89 CAV, all units from within 4-10 MTN. They performed security duties in support of humanitarian operations, within the SOUTHCOM AOR. Their mission is from FEB-AUG 2015, and when they return to Fort Polk, they will "officially" become part of 2d Battalion 2d Infantry. In February Company D, 2d Battalion deployed with the USNS Comfort on a seven-month humanitarian mission to the Caribbean. The official uncasing of the colors and Assumption of Command ceremony for the 2d Battalion was held on 3 September 2015 at Fort Polk, LA. Company D returned from their 7-month deployment on the USNS Comfort on 30 September 2015.

On 21 March 2016 the Department of the Army announced that the 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, stationed in Fort Polk, Louisiana, will be associated with the Texas Army National Guard's 36th Infantry Division. For the first time ever an active duty unit would wear a National Guard patch. This historic event was part of the U.S. Army's Associated Units Pilot Program. At a ceremony held on 16 September 2016 the 3rd Brigade, 10th Mountain "Patriots" removed their 10th Mountain Division patch and place on the highly regarded T Patch of the 36th Infantry Division.For the first time ever an active duty unit will wear a National Guard patch. This historic event is part of the U.S. Army's Associated Units Pilot Program. Since that time the brigade and battalion has reverted to the 10th Mountain Division and wear that division's patch.

On 19 April 2017 LTC John Newman assumed command of the 2d Battalion from LTC Aaron Coombs. Beginning in mid-September 2017 the 2d Battalion, 2d Infantry along with other elements of the 3d Brigade Combat Team of the 10th Mountain Division began deploying to Iraq for a 9-month tour. They will be replacing the 2d Brigade Combat Team of the 82d Airborne Division. The 2d Battalion began returned to Fort Polk beginning in June 2018.

On 22 March 2019 LTC Andrew Sinden assumed command of the 2d Battalion from LTC John Newman at a change of command ceremony held at Fort Polk, LA. On 10 January 2020 at a ceremony held at Fort Polk, La. CSM Mason L. Joiner assumed responsibility of the 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain from CSM Derek G. Wise.

Medal of Honor recipients Edit

Four soldiers have earned the Medal of Honor while serving with the 2nd Infantry:

  • First Sergeant Daniel W. Burke, Company B, for his actions at Shepherdstown Ford, Virginia, on 20 September 1862. When his unit retreated across the Potomac River he learned that a piece of artillery had been left unspiked leaving it usable by the enemy. He volunteered to go back and disable the gun, and returned to spike the gun in the face of the enemy. Coming under heavy rebel fire he was unable to complete the task, he retreated back across the river under constant fire. [13][14] He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 2nd Infantry on 18 July 1862 and promoted to first lieutenant on 2 July 1863. He remained in the Army and retired as a brigadier general on 21 October 1899. [15] He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
  • Staff Sergeant James Leroy Bondsteel, Company A, 2nd Battalion, 2d Infantry for his actions in An Lộc Province, Vietnam on 24 May 1969 when he was painfully wounded but continued to fight and rally his troops. He remained in the Army until retiring in 1985 as a master sergeant. Bondsteel was living and working in Alaska when he was involved in an accident with a logging truck and was killed. He is buried in the Fort Richardson National Cemetery located in Alaska. The major U.S. Army base in Kosovo, Camp Bondsteel, was named in his honor.
  • Sergeant Candelario Garcia, Jr. was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor on 18 March 2014 for actions while serving as an acting Team Leader for Company B, 1st Battalion, 2d Infantry, 1st Brigade, 1st Infantry Division during combat operations in Lai Khe, Republic of Vietnam on 8 December 1968. Sergeant Garcia was originally awarded a Distinguished Service Cross for his actions. [16]
  • Staff Sergeant David Bellavia was awarded the Medal of Honor on 25 June 2019 for his actions in support of Operation Phantom Fury on 10 November 2004 while serving as a squad leader with Company A, 2d Battalion, 2d Infantry, 3rd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division. He is the first living service member from the war in Iraq to receive the nation's highest honor. [17] He was originally awarded a Silver Star Medal for his actions.

Casualties Edit

Casualty lists for all the conflicts that the 2nd Infantry has been in can be found under OUR HISTORY at http://www.secinfreg.org

Distinctive unit insignia Edit

A Gold color metal and enamel device 1 1/8 in. (2.86 cm) in height consisting of a shield blazoned: Or, on a saltire inches Azure between in fess a cross pattée and a five-bastioned fort Gules and in base a giant cactus Vert, two arrows in a quiver Proper crossed with a bolo Argent hilted Sable. Attached below the shield is a Blue scroll inscribed "NOLI ME TANGERE" in Gold letters.

Service in the Civil War is shown by the blue cross from the Confederate flag and the red cross pattée, the badge of the 18th Division, V Corps, in which the regiment served during the greater part of that war. Service in the Mexican War is shown by the cactus in the War with Spain by the five-bastioned fort, the badge of the V Corps in Cuba. The Indian campaigns of the regiment are shown by the arrows and quiver, and the bolo is for service in the Philippine Insurrection.

The first design for the distinctive unit insignia of the 2d Infantry Regiment was approved on 20 February 1920. That design was canceled and the present design authorized for the regiment on 19 June 1936.

Coat of arms Edit

  • Blazon
    • Shield: Or on a saltire Azure between in fess a cross pattée and a five-bastioned fort Gules and in base a giant cactus Vert, two arrows in a quiver Proper crossed with a bolo Argent hilted Sable.
    • Crest: On a wreath of the colors a lion passant guardant Or.
    • Motto: NOLI ME TANGERE (Do Not Touch Me)
    • Shield: Service in the Civil War is shown by the blue cross from the Confederate flag and the red cross pattée, the badge of the 18th Division, V Corps, in which the regiment served during the greater part of that war. Service in the Mexican War is shown by the cactus in the War with Spain by the five-bastioned fort, the badge of the V Corps in Cuba. The Indian campaigns of the regiment are shown by the arrows and quiver, and the bolo is for service in the Philippine Insurrection.
    • Crest: The lion represents the Canadian campaigns of the War of 1812.

    Regiment Edit

    • Constituted 12 April 1808 in the Regular Army as the 6th Infantry
    • Organized May–July 1808 in Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey
    • Consolidated May–October 1815 with the 16th Infantry (constituted 11 January 1812), the 22d and 23d Infantry (both constituted 26 June 1812), and the 32d Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813) to form the 2d Infantry
    • Consolidated 18 April 1869 with the 16th Infantry (see ANNEX) and consolidated unit designated as the 2d Infantry
    • Assigned 27 July 1918 to the 19th Division
    • Relieved 14 February 1919 from assignment to the 19th Division
    • Assigned 24 March 1923 to the 6th Division
    • Relieved 16 October 1939 from assignment to the 6th Division and assigned to the 5th Division (later redesignated as the 5th Infantry Division)
    • Inactivated 20 September 1946 at Camp Campbell, Kentucky
    • Activated 15 July 1947 at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
    • Inactivated 30 April 1950 at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
    • Activated 1 March 1951 at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania
    • Inactivated 1 September 1953 at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania
    • Activated 25 May 1954 in Germany
    • Relieved 1 June 1957 from assignment to the 5th Infantry Division and reorganized as a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System
    • Withdrawn 16 June 1986 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System
    • Redesignated 1 October 2005 as the 2d Infantry Regiment
    • Constituted 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as the 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry
    • Organized 21 August 1861 at Camp Slemmer (Chicago), Illinois
    • Reorganized and redesignated 21 September 1866 as the 16th Infantry

    1st Battalion Edit

    • Constituted 12 April 1808 in the Regular Army as a company of the 6th Infantry
    • Organized between May and July 1808 in Pennsylvania, New York, or New Jersey
    • Consolidated May–October 1815 with a company of the 16th Infantry (constituted 11 January 1812), a company each of the 22d and 23d Infantry (both constituted 26 June 1812), and a company of the 32d Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813) to form a company of the 2d Infantry
    • Designated 22 May 1816 as Company A, 2d Infantry
    • Consolidated 18 April 1869 with Company A, 16th Infantry (see ANNEX) and consolidated unit designated as Company A, 2d Infantry

    (2d Infantry assigned 27 July 1918 to the 19th Division relieved 14 February 1919 from assignment to the 19th Division assigned 24 March 1923 to the 6th Division relieved 16 October 1939 from assignment to the 6th Division and assigned to the 5th Division (later redesignated as the 5th Infantry Division))

    • Inactivated 20 September 1946 at Camp Campbell, Kentucky
    • Activated 15 July 1947 at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
    • Inactivated 30 April 1950 at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
    • Activated 1 March 1951 at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania
    • Inactivated 1 September 1953 at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania
    • Activated 25 May 1954 in Germany
    • Inactivated 1 June 1957 at Fort Ord, California, and relieved from assignment to the 5th Infantry Division concurrently, redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battle Group, 2d Infantry
    • Redesignated 19 February 1962 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 2d Infantry, assigned to the 5th Infantry Division, and activated at Fort Devens, Massachusetts (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated)
    • Redesignated 19 February 1962 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 2d Infantry, assigned to the 5th Infantry Division, and activated at Fort Devens, Massachusetts (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated)
    • Relieved 12 July 1965 from assignment to the 5th Infantry Division and assigned to the 1st Infantry Division
    • Inactivated 1 October 1983 at Fort Riley, Kansas, and relieved from assignment to the 1st Infantry Division
    • Redesignated 1 October 2005 as the 1st Battalion, 2d Infantry Regiment
    • Assigned 16 March 2008 to the 172d Infantry Brigade and activated in Germany
    • Inactivated 15 June 2013 at Grafenwoehr, Germany
    • Constituted 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as Company A, 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry
    • Organized 21 August 1861 at Camp Slemmer (Chicago), Illinois
    • Reorganized and redesignated 21 September 1866 as Company A, 16th Infantry
    • Consolidated 18 April 1869 with Company A, 2d Infantry, and consolidated unit designated as Company A, 2d Infantry [18]

    2nd Battalion Edit

    • Constituted 12 April 1808 in the Regular Army as a company of the 6th Infantry
    • Organized between May and July 1808 in Pennsylvania, New York, or New Jersey
    • Consolidated May–October 1815 with a company of the 16th Infantry (constituted 11 January 1812), a company each of the 22d and 23d Infantry (both constituted 26 June 1812), and a company of the 32d Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813) to form a company of the 2d Infantry
    • Designated 22 May 1816 as Company B, 2d Infantry
    • Consolidated 18 April 1869 with Company B, 16th Infantry (see ANNEX), and consolidated unit designated as Company B, 2d Infantry
    • (2d Infantry assigned 27 July 1918 to the 19th Division relieved 14 February 1919 from assignment to the 19th Division assigned 24 March 1923 to the 6th Division relieved 16 October 1939 from assignment to the 6th Division and assigned to the 5th Division [later redesignated as the 5th Infantry Division])
    • Inactivated 20 September 1946 at Camp Campbell, Kentucky
    • Activated 15 July 1947 at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
    • Inactivated 30 April 1950 at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
    • Activated 1 March 1951 at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania
    • Inactivated 1 September 1953 at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania
    • Activated 25 May 1954 in Germany
    • Reorganized and redesignated 15 February 1957 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2d Battle Group, 2d Infantry, relieved from assignment to the 5th Infantry Division, and assigned to the 1st Infantry Division (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated)
    • Relieved 28 January 1959 from assignment to the 1st Infantry Division and assigned to the 24th Infantry Division
    • Reorganized and redesignated 19 February 1962 as the 2d Battalion, 2d Infantry concurrently relieved from assignment to the 24th Infantry Division and assigned to the 5th Infantry Division
    • Relieved 12 July 1965 from assignment to the 5th Infantry Division and assigned to the 1st Infantry Division
    • Inactivated 15 April 1970 at Fort Riley, Kansas
    • Relieved 21 March 1973 from assignment to the 1st Infantry Division, assigned to the 9th Infantry Division, and activated at Fort Lewis, Washington
    • Inactivated 15 May 1991 at Fort Lewis, Washington, and relieved from assignment to the 9th Infantry Division
    • Assigned 16 February 1996 to the 1st Infantry Division and activated in Germany
    • Redesignated 1 October 2005 as the 2d Battalion, 2d Infantry Regiment
    • Relieved 16 April 2007 from assignment to the 1st Infantry Division and assigned to the 3d Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division
    • Relieved 15 July 2014 from assignment to the 3d Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division
    • Inactivated 16 September 2014 at Fort Knox, Kentucky
    • Assigned 16 September 2015 to the 3d Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, and activated at Fort Polk, Louisiana
    • Constituted 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as Company B, 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry
    • Organized 21 August 1861 at Camp Slemmer, Illinois
    • Reorganized and redesignated 21 September 1866 as Company B, 16th Infantry
    • Consolidated 18 April 1869 with Company B, 2d Infantry, and consolidated unit designated as Company B, 2d Infantry [19]

    Campaign participation Edit

    • War of 1812:
    • Streamer W/O Inscription
    • Defense
    • Counteroffensive
    • Counteroffensive, Phase II
    • Counteroffensive, Phase III
    • Counteroffensive, Phase IV
    • Counteroffensive, Phase V
    • Counteroffensive, Phase VI
    • Tet 69/Counteroffensive
    • Summer–Fall 1969
    • Winter–Spring 1970
    • Transition of Iraq
    • Iraqi Governance
    • Consolidation III

    Decorations Edit

      (Army) for FALLUJAH 2004 for AP BAU BANG 1965
  • Valorous Unit Award for BINH DUONG PROVINCE 1965
  • Valorous Unit Award for BINH LONG PROVINCE 1969 for 1997
  • 1st Battalion Edit

      (Army), Streamer embroidered IRAQ 2008-2009 with Palm for VIETNAM 1965-1968
    • Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1969 , First Class for VIETNAM 1965-1970
    • Company A entitled to: Valorous Unit Award for AN LOC 1970
    • Company A entitled to: Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered IRAQ OCT 2008-SEP 2009

    2nd Battalion Edit

    • Presidential Unit Citation for FALLUJAH 2004
    • Valorous Unit Award for AP BAU BANG 1965
    • Valorous Unit Award for BINH DUONG PROVINCE 1965
    • Valorous Unit Award for BINH LONG PROVINCE 1969
    • Company C: Valorous Unit Award for BINH LONG PROVINCE 1968
    • Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered AN NAJAF PROVINCE 10 APR 2004 – 22 Apr 2004
    • Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered AFGHANISTAN 2011- 2012
    • Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered AFGHANISTAN 2013-2014
    • Army Superior Unit Award, (Army), Streamer embroidered 1997
    • Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1965-1968
    • Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1969
    • Republic of Vietnam Civil Action Honor Medal, First Class, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1965-1970
    • Company C: Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered BINH LONG PROVINCE 1968
    • Companies A and C Valorous Unit Award for AN NAJAF PROVINCE 10 APR 2004 – 22 APR 2004
    • Detachment Company B: Valorous Unit Award for AFGHANISTAN 17 June 2013 – 1 November 2013

    The following awards were earned by companies of the 2nd Infantry Regiment in World War II.

