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January 30, 2014 Day 10 of the Sixth Year - History

January 30, 2014 Day 10 of the Sixth Year - History


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8:50AM THE PRESIDENT departs the White House en route Joint Base Andrews
South Lawn

9:05AM THE PRESIDENT departs Joint Base Andrews

CST

10:00AM THE PRESIDENT arrives Milwaukee, Wisconsin
General Mitchell International Airport
Open Press

10:40PM THE PRESIDENT tours General Electric’s Waukesha Gas Engines
Waukesha, Wisconsin

11:20AM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks
General Electric’s Waukesha Gas Engines, Waukesha, Wisconsin

1:55PM THE PRESIDENT departs Milwaukee, Wisconsin
General Mitchell International Airport – Wisconsin Air National Guard 128th Air Refueling Wing

3:15PM THE PRESIDENT arrives Nashville, Tennessee
Berry Field Air National Guard Base

4:20PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks
McGavock High School

5:05PM THE PRESIDENT departs Nashville, Tennessee
Berry Field Air National Guard Base

EST

7:35PM THE PRESIDENT arrives Joint Base Andrews

7:45PM THE PRESIDENT arrives the White House


Why Do We Celebrate New Year's Day? A Fascinating Look Into New Year's History

Your favorite New Year's traditions all had to start somewhere!

From festive countdown parties to the iconic ball drop at Times Square, the start of the New Year has always been a massive event filled with celebratory champagne toasts, a lively rendition of &ldquoAuld Lang Syne&rdquo and plenty of other fun New Year's traditions. But while millions of people celebrate this holiday every year, there's probably a lot about the New Year's history that you may not know &mdash including where the holiday first originated and how it came about.

You might, for instance, be wondering when the very first celebration of New Year's took place (hint: it was 4,000 years ago!), or how that age-old tradition of making New Year's resolutions came to be. And what exactly is the story behind the practice of smooching your loved one at midnight? If you're looking for a deeper look behind the history of the holiday, here are some fascinating New Year's history facts that's sure to get you ready for 2021 &mdash especially after a delicious New Year's Eve dinner and a glass of bubbly.


Where the Five-Day Workweek Came From

It's a relatively new invention—is it time to shave another day off?

“Seven days,” wrote Witold Rybczynski in the August 1991 issue of The Atlantic, “is not natural because no natural phenomenon occurs every seven days.” The year marks one revolution of the Earth around the sun. Months, supposedly, mark the time between full moons. The seven-day week, however, is completely man-made.

If it’s man-made, can’t man unmake it? For all the talk of how freeing it’d be to shave a day or two off the five-day workweek, little attention has been paid to where the weekly calendar came from. Understanding the sometimes arbitrary origins of the modern workweek might inform the movement to shorten it.

The roots of the seven-day week can be traced back about 4,000 years, to Babylon. The Babylonians believed there were seven planets in the solar system, and the number seven held such power to them that they planned their days around it. Their seven-day, planetary week spread to Egypt, Greece, and eventually to Rome, where it turns out the Jewish people had their own version of a seven-day week. (The reason for this is unclear, but some have speculated that the Jews adopted this after their exile in Babylon in the sixth century B.C.) At the very latest, the seven-day week was firmly entrenched in the Western calendar about 250 years before Christ was born.

The earliest recorded use of the word “weekend,” Rybczynski notes, occurred in 1879 in an English magazine called Notes and Queries:

In Staffordshire, if a person leaves home at the end of his week’s work on the Saturday afternoon to spend the evening of Saturday and the following Sunday with friends at a distance, he is said to be spending his week-end at So-and-so.

Some 19th-century Britons used the week's seventh day for merriment rather than for the rest prescribed by scripture. They would drink, gamble, and enjoy themselves so much that the phenomenon of “Saint Monday,” in which workers would skip work to recover from Sunday's gallivanting, emerged. English factory owners later compromised with workers by giving them a half-day on Saturday in exchange for guaranteed attendance at work on Monday.