    • Company E: Distinguished Unit Citation embroidered SANRY SUR NIED. (WD GO 68, 1945)
    • Company E: Fr CdeG with Palm embroidered SANRY SUR NIED. (DA GO 43, 1950)
    • Company H 1st Section, 3rd Platoon: Distinguished Unit Citation embroidered SANRY SUR NIED. (nondisplayable) (WD GO 68, 1945)
    1. ^"Lineage and Honors Information 2d Infantry Regiment". U.S. Army Center of Military History . Retrieved 7 August 2012 .
    2. ^
    3. "Annals of Congress". 13th Cong., 3rd Sess.: 1934.
    4. ^ ab
    5. Wright, W. M. "The Second Regiment of Infantry". , in
    6. Rodenbough, Theo. P. William L. Haskin, eds. (1896). The Army of the United States: Historical Sketches of Staff and Line with Portraits of Generals-in-Chief. New York: Maynard, Merrill & Co.
    7. ^
    8. Driscoll, John K. (5 December 2005). Rogue: A Biography of Civil War General Justus McKinstry. McFarland. p. 27. ISBN978-0-7864-2385-9 .
    9. ^
    10. Official Army Register. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1 January 1929. p. 920.
    11. ^
    12. "Gen. Malone Shifted to 6th Corps Area". The Washington Star. Washington, DC. 28 June 1928. p. 7 – via Newspapers.com.
    13. ^
    14. Carland, John (2000). Combat Operations: Stemming the Tide, May 1965 to October 1966. Government Printing Office. p. 333. ISBN9781782663430 .
    15. ^
    16. "U.S. Unaccounted-For from the Vietnam War (Sorted by Name) Prisoners of War, Missing in Action and Killed in Action/Body not Recovered" (PDF) . Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency . Retrieved 20 March 2017 .
    17. ^
    18. "General Orders No. 25" (PDF) . Department of the Army. 8 June 2001. pp. 59–60. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2014 . Retrieved 30 June 2013 .
    19. ^
    20. Emert, Rick (25 July 2004). "GI awarded Silver Star for role in Iraq fight". Stars and Stripes . Retrieved 23 July 2012 .
    21. ^
    22. Camp, Dick (2009). Operation Phantom Fury: The Assault and Capture of Fallujah, Iraq. Zenith Imprint. p. 125. ISBN978-1-61673-253-0 .
    23. ^
    24. Miles, Donna (7 May 2009). "Gates' Afghanistan Visit Focuses on Troop Needs". American Forces Press Service. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010 . Retrieved 30 June 2013 .
    25. ^
    26. "Medal of Honor Recipients, Civil War (A-L)". Center of Military History, U.S. Army. Archived from the original on 12 September 2010 . Retrieved 25 September 2010 .
    27. ^
    28. "Medal of Honor for Burke, Daniel W."
    29. ^
    30. Official Army Register for 1909. Washington, D.C.: The Adjutant General's Office. 1 December 1908. p. 446.
    31. ^
    32. Rothberg, Daniel (21 February 2014). "Obama will award Medal of Honor to 24 overlooked Army veterans". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 6 March 2014 .
    33. ^
    34. Brading, Thomas (26 June 2019). "Pentagon inducts first living Iraq Medal of Honor recipient into the Hall of Heroes" . Retrieved 1 July 2019 .
    35. ^
    36. "Lineage and Honors, 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry". United States Army Center of Military History.
    37. ^
    38. "Lineage and Honors, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry". United States Army Center of Military History.
    39. ^https://secinfreg.websitetoolbox.com/post/billy-lynn%E2%80%99s-long-halftime-walk-8150221

    This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.


    Battle [ edit | edit source ]

    The grenadiers left the convent at dawn, preparing their formations behind the convent. San Martín returned to the tower to watch the enemy who disembarked at sunrise, 5:30 in the morning. He mounted his horse, gave a short harangue to the troops, and headed to battle. His strategy was to divide his cavalry forces into two columns, of nearly sixty horsemen each, and make a surprise pincer movement to trap the enemy forces. ⎖] The cavalry would not use their guns, relying instead on saber and spear attacks. ⎗] The right-hand column was headed by Justo German Bermúdez, and the left-hand one by San Martín. Δ] The royalists marched in two columns with the two cannons, a deployed flag and military drummers. The clarion of the regiment of mounted grenadiers sounded for the first time, marking the beginning of the battle.

    San Martín's column was the first one to reach the enemy. The two cannons and the cannon fire from the ships defended the royalists, but they were quickly outmanoeuvred by the saber attacks and, unable to form a square, had to retreat. The advantage of surprise and the speed of the cavalry charge allowed the regiment to defeat the larger royalist army who had almost double the amount of soldiers. Γ] When Bermúdez and his column joined the battle the royalists were not able to stand their ground and were routed, retreating in disarray under covering fire from the ships. Bermudez led the attack at this point as San Martín had fallen from his horse. ⎘]

    San Martín did not mention Escalada in his first battle report, leading initial historians to infer that they stayed within the convent during the battle. ⎗] However it is currently considered that they took part in the battle, as suggested by the royalist battle report and a later report from San Martin which clarifies that only twelve grenadiers stayed in the convent. ⎙]

    The combat took around fifteen minutes and left forty royalists dead and many injured, including Zabala. Fourteen patriot grenadiers died in the combat and two more would die afterwards due to combat injuries. Γ] Manuel Díaz Vélez fell from his horse in the gully, was mortally injured and captured by the royalists. Bermúdez was shot in the patella and died a few days later. Hipólito Bouchard captured the Spanish flag after killing the standard bearer. ⎚]

    Cabral's intervention [ edit | edit source ]

    José de San Martín, trapped under his dead horse during the battle, is saved by Juan Bautista Cabral.

    Despite the victory, the remaining royalist forces could not be pursued as the column led by Justo Bermúdez had moved further than calculated for. This delayed the meeting with San Martín's column whose horse was killed by enemy fire, leaving with his leg trapped under the corpse of the animal. These factors led to the columns not meeting up and allowed many royalists to escape. A royalist, probably Zabala himself, Γ] ⎚] attempted to kill San Martín while he was trapped under his dead horse where he suffered a saber injury to his face, and a bullet wound to his arm. Juan Bautista Cabral and Juan Bautista Baigorria intervened and saved San Martín's life. Cabral was mortally wounded during the rescue and San Martín reported that after Cabral was hit he said "I die happy, we have defeated the enemy". The exact moment this was said is unclear as the word "after" could have meant immediately after during the ongoing battle or some hours later during Cabral's agonising decline. ⎛] San Martín wrote the battle report under a nearby tree. Fray Herminio Gaitán considers that Cabral's last words would have been in the Guaraní language, his first language, and that as San Martín also spoke Guaraní he would have translated them for the battle report. ⎜]

    Juan Bautista Cabral is commonly known as "Sergeant Cabral", but he was a private at the time of the battle. San Martín's report mentions him as "the grenadier Juan B. Cabral", and historians like Bartolomé Mitre, Herminio Gaitán, Gerardo Bra or Norberto Galasso support the idea. Mitre considers that Cabral was promoted posthumously, but there are no documents confirming that. ⎝]


    Early History of the Alamo

    Spanish settlers built the Mission San Antonio de Valero, named for St. Anthony of Padua, on the banks of the San Antonio River around 1718. They also established the nearby military garrison of San Antonio de Béxar, which soon became the center of a settlement known as San Fernando de Béxar (later renamed San Antonio). The Mission San Antonio de Valero housed missionaries and their Native American converts for some 70 years until 1793, when Spanish authorities secularized the five missions located in San Antonio and distributed their lands among local residents.

    Did you know? Ten years after Texas won its independence and shortly after it was annexed by the United States, U.S. soldiers revived the "Remember the Alamo!" battle cry while fighting against Mexican forces in the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848.

    Beginning in the early 1800s, Spanish military troops were stationed in the abandoned chapel of the former mission. Because it stood in a grove of cottonwood trees, the soldiers called their new fort 𠇎l Alamo” after the Spanish word for cottonwood and in honor of Alamo de Parras, their hometown in Mexico. Military troops𠄿irst Spanish, then rebel and later Mexican–occupied the Alamo during and after Mexico’s war for independence from Spain in the early 1820s. In the summer of 1821, Stephen Austin arrived in San Antonio along with some 300 U.S. families that the Spanish government had allowed to settle in Texas. The migration of U.S. citizens to Texas increased over the next decades, sparking a revolutionary movement that would erupt into armed conflict by the mid-1830s.


    Battle of the Pyrenees

    42. Podcast on the Battle of the Pyrenees: the battles fought between 25 th July and 2 nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War Wellington decisively repelling Marshal Soult’s incursion across the border to relieve the French garrisons in Pamplona and San Sebastian: John Mackenzie’s britishbattles.com podcasts

    The previous battle of the Peninsular War is the Storming of San Sebastian

    The next battle of the Peninsular War is the Battle of San Marcial

    Marshal Soult: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    War: Peninsular War

    Dates of the Battle of The Pyrenees: 25 th July to 2 nd August 1813

    Place of the Battle of The Pyrenees: In the north-west section of the Pyrenees Mountains on the Spanish side.

    Combatants at the Battle of The Pyrenees: British, Portuguese and Spanish against the French

    Commanders at the Battle of The Pyrenees: General the Earl of Wellington against Marshal Soult.

    Size of the armies at the Battle of The Pyrenees: 50,000 British, Portuguese and Spanish against 70,000 French troops.

    Winner of the Battle of The Pyrenees: The British, Portuguese and Spanish.

    Background to the Battle of The Pyrenees:

    At the Battle of Vitoria on 21 st June 1813, Wellington’s British, Portuguese and Spanish army defeated the troops commanded by Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jourdan, comprising the French Armies of the Centre (of Spain), the South (of Spain) and of Portugal. The French retreated towards the border between Spain and France in the Pyrenees Mountains followed by Wellington’s army, leaving garrisons in San Sebastian and Pamplona.

    Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War: picture by J.J. Jenkins

    While the British Fifth Division, with Spanish and Portuguese troops, began the attack on the coastal city of San Sebastian and a Spanish force blockaded the French in Pamplona, Wellington positioned the rest of his army along the Pyrenees Mountain frontier between Spain and France.

    The Emperor Napoleon, on hearing of the Battle of Vitoria, ordered Marshal Soult to return to Spain and take over command of the French armies in the country, in place of Joseph Bonaparte and his chief of staff, Marshal Jourdan. Soult was given the title of ‘Lieutenant of the French Armies in Spain and the South of France’.

    Soult was ordered to save Pamplona and San Sebastian for the French interest, as an immediate aim and then to re-establish French control of Spain.

    Spanish infantry: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War: picture by the Suhls

    Arriving at Bayonne, near the French-Spanish border, Soult set about re-organising the French army in the area and restoring its morale, before beginning his counter-attack against Wellington.

    Soult formed the French armies from Spain into a Right Wing commanded by Reille and comprising the divisions of Foy, Maucune and Lamartinière a Centre commanded by D’Erlon and comprising the divisions of Darmagnac, Abbé and Maransin a Left Wing commanded by Clausel and comprising the divisions of Conroux, Vandermaesen and Taupin a Reserve under Villatte a First Light Cavalry Division commanded by Pierre Soult (brother of the marshal) and a Second Dragoon Cavalry Division commanded by Treilhard.

    Fortescue describes Marshal Soult in these terms: ‘…Soult was an extremely able administrator, acute of perception, keen of insight, swift and firm of decision. As a general his strategic gifts were remarkable. No man had greater skill in bringing his troops up to the battle-field, but in the actual combat he was weak, timid and diffident.’

    British bivouac before the Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, in the Peninsular War

    While Soult achieved a great deal in restoring the fighting spirit of the French army defeated at Vitoria and forced to retreat headlong into France, he faced considerable difficulties.

    Napoleon was draining troops from the army in Spain to re-build his Grande Armée, leaving a shortage of officers and regiments understrength.

    Used to quick campaigns in foreign countries, where they could subsist on the countryside, Soult’s troops were now on French soil and without a functioning supply system. The soldiers were compelled to loot their own countrymen.

    In one incident a train of oxen assembled to move French artillery up to the border was set upon by starving French soldiers, who had to be driven away by force.

    Nevertheless, Soult prepared to take the offensive against Wellington by advancing on his left across the Pyrenees Mountains towards Pamplona. Once that city was relieved the French would march to the north-west, thereby compelling Wellington to abandon his attack on San Sebastian.

    Comte D’Erlon: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    Fortescue describes the area in these terms: ‘the field of operations was the quadrilateral within the four fortresses of Bayonne on the north, St Jean Pied de Port on the east, Pamplona on the south, and San Sebastian to the west, all of which were in the possession of the French. …from Bayonne to St Jean Pied de Port is about twenty-seven miles…. From St Jean Pied de Port to Pamplona is about thirty miles from Pamplona to San Sebastian forty miles and from San Sebastian to Bayonne some twenty-nine miles….the principal lines of defence [in the coastal area between San Sebastian and Bayonne] are formed by three rivers……. the Nive… the Nivelle ….and the Bidassoa.

    … In any advance upon Pamplona from the French side the great spine itself [the western arm of the Pyrenees Mountains] …. can be surmounted only by three principal routes. Of these the most westerly is the valley of Baztan….. these ingresses descend upon a single road ….. due south by …..Sorauren to Pamplona. The next valley to eastward is that of Baigorry, which follows the course of the river Aldudes, but has no issues southward except the roughest of tracks……… The third entrance is by the valley known as the Val Carlos ….. crossing the main ridge at the pass of Roncesvalles…..joining the road from the valley of Baztan at Villaba, runs with it into Pamplona.’

    The roads in all of these valleys were bad…. and the lateral communications between them were even worse. Yet such lateral communications did exist…..But these rough tracks were practicable only for infantry and such cannon as could be carried on a mule’s back……’

    Soult planned two simultaneous attacks, one on Maya down the Baztan Valley and the other, further east, down the Val Carlos by the Pass of Roncesvalles, the two advances to converge on Pamplona.

    Map of the area between Pamplona, Sr Jean de Luz and St Jean pied de Port: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War: the battle sites are marked by crossed swords. French routes are shown by dotted blue lines: map by John Fawkes

    Positions of Wellington’s army:

    The right wing of Wellington’s army was commanded by General Cole, commander of the Fourth Division.

    Byng’s British brigade of the Second Division, with two Spanish battalions, occupied Altobiscar, north-east of the Pass of Roncesvalles in the Val Carlos.

    Morillo’s Spanish force stood to the south of the village of Val Carlos.

    Campbell’s Portuguese brigade was at Aldudes above the valley of Baigorry.

    The British Fourth Division lay at Viscarret, south-west of Roncesvalles.

    General Hill commanded the centre, in the Baztan Valley, with the balance of the Second Division, a Portuguese brigade and some cavalry, amounting to 10,000 men.

    Halting in the mountains during the Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, in the Peninsular War

    Hill’s two British brigades of the Second Division, under General William Stewart, held the Pass of Maya in the Baztan Valley.

    As a reserve for the Right and Centre, Picton’s Third Division lay at Olagüe.

    The Light Division was at Vera to the north-west, the Seventh Division at Echalar and the Sixth Division at Santestaban.

    Longa’s Spanish division on the extreme left formed a link with Graham’s Fifth Division at San Sebastian, the port city under siege.

    Wellington’s headquarters lay at Lesaca.

    The Battle of The Pyrenees:

    Soult was informed on 15 th July 1813 that the French garrison in San Sebastian could hold out for a further two weeks, enabling him to carry out his planned attack to relieve Pamplona, on Wellington’s right.

    Sergeant 92nd Gordon Highlanders: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    Soult ensured that on 22 nd July 1813, Wellington received reports that the French were preparing to bridge the River Bidassoa at Béhobie, near the Atlantic coast. This caused Wellington to believe that Soult’s attack was to fall on his left, to relieve San Sebastian.

    In fact, the bulk of Soult’s army was moving south-east along the mountain roads to St Jean Pied de Port, to attack Wellington’s centre and right.

    Soult’s plan was for Reille’s three divisions of the Right Wing to advance down the crest that divided the valley of Baigorry from Val Carlos, to Mount Lindux and from there to dispatch forces to seize the key positions on each side of the crest.

    At the same time, Clausel’s three divisions of the Left Wing, were to march down the road from Château Pignon to Altobiscar, via the Pass of Roncesvalles, to the east of the Baigorry Valley.

    On the assumption that Byng, in the Pass of Roncesvalles, would feel compelled to retreat, Clausel was to continue his advance, join with Reille and continue a general advance on Pamplona.

    The French attack was due to begin at 4am on 23 rd July 1813.

    Soult reckoned without the difficulty of moving large numbers of troops by bad mountain roads, in very wet weather.

    St Jean Pied de Port, the starting point for the French advance, was overwhelmed by the number of largely starving French troops attempting to move through the town in the pouring rain.

    Reille’s divisions were severely delayed in their advance.

    Clausel’s divisions on the other hand were in position along the road leading south past Chateau Pignon by the night of 24 th /25 th July 1813.

    Raids on British outposts warned Byng in the Pass of Roncesvalles that he could expect to be attacked the next day, information he passed to Cole, who ordered Ross’s Brigade to march to Lindux to cover Byng’s left flank. Anson’s Brigade and Stubbs’ Portuguese moved up to Espinal to replace Ross.

    Battle of Roncesvalles on 25th July 1813: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War: map by John Fawkes

    Battle of Roncesvalles:

    At 6am on 25 th July 1813, Clausel launched his attack on Byng’s Brigade with the 1 st of the Line and the 25 th Light from Vandermaesen’s Division. Soult, himself, supervised the attack.

    Byng resisted strongly with his two battalions, 3 rd Buffs and 31 st /66 th (the two battalions forming one provisional battalion, due to their small numbers).

    At 10am, Clausel called off the attack, renewing it towards midday with more regiments from Vandermaesen’s Division.

    Carabinier, Chasseur and Voltigeur of the French 25th Light Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    Byng continued to resist the overwhelming numbers until, at 3pm, his ammunition beginning to fail, he fell back to Altobiscar.

    Cole arrived before Byng’s withdrawal and, seeing the advance of Reille on the west side of the Val Carlos, diverted Anson’s Brigade from its move to Orbacieta on Byng’s right, to support Stubbs’ Brigade at the head of the Val Carlos.

    Pass of Roncesvalles: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    In mid-afternoon, a heavy fog came down on the mountains.

    Byng, fearing that Clausel would send a force to Orbacieta that would outflank him on the right, fell back, having resisted an overwhelming French force for the majority of the day.

    One of the French casualties was the wounded General Vandermaesen.

    Clausel encamped on the night of 25 th July 1813 at Altobiscar.

    Reille’s advance on 25th to 31st July 1813:

    Reille’s column set off at 6am on 25 th July 1813, in parallel and to the west of Clausel’s advance.

    Reille’s divisions were forced to march along a narrow path on the mountain ridge in single file. Consequently, Reille’s rear guard did not leave camp until around 1pm, when Reille’s advanced troops were still approaching Mount Larigné, two miles short of Lindux, the target for their attack.

    The fight on Mount Larigné:

    As the leading regiment of Foy’s Division, the 6 th Light, was climbing Mount Larigné from the north, General Ross lead forward 3 companies of the 20 th Regiment and a company of Brunswickers up Mount Larigné from the south.

    A savage fight with the bayonet ensued, only resolved by the arrival of the full strength of the 6 th Light which drove Ross’s men off the peak.

    French troops in the mountains: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    In the meantime, the main body of Ross’s Brigade formed at Lindux and Foy’s advance was checked.

    The bayonet fight cost Ross 181 men killed and wounded.

    Ross’s Brigade of Cole’s Fourth Division comprised 1 st /7 th Royal Fusiliers, 20 th Regiment, 1 st /23 rd Royal Welch Fusiliers, 3 Companies of Brunswick-Oels and 11 th and 23 rd Portuguese Regiments and 7 th Portuguese Caçadores.

    Reille’s advance was now considerably hampered by the nature of the ground. His troops were advancing along a ridge only 30 yards wide with steep slopes falling away on each side. The area was covered in thick scrub and was intersected by a deep trench dug in earlier fighting. Bringing up his divisions was a slow and difficult process.

    The ground behind the British positions was much easier of access.

    William Anson’s Brigade (3 rd /27 th , 40 th and 48 th Regiments) and Campbell’s Portuguese Brigade came up in Ross’s rear.

    French National Guard: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    Campbell, before coming up in support of Ross, had driven back a force of French National Guard and threatened Reille’s right flank, while counting Reille’s divisions as they passed, enabling him to give Cole an accurate assessment of the size of the French force that was advancing on Ross.

    Reille’s leading division, Foy’s, finally got clear of the mountain path and Foy’s skirmishers began their attack on Ross’s men. They made no headway against the British.

    The difficulty of negotiating the narrow hill-top path delayed the arrival of Maucune’s and Lamartinière’s Divisions until the evening.

    The fog descended and all further attack was ruled out.

    Reille’s force bivouacked where they stood at 7pm.

    French casualties in the fight with Ross amounted to 370 killed and wounded.

    At nightfall, General Cole decided to fall back, in view of the numbers he faced. Campbell’s report showed Cole that the French force facing him was at least three times the size of his own.

    Soult’s plan was that Clausel and Reille be in command of the passes by the evening of 25 th July 1813. Neither achieved this aim in full, but they had forced back Wellington’s forward units in the Baigorry Valley.

    Map of the Battle of Maya on 25th July 1813: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War: map by John Fawkes

    The Battle of Maya:

    The British regiments holding the Pass of Maya, in the Bazantan Valley, to the west of the Val Carlos, were from Sir Roland Hill’s Second Division, temporarily led by General William Stewart, as Hill was in command of the whole right wing.

    The brigades of the Second Division were Cameron’s Brigade, comprising 1 st /50 th , 1 st 71 st Highland Light Infantry, 1 st /92 nd Highlanders and 1 company of 5 th /60 th Rifles and Pringle’s Brigade comprising 1 st /28 th , 2 nd /34 th , 1 st /39 th and 1 company of 5 th /60 th Rifles.

    Pass at Maya, seen from the French side: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    Stewart heard the firing from the neighbouring valley, where Campbell’s Portuguese were engaging the French National Guard.

    Instead of staying with his command, Stewart rode down to Elizondo, to see what was happening.

    Stewart took the view there was no threat from the French on his front. By leaving he left his troops with no overall direction.

    French National Guard: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    The most advanced British post was the Rock of Aretesque, occupied by a piquet of 80 men from Pringle’s Brigade. The rest of the brigade, the 34 th , 39 th and 28 th Regiments were encamped to the south of the Rock.

    Cameron’s Brigade was encamped in the Maya Pass to the west of Pringle.

    During the night of 24 th July 1813, D’Erlon’s three divisions marched south towards the Maya Pass, assembling for the assault on the British positions by 9am.

    The road down which the French were advancing, unobserved by the British, came south towards Pringle’s position before snaking to the west and then south again through Cameron’s position.

    The initial French attack was to be made on the piquet at the Rock of Aretesque, whilst Darmagnac’s and Abbé’s Divisions advanced along the path circumventing the Rock of Aretesque.

    Maransin’s Division was to halt on the main road until informed that the Rock of Aretesque was taken and then to attack down the Pass of Maya.

    The piquet on the Rock of Aretesque was relieved at 7am on 25 th July 1813. The incoming officer was Captain Moyle Sherer of the 34 th Foot. The outgoing piquet commander informed Sherer that infantry and cavalry had been seen around dawn advancing down the pass.

    Battle of Maya on 25th July 1813: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    Sherer asked that this information be passed to General Stewart. The information was given to the Divisional Headquarters, but Stewart was by now absent, having ridden over to Elizondo.

    A divisional staff officer came up to investigate the report and directed that the brigade’s light companies move up to the Rock of Aretesque.

    Carabinier and Voltigeur of the 16th Light: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    The French attack on the Rock of Aretesque was made by Darmagnac’s Divisional voltigeurs and the 16 th Light.

    Sherer held back the French attack while the rest of the brigade assembled and hurried up the mountainside to his support.

    The 34 th Foot, in camp nearest the rock, came up and the regiment with the light companies resisted the French attack for several hours.

    The French 8 th of the Line skirted around the Rock of Aretesque and intercepted the other two battalions of Pringle’s Brigade, the 39 th and the 28 th , preventing them from reaching the summit and joining their comrades of the 34 th .