It took decades for Saturday to change from a half-day to a full day’s rest. In 1908, a New England mill became the first American factory to institute the five-day week. It did so to accommodate Jewish workers, whose observance of a Saturday sabbath forced them to make up their work on Sundays, offending some in the Christian majority. The mill granted these Jewish workers a two-day weekend, and other factories followed this example. The Great Depression cemented the two-day weekend into the economy, as shorter hours were considered a remedy to underemployment.

Nearly a century later, mills have been overtaken by more advanced technologies, yet the five-day workweek remains the fundamental organizing concept behind when work is done. Its obsolescence has been foretold for quite a while now: A 1965 Senate subcommittee predicted Americans would work 14-hour weeks by the year 2000, and before that, back in 1928, John Maynard Keynes wrote that technological advancement would bring the workweek down to 15 hours within 100 years.

There’s reason to believe that a seven-day week with a two-day weekend is an inefficient technology: A growing body of research and corporate case studies suggests that a transition to a shorter workweek would lead to increased productivity, improved health, and higher employee-retention rates.

The five-day workweek might be limiting productivity. A study in the American Journal of Epidemiology found that those who worked 55 hours per week performed more poorly on some mental tasks than those who worked 40 hours per week. And Tony Schwartz, the author of Be Excellent at Anything, told Harvard Business Review that people work best in intense 90-minute bursts followed by periods of recovery. Taken together, these findings suggest that with the right scheduling of bursts and rests, workers could get a similar amount of work done over a shorter period of time.

Moreover, there’s some anecdotal evidence that a four-day workweek might increase productivity. Google’s Larry Page has praised the idea, even if he hasn’t implemented it. And Jason Fried, the CEO of Basecamp, has his employees work four-day, 32-hour weeks for half of the year. “When you have a compressed workweek, you tend to focus on what’s important. Constraining time encourages quality time, ” he wrote an op-ed in The New York Times. “Better work gets done in four days than in five,” he concluded.

Beyond working more efficiently, a four-day workweek appears to improve morale and well-being. The president of the U.K. Faculty of Public Health told the Daily Mail that a four-day workweek could help lower blood pressure and increase mental health among employees. Jay Love of Slingshot SEO saw his employee-retention rate shoot up when he phased in three-day weekends. Following this line of thought, TreeHouse, an online education platform, implemented a four-day week to attract workers, which has contributed to the company's growth.

That said, the five-day workweek might already have so much cultural intertia that it can’t be changed. Most companies can’t just tell employees not to come in on Fridays, because they'd be at a disadvantage in a world that favors the five-day workweek.

But there’s a creative solution to this problem. David Stephens, a consultant based in Houston, detailed in a post on LinkedIn the clever system devised at a company he used to work for. The company was divided into two teams. One would work from 7 a.m. until 6 p.m. from Monday to Thursday, and the other would work those hours from Tuesday to Friday. The teams would switch schedules every week, so every two-day weekend would be followed by a four-day weekend. The results, Stephens reports, were positive. The company was open five days a week, from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. instead of 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. He claims that morale skyrocketed. Employees took fewer sick days, visiting the doctor in off hours rather than during the workday.

In this scenario, employees still work 40-hour weeks, but they do so over the course of four days rather than five. This arrangement still sounds sub-optimal, though, as working at full capacity for 10 hours is more demanding than doing so for eight. Despite that, the employees at Stephens’s company still preferred 40 hours in four days to 40 hours in five days. They might be even happier—and work even better—if they worked fewer hours in addition to fewer days.

Given the ongoing conversation about how most of the old ways are just sitting there, waiting to be disrupted, it’s surprising that the traditional workweek remains wholly intact. On top of that, one would think that the slew of corporate perks deployed to attract top talent would have by now extended to a re-envisioning of the two-day weekend. But it hasn’t.

Of course, the upsides of a four-day weekend have yet to be truly borne out, but there’s a lot of evidence that suggests it’s a good idea. So, for now, there appears to be an untapped way for companies to bring on and retain high-quality employees: Shorten the work-week. And figure out a way to do that before everyone else does.