    Three more French regiments joined the attack on the Rock of Aretesque, forcing the 34 th Foot to abandon the post and retreat to the main road. The 34 th lost a substantial number of prisoners to the French, including Captain Moyle Sherer.

    Maransin’s Division was now able to begin its advance into the Maya Valley.

    All three of Clausel’s divisions met the regiments of Cameron’s Brigade coming up the valley.

    The British 50 th Regiment charged and drove back a force of French infantry emerging from the Zurella Pass, before forming up with the 34 th Regiment.

    These two regiments met the advancing troops of Darmagnac’s Division with destructive volleys, until forced back by the overwhelming strength of the French columns.

    The 34 th and 50 th joined the right wings of the two Highland Regiments, the 71 st Highland Light Infantry and the 92 nd on the next ridge with 4 Portuguese guns.

    Maransin’s Division emerged from the side valley and joined the French attack on Cameron’s Brigade and the 34 th Regiment and the Portuguese guns.

    Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    General Stewart arrived at this point and ordered the British regiments to fall back to Mount Atchiola, covered in turn by the left wings of the 71 st and 92 nd and the right wings of the 71 st and the 50 th .

    150 men of the 92 nd under Captain Campbell ran out of ammunition, while defending the crest of Mount Atchiola and were forced to roll stones down the hillside at the advancing French infantry.

    At around 6pm, Stewart felt compelled to order a further retreat and the abandonment of Mount Atchiola.

    Before this order could be given, General Barnes marched up with his brigade from Dalhousie’s Division (6 th , 24 th and 2 nd /58 th Regiments and the Brunswick Oels), answering an urgent call for assistance sent earlier by Stewart.

    Soldiers of the 95th Rifles and 71st Highland Light Infantry and corporal of the 79th Cameron Highlanders: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    Barnes led the 6 th Foot and the Brunswick Regiment in an attack on Maransin’s advancing division, driving them back to the Maya Pass.

    D’Erlon sent a brigade from Abbé’s Division to support Maransin, who was facing 3 battalions with 6 or more battalions. D’Erlon also recalled Damargnac from Maya to deal with the crisis brought about by Barnes’ attack.

    The action soon came to an end, with D’Erlon’s advance brought to a halt.

    Portuguese Cavalry Officer: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War: picture by Denis Dighton

    Casualties at the Battle of Maya:

    Damargnac’s Division suffered losses of 1,400 killed and wounded.

    Maransin’s Division suffered losses of 600 killed and wounded.

    Abbé’s Division probably suffered losses of 500 killed and wounded.

    The 92 nd Highlanders suffered losses from a strength of 853 men of around 350 killed and wounded and 20 taken prisoner.

    The 50 th Foot suffered 44 men killed and 101 men wounded.

    The 34 th suffered losses from a strength of 530 men of 105 killed and wounded and 83 officers and men taken prisoner (including Captain Moyre Sherer).

    The 39 th suffered losses of 188 men killed and wounded and 22 missing.

    The 28 th Foot suffered losses of 157 killed and wounded.

    The 71 st Highland Light Infantry lost 7 officers and an unknown number of men at this particular part of the battle.

    The 4 Portuguese guns were taken by the French.

    Battle of Sorauren on 28th July 1813: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War: map by John Fawkes

    The Battle of Sorauren on 28 th July 1813:

    At nightfall on 25 th July 1813, Cole withdrew to a position south of Linzoain, well on the road to Pamplona, abandoning the main ridge.

    On 26 th July 1813, Wellington received news of the fighting that had taken place in the Baigorry and Baztan Valleys, although without reliable detailed information as to what had happened. Communications in the mountains were difficult and information frequently incomplete.

    Wellington made such dispositions as seemed appropriate, keeping his formations well forward in the centre and preparing to abandon the operation to take San Sebastian if necessary.

    Highland soldiers: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War: picture by Horace Vernet

    Later in the day, Wellington rode to the Baztan Valley and obtained a reliable account of the Battle of Maya.

    Late on 26 th July 1813, Picton and Cole took the decision to fall back to Pamplona in view of the overwhelming French force they faced.

    Early on 27 th July 1813, Soult became aware that the British regiments the French had been battling in the eastern valleys were in full retreat.

    Soult directed Reille to advance to the east bank of the River Ulzana, putting his corps behind Hill’s Division. Clausel was to march on Pamplona down the west bank of the Arga, with the artillery and cavalry.

    D’Erlon’s Corps lay well behind the other two, due to D’Erlon’s failure to advance after the aggressive counter-attack by Barnes in the Maya Valley.

    A sortie by the French garrison in Pamplona caused the Spanish force of O’Donnell to prepare to abandon the blockade of the city. O’Donnell was reinforced by the Corps of Carlos D’España, keeping him in place.

    Picton’s Third Division and Cole’s Fourth Division were passing the town of Huarte, heading south-west, when Picton resolved to make a stand against Soult’s army.

    At this point the valleys of the River Ulzana and the River Arga, converged to within two miles of each other, making it possible to block the French advances down each valley.

    Picton directed Cole to take up a position between the two rivers.

    Sorauren and Ridge A: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    The line Cole selected for his Fourth Division was a ridge running west to east, between the village of Sorauren on the River Ulzana and a conical hill above the village of Zabaldica, on the River Arga (Ridge A).

    Ridge A was high, with a steep slope running into the valley along its north side, beyond which was a further ridge (Ridge B).

    Picton’s Third Division, with the cavalry and artillery, adopted a position further to the south and east of Ridge A, along the River Egues, to the east of Huarte.

    Morillo’s Spanish troops occupied a position between Huarte and Villaba, in direct support of Cole.

    Two Spanish battalions, reinforced by a Portuguese battalion occupied the conical hill at the right-hand end of Cole’s position on Ridge A.

    From right to left from the conical hill were posted Anson’s Brigade, Campbell’s Portuguese Brigade and Ross’s Brigade, on whose flank was a chapel overlooking the village of Sorauren in the valley.

    Byng’s Brigade stood in reserve behind Anson’s Brigade and Stubb’s Portuguese Brigade in reserve in the centre.

    Clausel’s Corps marched down the valley of the River Arga and, on arriving at Zabaldica, Clausel sent a detachment up the conical hill to secure it, without realising that Ridge A was already occupied by Cole’s troops.

    The Spanish battalions drove Clausel’s detachment back down the side of the conical hill.

    Seeing that Ridge A was already occupied, Clausel marched his corps onto the ridge to the north of Cole’s ridge, Ridge B.

    French Light Infantry Drummer: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    A further French attack was launched on the conical hill, but after initial success was again driven back.

    During the course of the day Reille’s Corps made its way down the valley of the River Arga, encumbered with the baggage train, the artillery and the French cavalry.

    D’Erlon still lay a long way north, in the Bazantan Valley.

    Wellington made his way down the Ulzana River valley from Almandoz towards Sorauren.

    Wellington issued orders for the British Sixth and Seventh Divisions to operate in the upper reaches of the Ulzana River, unaware that Soult’s army was already a considerable distance in advance of him and that they would be between Soult and D’Erlon’s Corps.

    On reaching Ostiz, ten miles short of Sorauren, Wellington encountered Long’s Brigade (13 th Light Dragoons) and was for the first time informed of Picton’s retreat to Huarte.

    Leaving General Murray, his chief of staff, to prevent any troops from moving further south down the Ulzana River, Wellington galloped on down the valley, accompanied only by Lord Fitzroy Somerset, the one member of his staff sufficiently well mounted to keep up with him.

    Wellington arrived at the bridge in Sorauren, to see the French divisions of Taupin and Vandermaesen along the ridge (Ridge B) facing Cole (on Ridge A).

    Wellington despatched Somerset with orders for the Sixth and Seventh Divisions to leave the valley of the River Ulzana and march to Sorauren by a circuitous route to the west, with all speed.

    Wellington then galloped his horse up the steep incline to join Cole at the summit, passing cheering Portuguese battalions of Campbell’s Brigade and British troops of Ross’s Brigade.

    Wellington and Somerset at the Bridge in Sorauren on 27th July 1813: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War: picture by Thomas Jones Barker

    Arriving at the top of the ridge, Wellington rode onto a knoll, from where he could see the entire ridge and be seen by his own army and the enemy.

    On the far side of the steep valley, the French divisions of Clausel’s Corps were taking up their positions (on Ridge B). In their midst could be seen Marshal Soult and his staff.

    Soult’s plans were already unravelling. His intention was to attack with the entire strength of his four front-line corps, but Reille was struggling down the valley of the River Arga, instead of being in the valley of the River Ulzana, as his orders directed and D’Erlon was still far in the rear, advancing tentatively down the Ulzana.

    The position taken up by Cole’s Fourth Division on Ridge A was a formidable one, due to the extreme steepness of the valley side, which was the only way the French divisions could reach the Spanish, British and Portuguese troops along the top.

    Général de Division Damargnac: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    In the mid-afternoon, when Soult had still not delivered his attack, Wellington sent out orders to the divisions not present on the field at dawn the Sixth Division was to march to Sorauren and the Seventh and Second Divisions were to follow.

    If Soult deferred his attack further, he would face a significantly reinforced army.

    Reports suggested that the French were planning to block the road to Sorauren, which caused Wellington to despatch 2,000 Spanish troops to keep the road open.

    On the evening of 27 th July 1813, Soult held a council of war with his generals and met near universal approval for a frontal attack on Cole’s position in the morning, only Clausel dissenting.

    Soult’s orders were that Conroux’s Division was to move into the valley of the River Ulzana Clausel’s three Divisions were to attack the western end of Cole’s position Maucune and Lamartinière were to attack the eastern end of the ridge and the Spanish on the conical hill.

    Foy, with the support of Pierre Soult’s Light Cavalry Division, was to move against Picton’s position at the eastern end of the line.

    In the morning of 28 th July 1813, Wellington sent the 40 th Regiment to support the Spanish on the conical hill, but otherwise left Cole’s deployment unchanged.

    Soult spent the morning reconnoitring the field, ordering that no move was to be made before 1pm.

    Fortescue describes this delay as inexplicable, as Soult must have been aware that reinforcements were hurrying up, which would double the size of the force he was facing.

    At 10.30am, Pack’s Sixth Division began arriving from the west on the bank of the River Ulzana south of Sorauren.

    Clausel sent Conroux’s Division into Sorauren, where heavy fighting broke out with Pack’s arriving troops.

    Taupin’s and Vandermaesen’s Divisions were formed in the bottom of the valley and began their ascent to assault Cole’s men at the summit of Ridge A.

    Clausel ordered Conroux to pull his men out of Sorauren and join the assault on the ridge.

    Conroux’s men were brought to a halt by heavy fire from Campbell’s Brigade on the ridge and from the Sixth Division.

    Taupin’s Division, by a supreme effort, reached the chapel and drove the 7 th Caçadores back, but were then bundled off the ridge by a counter-attack from Ross’s Brigade and the 7 th Caçadores.

    Vandermaesen’s Division slowly scaled the steep hill-side, while Maucune’s men moved across the bridging ridge.

    Battle of Sorauren: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    While this attack was initially successful against Ross’s Brigade and the 10 th Portuguese, Wellington brought up Anson’s Brigade, which drove the French back down the hill-side into the valley.

    On the left of the French attack, Gaulthier’s Brigade of Lamartinière’s Division attacked the conical hill. The French 120 th and 122 nd of the Line drove the Spanish back, but then encountered the British 40 th Regiment, with which they exchanged volleys at close range, before being driven back down the hill.

    On Soult’s extreme left, Foy’s men saw no action, other than a skirmish between hussars of each side conducted with firearms from the saddle, from which the French retired.

    At 4.30pm, Soult called off the attack, having failed at every point to make headway against Cole’s men.

    Wellington in the mountains during the Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    Casualties of the Battle of Sorauren, first day:

    Clausel suffered losses of 2,000 killed and wounded in his three divisions.

    Maucune suffered losses of 600 killed and wounded in his division.

    Gauthier suffered losses of ‘several hundred killed and wounded’

    Fortescue states that French casualties can be taken at around 3,000.

    The British, Portuguese and Spanish suffered losses of around 2,600 killed and wounded.

    Battle of Sorauren, second day, 29 th July 1813:

    Having failed in his attack on the Sorauren Heights, Soult was bound to retreat. His troops were low on ammunition, without supplies and exhausted.

    Soult abandoned his attempt to relieve the French garrison in Pamplona. Instead of advancing to the south-west, the French army would retreat north-west towards the coast and attempt to relieve the French garrison in San Sebastian.

    Already the French reserves under Villatte were marching down the coast road in the direction of San Sebastian.

    Grenadier and Voltigeur of a French Line Regiment: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War: picture by Bellangé

    On 29 th July 1813, D’Erlon continued his march down the valley of the River Ulzana to Ostiz.

    Soult’s instructed D’Erlon to leave the valley and march 5 miles north-west to Lizasso.

    At Sorauren, Cole’s men were manhandling guns up onto the ridge, while working parties from both sides buried the dead from the previous day’s fighting.

    In order to proceed with his march to San Sebastian, Soult had the difficult task of extricating Reille’s and Clausel’s Corps from the positions they had adopted for the previous day’s abortive assault.

    Clausel was ordered to move into the valley of the River Ulzana, while Reille held the ridge facing Cole’s Fourth Division (Ridge B).