Here's How Groundhog Day Got Started

T o the unfamiliar, Groundhog Day is perhaps one of America&rsquos weirdest traditions. Every Feb. 2, people wait for a large, furry rodent to see his shadow and then we predict the weather based on the animal&rsquos actions.

But the winter holiday has a long history rooted in everything from early Christian traditions in Europe to 19th century American newspapers. Here is everything you need to know about how Groundhog Day got its start.

The origin story

The idea of Groundhog Day comes from an ancient Christian celebration known as Candlemas Day, which marked the midpoint between the winter solstice and the spring equinox, according to the National Centers for Environmental Information. On Candlemas Day, clergy would bless candles needed for winter and distribute them to the people, the Punxsutawney Groundhog Club’s website says. Superstition held that if the day was sunny and clear, people could expect a long, rough winter, but if the sky was cloudy, warm weather would arrive soon.

The Germans then expanded on this tradition, introducing the hedgehog to the mix. They believed, according to the Groundhog Day website, that if the sun appeared and the hedgehog saw his shadow, there would be six more weeks of bad weather, or a &ldquoSecond Winter.&rdquo

Groundhog Day in the United States

Many of Pennsylvania&rsquos early settlers were German, and they brought this tradition with them, switching the hedgehog for the groundhog, which could be more easily found in their new home, according to the Punxsutawney site.

In 1886, the Punxsutawney Spirit newspaper printed the first news of a Groundhog Day observance. The next year, everything fell into place. The Punxsutawney Groundhog Club celebrated for the first time at Gobbler&rsquos Knob, according to History.com, and the newspaper&rsquos editor declared that Phil, the Punxsutawney groundhog, was America&rsquos official weather-forecasting groundhog.

What Groundhog Day is like today

Since then, the tradition has grown in popularity with many other cities across the country hold their own Groundhog Day celebrations. But none are as elaborate as the one that takes place at Gobbler&rsquos Knob in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania every Feb. 2. This year will by Punxsutawney Phil’s (or rather his descendant’s) 131st prediction.

Tens of thousands of visitors show up for the event each year, according to the official website, and in case you can&rsquot make it in person like Bill Murray in the 1993 hit movie Groundhog Day, there is a live stream of the prediction for all to watch.


8 Shrine Slavery In West Africa


In West Africa, a form of ritual servitude carries on in traditional religious circles. The practice of Trokosi (which translates to &ldquoslave of the gods&rdquo) involves taking young, virginal girls into religious shrines to correct the misdeeds committed by their families. The girls are subjected to sexual abuse, forced hard labor, and a lifetime of shame. They are not allowed to keep any money. The girls&rsquo families must provide the girls with food and clothing. Every aspect of their lives is controlled by the priests who run the shrines and the priests have only to answer to the gods and the shrine owners. The owners of the shrines are usually village elders and hold significant political and economic power.

The sexual abuse is no secret&mdashthe girls have to have sex with the priests whenever they demand. It is said that when the girl has sex with the priest, she is having sex with the gods who the priest serves. The girls are raped so often that priests can have dozens of offspring. This brings even deeper shame upon slaves because the community doesn&rsquot see these children as legitimate, since the girls are married to gods and not to men.

If the family refuses to give up their daughter, the belief is that terrible things will happen to them. It isn&rsquot restricted to immediate family&mdasha terrible crime could require generations of virgin daughters being sent to the shrines. If a girl dies in servitude, the family is required to send another virgin daughter to replace her. Even if released by the priests, she can be forced to return to the shrine, because for the rest of her life, she is considered a slave to the gods. Even though the practice is illegal in countries like Ghana, it still carries on in secret.


January 30, 2014 Day 10 of the Sixth Year - History

New International Version
In the sixth year, in the sixth month on the fifth day, while I was sitting in my house and the elders of Judah were sitting before me, the hand of the Sovereign LORD came on me there.

New Living Translation
Then on September 17, during the sixth year of King Jehoiachin’s captivity, while the leaders of Judah were in my home, the Sovereign LORD took hold of me.