    Once night fell Clausel was to march up the valley with Reille following.

    Soult’s army would leave the Baztan and march through Lizasso for Santesteban.

    At midnight, Foy’s Division left the heights of Alzuza and reached Zabaldica at 1am the next morning.

    In the difficult process of moving his division along Ridge B, Maucune’s Division became delayed and was still on Ridge B when dawn came. British and Portuguese light troops moved forward and engaged the French columns.

    The British and Portuguese artillery opened up on Conroux’s troops still in Sorauren and Maucune’s men on Ridge B.

    After the uncertainty of command during the opening phase of the Battle of the Pyrenees, Wellington was now on the spot and firmly in control of his army.

    Picton Third Division was marching up the River Arga from its position east of Huarte, ready to take Soult’s army in the rear by turning onto the ridge held by Reille (Ridge B).

    Cole’s Fourth Division was ready to attack Reille in front, once Picton’s men were in action around the conical hill.

    Byng’s Brigade, Pakenham’s Sixth Division and O’Donnell’s Spanish troops were advancing north, up the River Ulzana, ready to cut Reille off from the rest of Soult’s army.

    Dalhousie’s Seventh Division was marching north, parallel with the River Ulzana, on the west bank and ready to take any opportunity to attack Soult’s men in the river valley.

    Hill’s Second Division was further north, in the area of Olagüe, also looking for the opportunity to attack Soult.

    Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    Due to the delay on Ridge B, opposite Cole, Foy’s Division was forced to remain stationary under the artillery fire from the opposing ridge, while Picton’s Third Division advanced on his left flank and Pakenham’s Sixth Division threatened to cut off his line of retreat up the River Ulzana.

    Wellington ordered a general attack along the line of Ridge B and on Sorauren.

    Ordered by Reille to retreat out of Sorauren, Maucune’s men were forced to climb back up onto the ridge (Ridge B) instead of moving north up the river valley, while Byng’s Brigade stormed into the village from the chapel.

    Maucune’s Division lost some 1,800 men in the fighting around Sorauren.

    At the eastern end of Ridge B, Lamartinière’s Division fought desperately to hold back Picton’s advance in the area of Iroz, finally withdrawing further onto the ridge.

    Cole’s men moved off the ridge and began an assault on Foy’s position.

    The divisions of Reille’s Corps were collapsing into a disorderly mass on the ridge and escaping as best they could across the high ground to the north.

    Taupin’s Division, leading the retreat by Clausel’s and Reille’s Corps in the Baztan Valley, took up positions in the hills to the east of Ostiz, facing south, in expectation that Reille’s corps would march up the river valley.

    Battle of Sorauren during the Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, in the Peninsular War

    Instead, the first formation to approach Taupin’s position was Dalhousie’s Seventh Division.

    Taupin withdrew to Olagüe and finally joined D’Erlon at Lizasso.

    The remains of Maucune’s and Lamartinière’s Divisions made their way up the River Ulzana valley, joining Clausel between Olagüe and Lizasso.

    Foy took command of an assortment of units from his own division and other troops and directed them across the hills to the north, narrowly avoiding capture himself, reaching Esain at 1pm.

    Foy’s column lost its way and found itself at Iragui in the valley of the River Arga, instead of the Ulzana River Valley, the Baztan.

    Rather than risk the attempt to march west over the mountains to reach the Ulzana valley, fearing that he would be intercepted by Wellington’s troops, Foy marched north up the Valley of Baigorry to St Jean Pied de Port, implicitly acknowledging the failure of Soult’s operation to relieve either Pamplona or San Sebastian.

    Other French troops finding themselves lost in the same area, made their way back to France via Maya.

    Fortescue estimates that the operations so far had caused Soult losses the equivalent of two divisions.

    During the morning of 29 th July 1813, while Clausel and Reille were fighting the desperate battle around Ridge B, Soult, acting on information received from English deserters, decided that Hill’s Corps, further north in the Baztan Valley was isolated and vulnerable.

    Soult hurried up the river to meet D’Erlon and ordered him to attack Hill’s position.

    D’Erlon despatched Darmagnac’s Division to attack Hill in front, while Abbé outflanked Hill, occupying high ground on Hill’s left.

    On receiving the French attack, Hill fell back to the next range of hills, where he was joined by Morillo’s Spanish and Campbell’s Portuguese.

    With these additional forces, Hill kept this position for the rest of 30 th July 1813.

    Soult considered the battle was going well for him, without being aware of the disastrous outcome of the fighting around Sorauren.

    Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    Soult was disabused when Clausel and Reille arrived at his position in the area of Lizasso that evening and reported to him the devastating effect of the day’s fighting on their corps.

    On the night of 30 th July 1813, Soult’s army lay around Olagüe and Lizasso, no longer a fighting force, other than D’Erlon’s corps, having suffered around 15,000 casualties.

    Wellington was, with difficulty, assessing what Soult’s plans were.

    There were French troops making their way north up the valleys of Baigorry and Baztan.

    Wellington laid his plans on the assumption that Soult proposed to retreat to France by the valley of the Baztan.

    Wellington directed Picton’s Third Division to take the route through Roncesvalles, while Pakenham’s Sixth Division with Campbell’s Portuguese joined Picton by way of Eugui.

    Cole’s Fourth Division was to march up the valley of the River Ulzana in the Baztan Valley, while Hill’s Second Division and O’Donnell’s Spanish were to move to Lanz in the Baztan Valley, to cut off the French retreat up the valley.

    Dalhousie’s Seventh Division with Morillo’s Spanish were to march to the Pass of Doña Maria on the road to Santestaban.

    Alten’s Light Division was ordered to march to Lecumberri, to cover any march by the French directly west and then return to Zubieta, 7 miles to the south-west of Santestaban.

    The closing stages of the Battle of the Pyrenees:

    For his retreat route, Soult chose the road via Santesteban, rather than the Baztan Valley.

    D’Erlon’s men were too far to the west to get back to the Baztan Valley.

    Soult assumed that Wellington would use the Baztan Valley for his advance, enabling the French to get away to the coast.

    The route was to be via Santestaban, where Soult’s army would concentrate.

    At 1am on 31 st July 1813, Soult’s main body moved out along a road that was little more than a track.

    51st Light Infantry: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War: picture by Richard Simkin

    The French column of march was Soult leading with two cavalry divisions and the artillery, followed by Reille’s two divisions, which marched up from Olagüe, with Clausel’s corps and D’Erlon’s corps in the rear.

    Hill’s Second Division and Dalhousie’s Seventh Division caught up with the French rear-guard, formed of Abbé’s Division, in a wood north of Lizasso.

    Stewart attacked Abbé’s Division in front while Dalhousie worked around his left flank.

    Abbé extracted his men and fell back, but was attacked again.

    Darmagnac’s Division took over as rear-guard, to be attacked in turn.

    Finally, the onset of a heavy fog assisted the French to get away from their pursuers.

    The tail of D’Erlon’s corps reached Santestaban late that night.

    Wellington was unable to decide on the route Soult intended to take, due to the substantial difficulties of reconnaissance and communication in the mountainous region.

    The confusion led to Wellington’s divisions being widely dispersed.

    Initially Wellington was of the mistaken belief that the main French concentration was along the Ulzana River.

    After the fighting around Lizasso, Wellington ordered Hill’s Second Division to move into the Baztan Valley.

    Wellington himself went to Elizondo in the Baztan Valley, to find only a French convoy escorted by a single battalion, that was speedily dispersed by Byng’s Brigade.

    Wellington received no communication from Picton in the Roncesvalles Valley or from Alten’s Light Division, whose brigades were adrift on the left, one even marching towards the south.

    Finally, on the evening of 31 st July 1813, Wellington was able to assess that six of Soult’s divisions were at Santestaban, with the remaining three in the valleys to the east, although much of Foy’s command, retreating up the Roncesvalles Valley, was little more than a mob.

    Pyrenees Mountains by Delacroix: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    Wellington now realised that much of his army was in the wrong place. In particular, Hill’s Second Division was in the Baztan Valley, leaving Dalhousie’s Seventh Division alone at Doña Maria, facing Soult.

    Orders were immediately sent to Hill recalling him to Doña Maria and to Cole’s Fourth Division, ordering him to Santestaban, although he had a considerable distance to march from the Roncesvalles Valley.

    Soult now realised that the Baztan Valley route back to France was no longer open to him and that he would have to take the road down the valley of the River Bidassoa to the coast or use difficult mountain tracks going north-east.

    Reille was sent ahead to Sumbilla on the Bidassoa with Treilhard’s Dragoon Division and the artillery, with his infantry to follow.

    On the morning of 1 st August 1813, Reille despatched the 118 th Regiment from Sumbilla to secure the bridge at Yanci, where the road to Echalar branches to the east from the Bidassoa valley road.

    The rest of Soult’s army followed after Reille, with D’Erlon’s Corps in the rear.

    Due to a number of mistakes in the route, Soult’s formations, weighed down by the many wounded being carried, became inter-confused and the retreat effectively came to a halt.

    Cole’s Fourth Division caught up with the French rear-guard. His light companies deployed along the hilltops on each side of the road and fired on the French columns, causing casualties and further chaos.

    Pyrenees Mountains by Delacroix: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    Action at Yanci:

    General Graham, commanding the Fifth Division at San Sebastian, delegated to General Longa, commanding a Spanish Division, the task of intercepting Soult’s retreat down the River Bidassoa at Yanci, where a bridge crosses the Bidassoa.

    Of Longa’s force, only two companies took up position at the bridge, but they were sufficient to bring the French retreat to a halt, by firing into the crowded road.

    The Spanish companies were driven off, enabling the French to establish a flank guard and resume their retreat past Yanci.

    In the evening, the first brigade of Alten’s Light Division arrived, after a forty mile march, drove the French flank guard off, took up positions along the road and opened fire on the French troops attempting to pass along the road.

    By the time the whole brigade was in position, there were three battalions of the 95 th Rifles spread along the road, firing into the French column.

    The riflemen were concealed in the undergrowth and unreachable on the far side of the river, the French penned onto the road by the steep mountains and unable to escape from the British fire.

    The French cavalry rode through the infantry to get through and escape, while French infantrymen looted their baggage and the wounded were abandoned.

    Several French formations dispersed into the hills to escape the riflemen’s fire.

    Finally Darmagnac’s division drove the Spanish off the bridge and managed to hold back the British riflemen until the remainder of the French troops passed.

    The action ceased with the onset of darkness.

    During the night Soult’s army lay around Echalar or on the road to Vera in ruins.

    Many of the French regiments ceased to exist as disciplined bodies.

    Maucune’s Division numbered less than a thousand men. The 1 st Regiment of the Line from Vandermaesen’s Division numbered 27 men.

    Fortescue states: ‘The French had lost nearly all their baggage and several hundreds of prisoners, and were left without food, without ammunition, without discipline, and without confidence.’

    At the end of the 1 st August 1813, Wellington’s troops were positioned with his headquarters at Santestaban, Alten’s Light Division at Yanci, Cole’s Fourth Division on the road between Yanci and Sumbilla, Dalhousie’s Seventh Division between Sumbilla and Santestaban and Hill’s Second Division near Maya.

    Action at Echalar:

    On 2 nd August 1813, Soult moved north, the road down the Bidassoa Valley towards the coast being closed to him by the presence of Alten’s Light Division at Yanci.

    Soult’s force took up a position across the road between Echelar and Sarre near the French border.

    Clausel’s Corps occupied a position along high ground, with Reille’s Corps to its right rear and D’Erlon’s Corps to its left rear.

    Wellington’s troops advanced to attack Alten’s Light Division moving by way of Lesaca, across the main Vera road and into the mountains to the Santa Barbara heights Cole’s Fourth Division and Dalhousie’s Seventh Division advancing through Echalar.

    Attack of Barnes’ Brigade at the Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War

    The first formation to make contact with the French was Barnes’ Brigade of the Seventh Division (6 th , 24 th , 2 nd /58 th Regiments and Brunswick Oels).

    Without waiting for support, Barnes immediately attacked the divisions of Conroux and Vandermaesen, a force four times the size of his own.

    The French troops, dispirited and low in ammunition, began to give way. Even when Vandermaesen’s Division joined the action, Barnes men were only held back for a short time, before the French line broke.

    During this fighting, Kempt’s Brigade of the Light Division climbed the Pic de Ibantelly and attacked Reille’s Corps. Here also the French line dissolved.

    During the afternoon, Soult’s army fell back from the crest of the mountain line that marked the border with Spain and withdrew back into France.

    Both sides substantially resumed the positions they occupied before Soult’s incursion to relieve Pamplona two weeks before.

    The Aftermath of the Battle of The Pyrenees:

    The battle marked the near-end of Napoleon’s ambitions in Spain.