English Standard Version
In the sixth year, in the sixth month, on the fifth day of the month, as I sat in my house, with the elders of Judah sitting before me, the hand of the Lord GOD fell upon me there.

Berean Study Bible
In the sixth year, on the fifth day of the sixth month, I was sitting in my house, and the elders of Judah were sitting before me and there the hand of the Lord GOD fell upon me.

King James Bible
And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I sat in mine house, and the elders of Judah sat before me, that the hand of the Lord GOD fell there upon me.

New King James Version
And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the sixth month, on the fifth day of the month, as I sat in my house with the elders of Judah sitting before me, that the hand of the Lord GOD fell upon me there.

New American Standard Bible
Now it came about in the sixth year, on the fifth day of the sixth month, as I was sitting in my house with the elders of Judah sitting before me, that the hand of the Lord GOD fell upon me there.

NASB 1995
It came about in the sixth year, on the fifth day of the sixth month, as I was sitting in my house with the elders of Judah sitting before me, that the hand of the Lord GOD fell on me there.

NASB 1977
And it came about in the sixth year, on the fifth day of the sixth month, as I was sitting in my house with the elders of Judah sitting before me, that the hand of the Lord GOD fell on me there.

Amplified Bible
It came about in the sixth year [of the captivity of King Jehoiachin], on the fifth day of the sixth month, as I sat in my house [near Babylon] with the elders of Judah sitting before me, that the hand of the Lord GOD fell on me there.

Christian Standard Bible
In the sixth year, in the sixth month, on the fifth day of the month, I was sitting in my house and the elders of Judah were sitting in front of me, and there the hand of the Lord GOD came down on me.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
In the sixth year, in the sixth month, on the fifth day of the month, I was sitting in my house and the elders of Judah were sitting in front of me, and there the hand of the Lord GOD came down on me.

American Standard Version
And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the sixth month , in the fifth day of the month, as I sat in my house, and the elders of Judah sat before me, that the hand of the Lord Jehovah fell there upon me.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And it was in the sixth year, in the fifth day of the sixth month, I had been sitting in my house, and the Elders of Judea were sitting before me, and there the hand of THE LORD OF LORDS fell upon me

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the fifth month, on the fifth day of the month, I was sitting in the house, and the elders of Juda were sitting before me: and the hand of the Lord came upon me.

Contemporary English Version
Six years after King Jehoiachin and the rest of us had been led away as prisoners to Babylonia, the leaders of Judah were meeting with me in my house. On the fifth day of the sixth month, the LORD God suddenly took control of me,

Douay-Rheims Bible
And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I sat in my house, and the ancients of Juda sat before me, that the hand of the Lord God fell there upon me.

English Revised Version
And it came to in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I sat in mine house, and the elders of Judah sat before me, that the hand of the Lord GOD fell there upon me.

Good News Translation
On the fifth day of the sixth month of the sixth year of our exile, the leaders of the exiles from Judah were sitting in my house with me. Suddenly the power of the Sovereign LORD came on me.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
On the fifth day of the sixth month in the sixth year, I was sitting in my home. Judah's leaders were sitting in front of me. The power of the Almighty LORD came over me.

International Standard Version
In the sixth year, on the fifth day of the sixth month, I had just sat down in my house, with the elders of Judah seated in front of me. All of a sudden, the hand of the Lord GOD touched me

JPS Tanakh 1917
And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I sat in my house, and the elders of Judah sat before me, that the hand of the Lord GOD fell there upon me.

Literal Standard Version
And it comes to pass, in the sixth year, in the sixth [month], on the fifth of the month, I am sitting in my house, and [the] elderly of Judah are sitting before me, and there a hand of Lord YHWH falls on me,

NET Bible
In the sixth year, in the sixth month, on the fifth of the month, as I was sitting in my house with the elders of Judah sitting in front of me, the hand of the sovereign LORD seized me.

New Heart English Bible
It happened in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I sat in my house, and the elders of Judah sat before me, that the hand of the Lord GOD fell there on me.