    Marshal Soult would make one last attempt to renew the French conquest of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Casualties at the Battle of The Pyrenees:

    French casualties (from Les Archives de la Guerre):

    Foy’s Division: Officers: 6 killed, 9 wounded, 0 captured: Men: 78 killed, 193 wounded and 69 captured: Total casualties 555

    Maucune’s: Officers: 14 killed, 17 wounded, 25 captured: Men: 789 killed, 500 wounded and 1,102 captured: Total casualties 2,457

    Lamartinière’s Division: Officers: 10 killed, 16 wounded, 3 captured: Men: 79 killed, 657 wounded and 216 captured: Total casualties 981

    British soldier capturing 2 French officers: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War: picture by John Augustus Atkinson

    Darmagnac’s Division: Officers: 13 killed, 65 wounded, 1 captured: Men: 191 killed, 1,925 wounded and 30 captured: Total casualties 2,225

    Abbé’s Division: Officers: 9 killed, 21 wounded, 1 captured: Men: 130 killed, 560 wounded and 29 captured: Total casualties 750

    Maransin’s Division: Officers: 11 killed, 34 wounded, 0 captured: Men: 105 killed, 783 wounded and 126 captured: Total casualties 1,059

    Conroux’s Division: Officers: 16 killed, 35 wounded, 12 captured: Men: 145 killed, 1,432 wounded and 747 captured: Total casualties 2,387

    Vandermaesen’s Division: Officers: 16 killed, 30 wounded, 2 captured: Men: 153 killed, 978 wounded and 301 captured: Total casualties 1,480

    Taupin’s Division: Officers: 6 killed, 38 wounded, 0 captured: Men: 125 killed, 1,007 wounded and 26 captured: Total casualties 1,202

    1 st Cavalry Division: Officers: 0 killed, 2 wounded, 1 captured: Men: 10 killed, 25 wounded and 16 captured: Total casualties 54

    2 nd Cavalry Division: Officers: 0 killed, 2 wounded, 1 captured: Men: 12 killed, 33 wounded and 19 captured: Total casualties 67

    Total: Officers: 101 killed, 277 wounded, 45 captured: Men: 1,807 killed, 8,268 wounded and 2,665 captured:

    Total French casualties 13,163

    The casualties in Wellington’s army were around 4,000 killed, wounded and captured.

    British regimental casualties:

    Royal Artillery lost Officers 0 killed and 1 wounded: Men 1 killed and 19 wounded

    14 th Light Dragoons, no casualties

    2 nd lost Officers 0 killed and 1 wounded: Men 1 killed and 9 wounded

    3 rd lost Officers 1 killed and 1 wounded: Men 3 killed and 27 wounded

    6 th lost Officers 1 killed and 7 wounded: Men 14 killed and 140 wounded

    7 th lost Officers 1 killed and 10 wounded: Men 52 killed and 187 wounded

    11 th lost Officers 0 killed and 4 wounded: Men 7 killed and 62 wounded

    20 th lost Officers 3 killed and 17 wounded: Men 38 killed and 189 wounded

    23 rd lost Officers 3 killed and 8 wounded: Men 23 killed and 85 wounded

    24 th lost Officers 0 killed and 0 wounded: Men 0 killed and 1 wounded

    7th Royal Fusiliers: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War: picture by Richard Simkin

    27 th lost Officers 3 killed and 11 wounded: Men 58 killed and 228 wounded

    28 th lost Officers 1 killed and 6 wounded: Men 9 killed and 11 wounded

    29 th lost Officers 11 killed and 11 wounded: Men 11 killed and 121 wounded

    31 st lost Officers 0 killed and 3 wounded: Men 2 killed and 37 wounded

    32 nd lost Officers 0 killed and 4 wounded: Men 4 killed and 51 wounded

    34 th lost Officers 1 killed and 5 wounded: Men 48 killed and 122 wounded*

    36 th lost Officers 0 killed and 3 wounded: Men 8 killed and 35 wounded

    39 th lost Officers 2 killed and 7 wounded: Men 11 killed and 118 wounded

    40 th lost Officers 2 killed and 10 wounded: Men 22 killed and 197 wounded

    42 nd lost Officers 0 killed and 0 wounded: Men 4 killed and 26 wounded

    45 th lost Officers 0 killed and 1 wounded: Men 0 killed and 7 wounded

    48 th lost Officers 2 killed and 10 wounded: Men 12 killed and 109 wounded

    50 th lost Officers 3 killed and 12 wounded: Men 30 killed and 198 wounded

    51 st lost Officers 0 killed and 0 wounded: Men 7 killed and 62 wounded

    53 rd lost Officers 0 killed and 1 wounded: Men 1 killed and 20 wounded

    57 th lost Officers 0 killed and 3 wounded: Men 4 killed and 68 wounded

    58 th lost Officers 0 killed and 6 wounded: Men 10 killed and 61 wounded

    60 th lost Officers 2 killed and 6 wounded: Men 8 killed and 72 wounded

    61 st lost Officers 0 killed and 4 wounded: Men 3 killed and 38 wounded

    68 th lost Officers 1 killed and 3 wounded: Men 8 killed and 41 wounded

    71 st lost Officers 2 killed and 7 wounded: Men 28 killed and 181 wounded

    74 th lost Officers 1 killed and 4 wounded: Men 6 killed and 38 wounded

    79 th lost Officers 0 killed and 1 wounded: Men 5 killed and 47 wounded

    82 nd lost Officers 4 killed and 6 wounded: Men 17 killed and 146 wounded

    91 st lost Officers 0 killed and 7 wounded: Men 13 killed and 100 wounded

    92 nd lost Officers 0 killed and 26 wounded: Men 55 killed and 363 wounded

    95 th lost Officers 0 killed and 2 wounded: Men 7 killed and 28 wounded

    *The 34 th Regiment in the defence of the Rock of Aretesque during the Battle of Maya lost around 80 men as prisoners to the French, including Captain Moyle Sherer.

    Military General Service Medal 1847 with clasp for the Battle of the Pyrenees

    Battle Honours and Medal for the Battle of The Pyrenees:

    The Battle of the Pyrenees is a battle honour for all the British regiments involved: 14 th Light Dragoons, 2 nd Queen’s, 3 rd Buffs, 6 th Regiment, 7 th Royal Fusiliers, 10 th , 11 th , 24 th , 23 rd Royal Welch Fusilier, 27 th , 28 th , 29 th , 31 st , 32 nd , 34 th , 39 th , 40 th , 42 nd Royal Highlanders, 43 rd Light Infantry, 45 th , 48 th , 50 th , 51 st , 53 rd , 57 th , 58 th , 60 th Rifles, 61 st , 71 st Highland Light Infantry, 74 th Highland Light Infantry, 79 th Highlanders, 81 st , 91 st Highlanders, 92 nd Gordon Highlanders and 95 th Rifles.

    The Military General Service Medal for service in the Peninsular War and other areas between 1793 and 1814 (not including the Battle of Waterloo, which had its own medal) was issued with a clasp for Pyrenees, to all those still alive in 1848 who claimed the medal and were entitled to it. No medal was issued without one or more, up to 11, of the 29 battle clasps recognized.

    Army Gold Medal Cross with clasp for the Battle of the Pyrenees

    Army Gold Medal:

    In 1810 a Gold Medal was issued to be awarded to officers of rank of major and above for meritorious service at certain battles in the Peninsular War, with clasps for additional battles. The ‘Large Gold Medal’ was awarded to generals, the ‘Small Gold Medal’ to majors and colonels, with the medal replaced by a cross where four clasps were earned. The Battle of the Pyrenees was one of the battles.

    Anecdotes and traditions from the Battle of The Pyrenees:

    • The Battle of Maya was followed by a blazing row between General Stewart and Wellington who blamed the loss of the battle on Stewart’s whimsical departure from his post of duty, leaving his two brigades without direction. Wellington wrote Stewart a stinging letter of rebuke, bringing from Stewart a vigorous letter of protest. Wellington refused to amend his criticism. The affair ended when a letter from the Government in London arrived informing Wellington that Stewart was being made Commander of the Bath and that Wellington was to carry out the investiture.
    • Fortescue queries why Hill, who had overall command for this section of the line failed to take over control of the battles at Roncesvalles and Maya. Hill, at his headquarters in Elizondo, appears to have been unaware of the battles taking place.
    • In the Battle of Sorauren, first day, Fortescue states that many of the French troops were starving, due to the wholly inadequate supply system and either did not have the strength to climb the steep ridge, or, having done so, did not have the strength to conduct a strenuous fight with the troops they were attempting to attack.

    General Sir Edward Barnes: Battle of the Pyrenees fought between 25th July and 2nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War: picture by William Salter

    References for the Battle of The Pyrenees:

    See the extensive list of references given at the end of the Peninsular War Index.

    The previous battle of the Peninsular War is the Storming of San Sebastian

    The next battle of the Peninsular War is the Battle of San Marcial

    42. Podcast on the Battle of the Pyrenees: the battles fought between 25 th July and 2 nd August 1813 in the western Pyrenees Mountains, during the Peninsular War Wellington decisively repelling Marshal Soult’s incursion across the border to relieve the French garrisons in Pamplona and San Sebastian: John Mackenzie’s britishbattles.com podcasts

    Search BritishBattles.com

    Follow / Like Us

    Other Pages

    The BritishBattles Podcast

    If you are too busy to read the site, why not download a podcast of an individual battle and listen on the move! Visit our dedicated Podcast page or visit Podbean below.


    Contents

    There is speculation as to how many battles Wellington actually participated in during his career, by historians and biographers. Military historian, Ian Fletcher, identifies twenty-four major battles and sieges involving the British Army between 1808 and 1815 with Wellington was in command of seventeen of those engagements. Α] Military historian, Mark Adkin, comments that "Wellington had fought in some twenty-four battles and sieges prior to Waterloo". Β] Although this is easily contested, the precise number of battles may never be known. It can be established from records, dispatches and reports dating back to the events that he was present in at least fifty separate military actions, including an assortment of meeting engagements, pitched battles, sieges, skirmishes and minor engagements, throughout his career. He also ordered countless other remote engagements mostly whilst serving in the Napoleonic Wars, during which Britain played a major role in securing Europe against French occupation, between 1805 and 1815. Γ]

    Commissions and promotions [ edit | edit source ]

    Wellington was gazetted ensign on 7 March 1787, in the 73rd (Highland) Regiment of Foot, and became an aide-de-camp in October. Δ] He purchased his commission to lieutenant on 25 December 1787, in the 76th Regiment. Δ] As a junior officer he transferred to the 41st Regiment soon after to avoid duty in the East Indies, Δ] and in June 1789 transferred again, to the 12th (Prince of Wales's) Light Dragoons cavalry regiment. Ε] He obtained his commission to captain on 30 June 1791, in the 58th (Rutlandshire) Regiment, having served the regulation minimum of three years, Ζ] and again to major on 30 April 1793, in the 33rd (First Yorkshire West Riding) Regiment, having served six years. Η] He purchased his final commission to lieutenant-colonel on 30 September 1793, ⎖] at the age of 24. ⎗] From there on further promotion could only be attained through seniority, per Army Regulations. ⎘]

    In September 1794, Wellesley experienced his first battle, against the French, at the Battle of Boxtel with the 33rd. ⎙] His promotion to colonel, on 3 May 1796, came by seniority, and in June he was sent with the 33rd to India. ⎚] In 1799 he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, commanding three victorious actions with the British East India Company. After winning the war, and serving as governor of Seringapatam and Mysore, Wellesley was promoted to major-general on 29 April 1802, although he did not receive the news until September. ⎛] Whilst in India he wrote of his regiment "I have commanded them for nearly ten years during which I have scarcely been away from them and I have always found them to be the quietest and best behaved body of men in the army." ⎜]

    Wellesley gained further success in India during the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–05, and in 1806 Wellesley succeeded the Marquis Cornwallis as Colonel of the 33rd, which he held until 1813. By 1807, Napoleon's attempt to prevent continental Europe from trading with Britain had resulted in all but Sweden, Denmark and Portugal closing their ports. In June 1807, Napoleon pressured Denmark further, resulting in the British naval bombardment of Copenhagen and seizure of the Danish fleet to prevent it from falling into French hands. ⎝] Wellesley's brief role against Danish land forces at the Battle of Køge helped secure Denmark. Wellesley later disapproved of the bombardment, saying "we might have taken the capital with greater ease". ⎞] He was promoted to lieutenant-general on 25 April 1808, ⎟] and in June was given command of 9,000 men set to invade revolutionary Spanish America. ⎠] But in 1807, Napoleon had invaded Portugal, via Spain, intent on preventing its continued trade with Britain, but replaced the Spanish royal family with his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte, in May 1808. ⎡] In Madrid, the Spanish resisted the French occupation, leading the Portuguese to call on British support. In August 1808, Wellesley entered the Peninsular War with 15,000 men. ⎢]

    When the head of the British forces in the Peninsula, Sir John Moore, was killed in the Battle of Corunna in January 1809, ⎣] the British Army having been driven from the Peninsula in disarray, ⎤] Wellington sent the Secretary of War a memo insisting that a British force of no less than 30,000 British troops should be sent to defend and rebuild Portugal's military strength. ⎥] His proposal was approved and he re-embarked to Lisbon on 16 April 1809, ⎦] where he was appointed to head of the forces in Portugal – a motion supported by the government and Prince Regent George IV, as Wellington did not hold seniority. ⎥]

    On 31 July 1811, he was promoted to general, although it only applied in the Peninsula. ⎧] His final promotion to field marshal came on 21 June 1813, following his success at the Battle of Vitoria which had broken the remaining French hold in Spain. ⎨] Wellington was awarded with a Marshal's baton – partially designed by the Prince Regent himself – the first of its kind in the Britain Army. ⎧]

    Allied commander [ edit | edit source ]

    Wellington was appointed head of all British forces from April 1809, ⎩] following the death of Sir John Moore, and due to the second invasion of Portugal by the French he remained to continue the Peninsular War for a further five years, engaging the French armies across Portugal, Spain, and north into France until Napoleon's abdication in 1814. ⎪] He returned to Europe in 1815 appointed overall commander of the Anglo-Allied forces of the Seventh Coalition, better known as the Hundred Days, following Napoleon's escape from exile and attempt to retain power. ⎫]

    Despite many battles to his name, over twenty-one years of duty, it would be shortly after the battle at Waterloo upon hearing of approximately 50,000 casualties dead or dying that he wept, saying "I hope to God I have fought my last battle". ⎬] It had been a close victory at such great cost that it broke his fighting spirit, ⎭] and marked the end of his long service overseas with a notable military career. He returned to British politics and became a leading statesman. ⎮] He was appointed Master-General of the Ordnance ⎯] (1819–27) and Commander-in-Chief of the Forces ⎰] (1827–28/1842–52), but Wellington did not fight again.