World English Bible
It happened in the sixth year, in the sixth [month], in the fifth [day] of the month, as I sat in my house, and the elders of Judah sat before me, that the hand of the Lord Yahweh fell there on me.

Young's Literal Translation
And it cometh to pass, in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth of the month, I am sitting in my house, and elders of Judah are sitting before me, and fall on me there doth a hand of the Lord Jehovah,

2 Kings 6:32
Now Elisha was sitting in his house, and the elders were sitting with him. The king sent a messenger ahead, but before he arrived, Elisha said to the elders, "Do you see how this murderer has sent someone to cut off my head? Look, when the messenger comes, shut the door to keep him out. Is not the sound of his master's footsteps behind him?"

Ezekiel 1:2
On the fifth day of the month--it was the fifth year of the exile of King Jehoiachin--

Ezekiel 7:27
The king will mourn, the prince will be clothed with despair, and the hands of the people of the land will tremble. I will deal with them according to their conduct, and I will judge them by their own standards. Then they will know that I am the LORD.'"

Ezekiel 8:2
Then I looked and saw a figure like that of a man. From His waist down His appearance was like fire, and from His waist up He was as bright as the gleam of amber.

Ezekiel 14:1
Then some of the elders of Israel came and sat down before me.

Ezekiel 20:1
In the seventh year, on the tenth day of the fifth month, some of the elders of Israel came to inquire of the LORD, and they sat down before me.

Ezekiel 33:22
Now the evening before the fugitive arrived, the hand of the LORD was upon me, and He opened my mouth before the man came to me in the morning. So my mouth was opened and I was no longer mute.

And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I sat in my house, and the elders of Judah sat before me, that the hand of the Lord GOD fell there on me.

Ezekiel 1:2 In the fifth day of the month, which was the fifth year of king Jehoiachin's captivity,

Ezekiel 20:1 And it came to pass in the seventh year, in the fifth month, the tenth day of the month, that certain of the elders of Israel came to inquire of the LORD, and sat before me.

Ezekiel 24:1 Again in the ninth year, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,

Ezekiel 14:1,4 Then came certain of the elders of Israel unto me, and sat before me…

Ezekiel 20:1 And it came to pass in the seventh year, in the fifth month, the tenth day of the month, that certain of the elders of Israel came to inquire of the LORD, and sat before me.

Ezekiel 33:31 And they come unto thee as the people cometh, and they sit before thee as my people, and they hear thy words, but they will not do them: for with their mouth they shew much love, but their heart goeth after their covetousness.

Ezekiel 1:3 The word of the LORD came expressly unto Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar and the hand of the LORD was there upon him.

Ezekiel 3:12,14,22 Then the spirit took me up, and I heard behind me a voice of a great rushing, saying, Blessed be the glory of the LORD from his place…

Ezekiel 37:1 The hand of the LORD was upon me, and carried me out in the spirit of the LORD, and set me down in the midst of the valley which was full of bones,

Verse 1. - And it came to pass, etc. We begin with a fresh date. One year and one month had passed since the vision of Chebar, and had been occupied partly by the acted, partly by the spoken, prophecies of the preceding chapters. In the mean time, things had gone from bad to worse in Jerusalem. In the absence of the higher priests, idolatry was more rampant, and had found its way even into the temple. It is probable that tidings of this had reached Ezekiel, as we know that frequent communications passed between the exiles and those they had left behind (Jeremiah 29:1-3, 9, 25). Directly or indirectly, Elasah the son of Shaphan, and Genesisariah the son of Hilkiah. may have conveyed a message, orally or written, from Jeremiah himself. Some such report may have led to the visit from the elders of Judah, if we understand by that term the exiles of Tel-Abib. I venture, however, on the conjecture that possibly those who came to the prophet were actually visitors who had come from Judah. Elsewhere, as in Ezekiel 14:1 and Ezekiel 20:1, those who thus came are described as "elders of Israel," or the captives (Ezekiel 1:1), "they of the Captivity" (Ezekiel 3:15). In either case, the visions that follow gain a special significance. The prophet becomes the seer. It is given to him to know, in a manner which finds a spurious analogue in the alleged mental travelling of the clairvoyant of modern psychology, what is passing in the city from which the messengers had come - and to show that he knows it. With such facts before his eyes, what other answer can there be than that evil must meet its doom? And so we pass into the second series of prophecies which ends with Ezekiel 13:23. It would seem as if the enquirers had kept silent as well as the prophet. We are not told that they asked anything. His look and manner, perhaps also attitude and gesture, forbade utterance. The hand of the Lord - the trance state - was in the act to fall on him (see notes on Ezekiel 3:14, 22). When the trance state was over, we may think of him as reporting and recording what he had thus seen in vision..