    Combat of San Pelayo, 24 March 1813 - History


    This section of the SFMUSEUM.ORG Website is presented by Unity Foundation, an organization that has been "Keeping the Spirit and Values - Peace, Love & Unity - of the 60's Alive" for more than three decades. (visit www.unityfoundation.org )

    May 14, 1965
    “Boss of the Bay,” KYA presents the Rolling Stones, the Byrds, Beau Brummels, Paul Revere and the Raiders, and the Vejtables, at Civic Auditorium.

    August 13, 1965
    The Matrix, San Francisco’s first folk night club, opened at 3138 Fillmore in the Marina District. New band called “The Jefferson Airplane“ performed.

    September 2, 1965
    Beatles concert at the Cow Palace in Daly City. Pandemonium broke out as fans rushed the stage.

    September 21, 1965
    The Jefferson Airplane opened for Lightnin’ Hopkins at the Matrix on Fillmore St. Norm Mayell backed Hopkins on drums.

    October 15, 1965
    The Great Society performed at the opening of the Coffee Gallery. Band members included Darby, Jerry and Grace Slick. San Francisco State College Vietnam Day Committee Teach-In. Country Joe and the Fish entertained.

    October 16, 1965
    Family Dog collective dance and concert, a tribute to Dr. Strange, at Longshoremen’s Hall with The Jefferson Airplane andthe Charlatans, and the Great Society. Russ “The Moose” Syracuse of KYA was master of ceremonies.

    October 24, 1965
    Family Dog collective dance and concert at Longshoremen’s Hall with the Lovin’ Spoonful.

    November 6, 1965
    San Francisco Mime Troupe Appeal party in a loft on Minna Street. The Jefferson Airplane, the Fugs and the Mystery Trend performed.

    December 10, 1965
    Warlocks become “The Grateful Dead,” and debut with the new name at the Fillmore Auditorium for the second San Francisco Mime Troupe Appeal Party. The Jefferson Airplane, The Great Society, the John Handy Quintet, the Mystery Trend, and Sam Thomas also appeared.

    January 8, 1966
    KYA Super Harlow A Go-Go dance and show at Longshoremen’s Hall with the Vejtables and the Baytovens. “Super” Harlow Meyers was Russ “The Moose” Syracuse’s radio engineer on KYA’s “All-Night Flight,” and a former disc jockey.

    January 21, 1966
    Three-day Trips Festival at Longshoremen’s Hall, 400 North Point St. featured the Grateful Dead, Big Brother and the Holding Company, The Loading Zone, Chinese New Years’ Lion Dancers and Drum and Bugle Corps, Stroboscopic Trampoline, and Ken Kesey and His Merry Pranksters.

    February 4, 1966
    Bill Graham presented The Jefferson Airplane at the Fillmore Auditorium, 1805 Geary Street.

    February 12, 1966
    Rock For Peace at the Fillmore Auditorium with the The Great Society, Quicksilver Messenger Service , and Big Brother and the Holding Company. Benefit for Democratic congressional candidates and the Viet Nam Study Group.

    Lincoln’s Birthday Party with Sopwith Camel at the Firehouse, former quarters of Engine Co. 26 and Truck Co. 10, 3767 Sacramento St. The Charlatans also appeared.

    February 19, 1966
    Family Dog and Bill Graham presented The Jefferson Airplane at the Fillmore Auditorium. Wildflower and Sopwith Camel at the Fire House.

    March 4, 1966
    The Charlatans and the Electric Chamber Orkustra appeared at Soko Hall, 739 Page St.

    March 12, 1966
    The Alligator Clip, the Charlatans, Sopwith Camel, and Duncan Blue Boy and his Cosmic Yo-Yo, at the Firehouse on Sacramento Street.

    March 15, 1966
    Thomas C. Lynch, Attorney General of the State of California, condemned the use of LSD and other drugs in a statement to the State Senate Judiciary Committee in Sacramento.

    March 19, 1966
    Big Brother and the Holding Company appeared at the Fire House. Sgt. Barry Sadler, who was to entertain, could not attend.

    March 22, 1966
    Sopwith Camel appears at the Matrix in the Marina District

    March 25, 1966
    Paul Butterfield Blues Band and Quicksilver Messenger Service opened at Fillmore Auditorium.

    April 7, 1966
    City Lights Books sponsored the appearance of Russian poet Andri Vozneskensy at the Fillmore. Lawrence Ferlinghetti read translations and The Airplane performed.

    April 8, 1966
    The Jefferson Airplane opened at California Hall on Polk Street.

    April 9, 1966
    Week of Angry Arts Vietnam Mobilization fund raiser at Longshoremen’s Hall, 400 North Point St.

    April 15, 1966
    Fifth-Annual San Francisco State College Folk Festival with Malvina Reynolds, Mark Spoelstra, and Dick and Mimi Fariñia.

    April 16, 1966
    Charlatans, Mystery Trend, Wanda and Her Birds and the Haight St. Jazz Band appeared at California Hall.

    April 30, 1966
    Jefferson Airplane and Quicksilver Messenger Service at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    May 18, 1966
    PH Phactor Jug Band opened at 40 Cedar Street, also known as Cedar Alley, near Polk and Geary.

    May 20, 1966
    Capt. Beefheart and His Magic Band opened at the Avalon Ballroom, Sutter and Van Ness.

    May 27, 1966
    Artist Andy Warhol and his Plastic Inevitable, Velvet Underground and Nico, plus the Mothers, at Fillmore Auditorium.

    May 30, 1966
    Benefit for the Haight-Ashbury Legal Organization (HALO) at Winterland. The Jefferson Airplane performed.

    June 4, 1966
    The Jefferson Airplane appear in Exposition Auditorium at Civic Center.

    June 6, 1966
    The Turtles, and Oxford Circle at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    June 22, 1966
    The Jefferson Airplane at the Avalon Ballroom.

    June 24, 1966
    Lenny Bruce and the Mothers of Invention appeared in concert at Fillmore Auditorium.

    KFRC Presents the Beach Boys Summer Spectacular at the Cow Palace. Other acts included the Jefferson Airplane, Lovin' Spoonful, Chad and Jeremy, Percy Sledge, The Byrds, and Sir Douglas Quintet,

    June 26, 1966
    Sopwith Camel opened for the Rolling Stones in performance at the Cow Palace. Jefferson Airplane also performed.

    July 1, 1966
    Quicksilver Messenger Service, Big Brother, and Jaywalkers at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    July 2, 1966
    Great Society, Sopwith Camel and the Charlatans at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    July 3, 1966
    Love, Grateful Dead and Group B at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    July 10, 1966
    United Farm Workers’ benefit at the Fillmore with Quicksilver and the Messenger Service and the San Andreas Fault Finders.

    July 17, 1966
    Allen Ginsberg read poetry and Sopwith Camel performed in concert at the Fillmore, to benefit A.R.T.S. Gary Goodrow of The Committee emceed.

    July 22, 1966
    The Association, Quicksilver Messenger Service, Sopwith Camel, and Grassroots at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    July 26, 1966
    The Temptations’ dance and show at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    August 6, 1966
    Vietnam War peace march up Market Street.

    August 7, 1966
    Third-Annual South-of-Market and North Beach Children’s Adventure Day Camp benefit with Quicksilver Messenger Service, Big Brother and the Holding Company, and The Grateful Dead held at Fillmore Auditorium. Gary Goodrow of The Committee was master of ceremonies.

    August 10, 1966
    Sam the Sham and the Pharaohs at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    August 17, 1966
    Psychedelic fashion show and tarot reading at the Fillmore. The Airplane and Mimi Fariñia entertained.

    August 25, 1966
    Yardbirds performed at the Carousel Ballroom. The Carousel was the former El Patio Ballroom on the second floor of the car dealership on the southwest corner of Market and Van Ness.

    August 26, 1966
    Grace Slick and the Great Society, Country Joe and the Fish, and Sopwith Camel at the Fillmore Auditorium. It is Country Joe and the Fish's first performance at the Fillmore - they filled in for 13th Floor Elevator.

    August 29, 1966
    Beatlemania swept San Francisco as the “Fab Four” performed in concert at Candlestick Park. It was the Beatle’s last public appearance together. Also appearing were The Cyrkle, The Ronettes, and the Remains. Ticket purchases by mail were available from KYA, No. 1 Nob Hill Circle, San Francisco.

    September 5, 1966
    Labor Day opening of Martha and The Vandellas at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    September 6, 1966
    The Blues Project opened at the Matrix.

    September 11, 1966
    Benefit for BOTH/AND jazz club at the Fillmore with “Big Mama” Thornton, The Airplane, Elvin Jones, Jon Hendricks Trio and the Joe Henderson Quartet.

    September 16, 1966
    Grateful Dead at the Avalon Ballroom

    September 23, 1966
    The Jefferson Airplane opened at Winterland.

    September 27, 1966
    The Four Tops, with Johnny Talbot and De Thanks opened at Fillmore Auditorium.

    September 30, 1966
    Three-day Acid Test opened at San Francisco State College Commons. The test was to peak on the evening of Oct. 1. The Grateful Dead performed.

    October 6, 1966
    Love Pagent in the Panhandle of Golden Gate Park. Big Brother, Wildflower, The Dead and the Electric Chamber Orkustra entertained. California Legislature outlaws sale and possession of LSD.

    October 7, 1966
    Jim Kweskin Jug Band, Big Brother, and Electric Train at the Avalon Ballroom.

    October 15, 1966
    Artists’ Liberation Front Free Fair in the Golden Gate Park Panhandle.

    The Jefferson Airplane at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    October 21, 1966
    Grateful Dead, Lightnin’ Hopkins and Loading Zone at the Fillmore, with dancing and strobe light show.

    October 23, 1966
    The Yardbirds, and Country Joe and the Fish at the Fillmore.

    October 27, 1966
    New “alternative” weekly newspaper, “The Guardian,” debuted. Edited and published by Bruce Brugman. Editors at the Chronicle, Examiner and News Call-Bulletin give it little chance for survival.

    October 31, 1966
    Bob McKendrick presented “Dance of Death” costume ball at California Hall. The Dead, and Mimi Fariñia entertained.

    November 6, 1966
    The Jefferson Airplane at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    November 8, 1966
    Movie and TV actor Ronald Reagan defeated incumbent Gov. Edmund G. Brown by almost one million votes.

    November 12, 1966
    Hells Angels’ motorcycle gang dance at Sokol Hall, 739 Page St. Grateful Dead performed.

    November 13, 1966
    The Dead, Quicksilver, and Big Brother and the Holding Company Zenefit at the Avalon Ballroom for the Zen Mountain Center.

    November 19, 1966
    Righteous Brothers, with April Stevens and Nino Tempo, appeared at the USF Gymnasium. Beau Brummels at the Carousel Ballroom. Grateful Dead and James Cotton at the Fillmore.

    November 20, 1966
    Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) fundraiser at the Fillmore with the James Cotton Chicago Blues Band. Stokely Carmichael and his staff were there. Jon Hendricks was master of ceremonies.

    November 29, 1966
    District Attorney John J. Ferdon dropped charges against members of The Diggers, who staged a Halloween puppet show at Haight and Ashbury streets. Released from custody were Emmett Grogen, Peter Berg, Brooks Bucher, Peter Minnault and Robert Morticello.

    December 1, 1966
    Print Mint store in the Haight-Ashbury opened at 1542 Haight St.

    December 17, 1966
    Benefit for Legalization of Marijuana (LEMAR) at California Hall. Country Joe and the Fish entertained.

    December 20, 1966
    Otis Redding Show opened at the Fillmore Auditorium.
    January 5, 1967
    Inaugural message of Ronald Reagan, California’s 33rd governor, delivered during ceremonies in the Rotunda of the State Capitol at midnight. Just before the swearing in, the new governor turned to U.S. Senator George Murphy — a former movie song-and-dance man — and said “Well George, here we are on the late show again.” The new governor placed his hand on Father Serra’s bible as he was sworn in by State Supreme Court Justice Marshall F. McComb.