of Judah
יְהוּדָ֖ה (yə·hū·ḏāh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's 3063: Judah -- 'praised', a son of Jacob, also the southern kingdom, also four Israelites


A community of learning

Academic excellence in all subject areas goes hand in hand with learning beyond the classroom. Students achieve outstanding GCSE and A Level results to secure places at leading universities, creating exciting career options. Our exceptional co-curricular programme of sport, clubs, performing arts and outreach into our local community enables students to develop a wonderful range of skills, expertise and interests, alongside high-level academic achievement.


January 30, 2014 Day 10 of the Sixth Year - History

Kathryn R. Fingar, Ph.D., M.P.H., Marguerite L. Barrett, M.S., and H. Joanna Jiang, Ph.D.


Introduction

There have been increasing efforts among healthcare policy makers, payers, and providers to measure and reduce hospital readmissions. Various time frames are used for identifying readmissions: 48 hours, 1 7 days, 2 15 days, 3,4 and 30 days after discharge of an initial stay. 5,6,7 The likelihood of readmission and associated contributing factors vary by the length of postdischarge time. 8,9 Thus, it is important to understand how readmission rates and the conditions associated with the highest readmission rates vary by different postdischarge time frames.

This Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Brief presents data on rates of all-cause 7-day readmissions compared with all-cause 30-day readmissions in 2014. For diagnoses with the highest 7-day readmission rates, the percentage of 30-day readmissions that occurred within 7 days is also presented. Finally, 7-day and 30-day readmission rates are reported by expected payer.

Readmissions include stays for all causes, including planned and unplanned stays. Readmission rates reported by diagnoses reflect the principal diagnosis at the index (i.e., initial) inpatient stay, grouped into broad clinical categories. Condition-specific readmission rates for index stays related to nonspecific clinical categories (e.g., other respiratory diseases), cancer, and pregnancy are not reported. However, these stays contribute to the total readmission rate. All differences between estimates noted in the text are greater than 10 percent.

Diagnoses with the highest readmission rates, 2014
Table 1 presents all-cause 7-day readmission rates following index stays overall and for the top 20 principal diagnoses at the index stay. The top 20 diagnoses with the highest 30-day readmission rates also are shown for comparison. The diagnoses are sorted by the 7-day readmission rate.

  • In 2014, 14 percent of inpatient stays were readmitted within 30 days. More than one-third of these readmissions occurred within 7 days, reflecting a 7-day readmission rate of 5 percent.

Table 1. Top 20 principal diagnoses with the highest 7-day and 30-day readmission rates, 2014
Principal diagnosis at the index stay Index stays, N 7-day readmissions 30-day readmissions
Rank Rate a Rank Rate a
Total inpatient stays 27,698,101 - 5.0 - 13.9
Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders 374,097 1 9.0 2 22.9
Alcohol-related disorders 340,076 2 7.5 4 21.5
Congestive heart failure nonhypertensive 795,709 3 7.4 1 23.2
Heart valve disorders 117,788 4 7.3 14 18.4
Hypertension with complications, secondary hypertension 223,396 5 7.2 6 20.9
Respiratory failure insufficiency arrest (adult) 311,005 6 7.2 3 21.6
Aspiration pneumonitis food/vomitus 128,019 7 7.1 11 19.5
Acute and unspecified renal failure 436,833 8 7.0 8 20.1
Diabetes mellitus with complications 487,947 9 6.9 7 20.5
Complication of device implant or graft 572,761 10 6.7 10 19.7
Septicemia 1,202,893 11 6.7 13 18.5
Deficiency and other anemia 171,160 12 6.6 5 21.2
Intestinal obstruction without hernia 313,596 13 6.6 25 15.2
Fluid and electrolyte disorders 338,954 14 6.5 12 18.8
Abdominal pain 113,331 15 6.5 18 17.2
Complications of surgical procedures or medical care 417,261 16 6.5 15 17.9
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage 331,739 17 6.5 20 16.9
Pancreatic disorders (not diabetes) 276,534 18 6.2 17 17.2
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis 521,955 19 6.1 9 20.1
Acute myocardial infarction 480,338 20 6.1 29 14.2
Intestinal infection 195,644 24 5.7 16 17.5
Peripheral and visceral atherosclerosis 127,624 22 5.8 19 16.9
Notes: Diagnoses are grouped using the Clinical Classification Software (CCS). Only CCS with at least 100,000 index stays are shown "other" CCS that group a nonspecific set of diagnoses, as well as diagnoses related to cancer and pregnancy, are excluded. Highlighting indicates diagnoses that were not ranked in the top 20 for either 7-day or 30-day readmissions.
a Rate per 100 index inpatient stays
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD), 2014

  • In 2014, the 30-day readmission rate was over 2 times higher than the 7-day readmission rate.

Although the rank differed, the leading diagnoses with the highest 7-day readmission rates were largely the same as those with the highest 30-day readmission rates. Index stays with a principal diagnosis of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders had the highest rate of readmission within 7 days (9.0 per 100 index stays) and the second highest rate of readmission within 30 days (22.9 per 100 index stays). Alcohol-related disorders and congestive heart failure (CHF) were also among the diagnoses with the highest 7-day and 30-day readmission rates.

Figure 1. The percentage of 30-day readmissions that occurred within 7 days, overall and for the top 20 diagnoses with the highest 7-day readmission rates, 2014

Notes: Readmission rates are per 100 index inpatient stays. The principal diagnosis is grouped using the Clinical Classification Software (CCS). Only CCS with at least 100,000 index stays are shown "other" CCS that group a nonspecific set of diagnoses, as well as diagnoses related to cancer and pregnancy, are excluded.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD), 2014

  • Over one-third of 30-day readmissions occurred within the first 7 days following discharge. This varied by the principal diagnosis at the index stay.

Overall, 36.1 percent of all 30-day readmissions occurred within 7 days. This ranged from 30.5 percent to 43.6 percent among index diagnoses with the highest 7-day readmission rates. For instance, a larger proportion of patients with intestinal obstruction without hernia at the index stay were readmitted within 7 days than were patients with other diagnoses: 43.6 percent of all 30-day readmissions following index stays with this diagnosis occurred within 7 days. Similarly, among patients with an index stay for acute myocardial infarction, 43.0 percent of all 30-day readmissions occurred within 1 week of discharge.

Figure 2. All-cause 7-day and 30-day readmission rates, by expected payer, 2014

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD), 2014

  • Patterns of 7-day readmissions across expected payers were consistent with the pattern of 30-day readmissions.

For both 7-day and 30-day readmissions, the rate of readmission was highest among patients covered by Medicare (6.1 and 17.3 per 100 index stays, respectively), followed by patients with Medicaid (5.0 and 13.7), no insurance (4.5 and 11.5), and private insurance (3.3 and 8.9).