    January 6, 1967
    Young Rascals, Sopwith Camel, and the Doors at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    January 13, 1967
    The Dead, Junior Wells’ Chicago Blues Band, and the Doors at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    January 14, 1967
    Human Be-In at the Polo Grounds, Golden Gate Park. Speakers included Jerry Rubin, Allen Ginsberg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Timothy Leary. Participants were urged to bring food to share, flowers, beads, costumes, feathers, bells, cymbals and flags. The Jefferson Airplane entertained. The Be-In was produced by Michael Bowen.

    Ike and Tina Turner Revue with the Ike-Ettes at California Hall.

    January 17, 1967
    Big Brother and the Holding Company appeared at the Matrix.

    February 3, 1967
    Big Brother and the Holding Company entertained at the Hells Angels’ dance at California Hall.

    Jefferson Airplane and Quicksilver Messenger Service at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    February 10, 1967
    “Tribute to J. Edgar Hoover” at California Hall. Music by the Jook Savages, Blue Cheer and the Mojo Men.

    John H. Myers Blues Project, Jimmy Reed and John Lee Hooker at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    February 12, 1967
    Benefit at the Fillmore for the Council for Civic Unity. Moby Grape, and Sly and the Family Stone performed.

    February 14, 1967
    Jim Morrison and The Doors performed at Whisky A-Go-Go, 568 Sacramento St.

    February 19, 1967
    Port Chicago Vigil Benefit at California Hall.

    March 3, 1967
    First Love Circus at Winterland, music by Moby Grape and lights by the Commune. Jim Morrison and The Doors at the Avalon Ballroom

    March 5, 1967
    Warren Hinckle III, editor of Ramparts Magazine, hosted a “rockdance-environment happening” benefit in honor of the CIA (Citizens for Interplanetary Activity) at California Hall. Participants included the S.F. League for Sexual Freedom, the Diggers and the San Francisco Mime Troupe.

    March 7, 1967
    Jim Morrison and The Doors performed at the Matrix.

    March 21, 1967
    Eric Burdon and the Animals appeared at the Civic Auditorium.

    March 24, 1967
    Political satire as The W.C. Fields Memorial Orphanage presented the Pitschel Players at 120 Julian St. near 15th and Valencia.

    March 31, 1967
    Mime Troupe appeared at Fluxfest at Longshoremen’s Hall.

    April 7, 1967
    Canned Heat opened at the Avalon Ballroom.

    April 11, 1967
    Buffalo Springfield, and the Electric Chamber Orkustra appeared at the Rock Garden, 4742 Mission near Ocean.

    April 12, 1967
    Benefit at the Fillmore Auditorium for arrested members of the San Francisco Mime Troupe. The Airplane, the Dead, and Moby Grape appeared.

    April 14, 1967
    Country Joe and the Fish performed in the Panhandle of Golden Gate Park on the eve of the peace march.

    April 15, 1967
    Vietnam War protest as 100,000 people marched from Second and Market to Kezar Stadium at Golden Gate Park. Vietnam veteran David Duncan gave the keynote speech.

    April 20, 1967
    Howlin’ Wolf opened at the Matrix.

    May 5, 1967 Grateful Dead, and the Paupers at Fillmore Auditorium.

    May 11, 1967
    Vanguard Records party at Fillmore Auditorium for Country Joe and the Fish.

    May 26, 1967 The Charlatans, The Salvation Army Banned, and Blue Cheer at the Avalon Ballroom.

    May 30, 1967
    Benefit for the Haight-Ashbury Legal Organization at Winterland. The Jefferson Airplane performed.

    June 6-7, 1967
    KFRC Fantasy Fair and Magic Mountain Music Festival at Mt. Tamalpais to benefit the Hunters Point Child Care Center. “Trans-Love Buslines” carried participants from the parking area to the festival.

    June 10, 1967
    Festival in Hunters Point to honor the fighter Muhammad Ali.

    June 16, 1967
    First and last Monterey International Pop Festival. Janis Joplin, The Jefferson Airplane, the Dead, Big Brother and other San Francisco artists performed.

    June 20, 1966
    The Jefferson Airplane appears with the Jimi Hendrix Experience at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    July 14, 1967
    Steve Miller Blues Band and the Sunshine Company concert at California Hall.

    July 17, 1967
    Moore Galley exhibition at 535 Sutter St. of the works by Rock poster artists Wes Wilson, Stanley Mouse, Victor Moscoso, Rick Griffin and Alton Kelley .

    July 21, 1967
    The Youngbloods and Wildflower performed at California Hall .

    Grand opening of the Straight Theatre at Haight and Cole. It was the former Haight Theatre, but was now a hippie-run alternative to the commercially successful Fillmore Auditorium and Avalon Ballroom.

    July 23, 1967
    Beatster Neal Cassady in performance with “Straight Theatre Rap” at the Straight Theatre.

    August 5, 1967
    Flamin’ Groovies opened at the Matrix.

    August 9, 1967
    Peace torch arrived from Hiroshima.

    August 15, 1967
    Count Basie and his Orchestra and Chuck Berry at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    August 27, 1967
    Peace torch began its journey to Washington, D.C. for a demonstration against the Vietnam War.

    September 17, 1967
    Little Richard with an all-soul revue opened at the Straight Theatre.

    September 23, 1967
    The Airplane and Muddy Waters at Winterland, Post and Steiner streets.

    September 25, 1967
    Paul Butterfield Blues Band at the Fillmore.

    September 30, 1967
    13th Floor Elevators Quicksilver Messenger Service at the Avalon Ballroom, presented by the Family Dog collective.

    October 2, 1967
    San Francisco police raid the Grateful Dead’s Haight-Ashbury house.

    October 6, 1967
    Hippies blocked the intersection of Haight and Ashbury streets to celebrate the “Death of Hip.”

    October 11, 1967
    Benefit for the Haight-Ashbury Medical Clinic at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    October 13, 1967
    Morning Glory and Indian Head Band opened at the Western Front Dance Academy club at Polk and O’Farrell.

    October 19, 1967
    The Jefferson Airplane perform at Loews Warfield Theatre on Market Street.

    October 30, 1967
    Benefit at the Fillmore for KPFA radio station. Pink Floyd and the Sopwith Camel performed.

    November 19, 1967
    Purple Onion Two, a hipper version of the original Club, opened at 435 Broadway.

    December 1, 1967
    Mad River and the Santana Blues Band appeared at the Straight Theatre.

    December 16, 1967
    Second-annual Grope for Peace at the Straight Theatre.

    January 7, 1968
    Stop the Draft Week defense fund concert dance at the Fillmore with Phil Ochs , Loading Zone and The Committee.

    February 1, 1968
    Jimi Hendrix Experience , with John Mayall and the Bluesbreakers, at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    February 14, 1968
    The Airplane opens at the Carousel Ballroom, Van Ness Ave. and Market Street.

    March 3, 1968
    Grateful Dead leaves the Haight with a farewell concert before relocating to Marin County.

    March 8, 1968
    Cream, James Cotton Blues Band, Jeremy Satyrs, and Blood Sweat and Tears at the Fillmore Auditorium. Love, Congress of Wonders, and Sons of Champlin at the Avalon Ballroom.

    March 15, 1968
    Blood, Sweat and Tears opened at the Avalon Ballroom.

    March 22, 1968
    President’s daughter, Lynda Bird Johnson, ordered off cable car for eating ice cream cone.

    March 29, 1968
    Grateful Dead and Chuck Berry opened at the Carousel Ballroom.

    April 5, 1968
    Mayor Alioto issued a proclamation condemning the assassination of the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. Thousands of people gathered at Civic Center in memory of the civil rights leader. City flags lowered to half staff.

    April 12, 1968
    Moby Grape opened at the Carousel Ballroom.

    April 19, 1968
    Santana Blues Band and Frumious Bandersnatch at the Carousel Ballroom.

    April 27, 1968
    Peace march and rally.

    May 3, 1968
    Thelonious Monk and Dr. John the Night Tripper at the Carousel Ballroom.

    May 8, 1968
    Benefit for poster artist Alton Kelley at the Carousel Ballroom.

    May 24, 1968
    Charlie Musselwhite and Dan Hicks and his Hot Licks appeared at the Straight Theatre.

    May 24, 1968
    It's a Beautiful Day appeared at the Filmore. Album cover

    May 31, 1968
    Works of Robert Edward Duncan exhibited by the San Francisco Museum of Art as part of its celebration of San Francisco underground art 1945-1968.

    June 4, 1968
    San Francisco voters defeated a $5.7 million measure to acquire the Cliff House and Sutro Baths for a park. Ballot counting came to a standstill at City Hall when the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles was broadcast live on television.

    June 7, 1968
    Grateful Dead and The Airplane at the Carousel Ballroom.

    June 19, 1968
    “Soul Scene” benefit dance for the Blackman’s Free Store, held at the Carousel Ballroom.

    June 23, 1968
    Big Brother and the Holding Company at the Carousel Ballroom.

    July 1, 1968
    KSAN Stereo Radio 95 Family Freakout at the Avalon Ballroom. Music by Creedence Clearwater Revival.

    July 14, 1968
    Bill Graham left the Fillmore Auditorium to take over the Carousel Ballroom. Electric Flag and Blue Cheer closed out performances at the Fillmore at Geary and Fillmore streets.

    July 16, 1968
    Big Brother and the Holding Company, and Sly and the Family Stone opened the new Fillmore West, the former Carousel and El Patio ballroom.

    August 5, 1968
    Ornette Coleman in concert at Bill Graham’s new Fillmore West.

    August 9, 1968
    Steppenwolf opened at the Avalon Ballroom.

    August 29, 1968
    Cream and Electric Flag opened at Fillmore West.

    September 25, 1968
    Five-day Radical Theatre Festival at San Francisco State College featured Bread and Puppet Theatre, Teatro Campesino, and the San Francisco Mime Troupe.

    October 12, 1968
    GI’s and Vets marched for peace from Golden Gate Park to Civic Center.

    October 14, 1968
    27 soldiers protesting the Viet Nam War charged with mutiny at the Presidio of San Francisco.

    October 24, 1968
    The Airplane opened at the Fillmore West ballroom.

    November 6, 1968
    First day of San Francisco State College strike.

    November 26, 1968
    Robert R. Smith, President of San Francisco State College, resigned.

    November 26, 1968
    S.I. Hayakawa named acting president, San Francisco State College.

    March 20, 1969
    Janis Joplin and Her Band opened at Winterland.

    March 21, 1969
    San Francisco State College strike ended.

    March 27, 1969
    Bo Diddley opened at Winterland.

    May 7, 1969
    Grateful Dead and the Airplane perform at the Polo Field in Golden Gate Park.

    May 24, 1969
    Haight-Ashbury Festival in the Golden Gate Park Panhandle.

    May 28, 1969
    People’s Park Bail Ball benefit held at Winterland. Creedance Clearwater Revival and the Airplane entertained.

    June 13, 1969
    Jefferson Airplane with Grace Slick at the Family Dog Ballroom at the Great Highway. The show was broadcast by KSAN.

    June 17, 1969
    Woody Herman and His Orchestra at the Fillmore West.

    June 25, 1968
    The Doors, Lonnie Mack, Elvin Bishop Group at the Cow Palace.

    July 19, 1969
    The Who appeared at Fillmore West.

    August 22, 1969
    Three-day Wild West Festival at Kezar Stadium with Janis Joplin, Turk Murphy, Jefferson Airplane, the Dead, Country Joe, Santana, Sly and the Family Stone, and the Youngbloods.

    October 9, 1969
    Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young opened at Fillmore West.

    October 21, 1969
    Beat-era author Jack Keroac dies

    November 13, 1969 Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young, Cold Blood , Joy of Cooking, and Lamb at Winterland.

    November 15, 1969
    Thousands of people participated in a peace march.

    November 20, 1969
    American Indians seized and occupied Alcatraz Island.

    December 6, 1969
    Rolling Stones appeared at the Altamont Speedway near Livermore after they were denied use of Golden Gate Park. One person was murdered during the show. Marked the end of the San Francisco Rock era.

    December 22, 1969
    Radio Free Alcatraz broadcast for first time from Berkeley radio station KPFA. December 31, 1969
    Jefferson Airplane New Year's show at Winterland.

    Other Haight-Ashbury Resources

    This site and contents ©1995-2018 The Museum of the City of San Francisco


    EP. 94: The Texas Rangers–East Texas Troubles

    San Augustine had a crime problem in the 1930’s. A semi-organized gang was preying on the black community and something had to be done. The problem was compounded by a corrupt governor who had all but destroyed the Rangers. But new Governor James V Allred cleaned up the Texas Ranger force and restored it to its rightful place as one of the nation’s premier law enforcement organizations. Then he sent them to San Augustine. The Rangers cleaned up the town and broke down some Jim Crow barriers. Hear the story of how the Allred rangers cleaned up San Augustine in this interview with one of the premier Texas Ranger scholars in Texas, Dr. Jody Edward Ginn.


    Watch the video: Σαγγάριος Μάχη - ΝΤΟΚΙΜΑΝΤΕΡ (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Behdeti

    In my opinion, this is relevant, I will take part in the discussion. Together we can come to the right answer.

  2. Lakeland

    I like your idea. I propose to bring it up for general discussion.

  3. Tojora

    this is punctual

  4. Muramar

    In my opinion you commit an error. Let's discuss. Write to me in PM, we will communicate.

  5. Grojind

    What a nice idea

  6. Blyth

    In my opinion, this is a delusion.



Write a message