Table 2. Top five principal diagnoses with the highest 7-day and 30-day readmission rates, by expected payer, 2014
Principal diagnosis Index stays, N 7-day readmissions 30-day readmissions
Rank Rate a Rank Rate a
Medicare
Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders 150,743 1 9.3 3 23.9
Pleurisy pneumothorax pulmonary collapse 50,119 2 8.9 1 24.5
Alcohol-related disorders 67,838 3 8.3 2 24.4
Heart valve disorders 85,682 4 7.9 14 19.9
Hypertension with complications, secondary hypertension 141,206 5 7.7 8 22.6
Deficiency and other anemia 103,430 13 7.1 4 23.3
Congestive heart failure nonhypertensive 613,829 9 7.4 5 23.3
Medicaid
Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders 151,794 1 9.9 6 24.9
Sickle cell anemia 50,187 2 9.8 1 34.4
Alcohol-related disorders 123,583 3 9.3 3 26.1
Congestive heart failure nonhypertensive 78,938 4 9.0 2 28.5
Hypertension with complications, secondary hypertension 33,068 5 8.9 4 25.0
Complication of device implant or graft 71,974 6 8.5 5 25.0
Private
Acute and unspecified renal failure 54,314 1 6.4 3 17.2
Regional enteritis and ulcerative colitis 42,829 2 6.4 4 16.2
Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders 35,493 3 6.2 5 15.8
Congestive heart failure nonhypertensive 67,683 4 6.0 1 18.7
Deficiency and other anemia 29,565 5 6.0 2 17.6
Uninsured
Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders 23,574 1 7.4 4 17.3
Abdominal pain 9,104 2 6.8 8 16.2
Alcohol-related disorders 56,753 3 6.5 1 18.2
Mood disorders 82,318 4 6.5 11 15.3
Complications of surgical procedures or medical care 11,261 5 6.3 7 16.8
Regional enteritis and ulcerative colitis 6,630 — b — b 2 18.1
Complication of device implant or graft 8,777 7 6.1 3 18.1
Congestive heart failure nonhypertensive 21,986 12 5.2 5 17.0
a Rate per 100 index inpatient stays
b Data are suppressed because cell contains fewer than 11 readmissions.
Note: Diagnoses are grouped using the Clinical Classification Software (CCS). Only CCS with at least 50,000 Medicare index stays, 20,000 Medicaid index stays, 25,000 privately insured index stays, and 5,000 uninsured index stays are shown. "Other" CCS that group a nonspecific set of diagnoses, as well as diagnoses related to cancer and pregnancy, are excluded. Highlighting indicates diagnoses that were not ranked in the top five for either 7-day or 30-day readmissions.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD), 2014

  • A principal diagnosis of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders at the index stay was among the top five diagnoses with the highest 7-day readmission rates across all payers.

Index stays with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders had the highest rate of readmission within 7 days for patients with Medicare (9.3 per 100 index stays), Medicaid (9.9), and those who were uninsured (7.4). For patients with private insurance, index stays with schizophrenia had the third highest 7-day readmission rate (6.2 per 100 index stays).

Although rankings differed, the top five diagnoses with the highest 7-day readmission rates were the same as those with the highest 30-day readmission rates for patients with private insurance: acute and unspecified renal failure, regional enteritis and ulcerative colitis, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, CHF, and deficiency and other anemia.

For patients with Medicare, heart valve disorders and hypertension with complications were among the top five diagnoses with the highest 7-day readmission rates, but these diagnoses did not rank in the top five for 30-day readmissions. Instead, deficiency and other anemia and CHF ranked among the top five diagnoses with the highest 30-day readmission rates.

For patients with Medicaid, schizophrenia was among the top five diagnoses with the highest 7-day readmission rates, but this diagnosis did not rank in the top five for 30-day readmissions. Instead, complication of device, implant or graft ranked among the top five diagnoses with the highest 30-day readmission rates.

Figure 3. All-cause 7-day and 30-day readmission rates following index stays for three select conditions, by expected payer, 2014

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD), 2014

  • For septicemia, CHF, and schizophrenia, the pattern of 7-day readmissions across categories of expected payer was consistent with the pattern of 30-day readmissions.

Table 3. All-cause 7-day readmissions as a percentage of 30-day readmissions following index stays for three select conditions, by expected payer, 2014
Expected payer Septicemia Congestive heart failure Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
Number of 30-day readmissions 30-day readmissions within 7 days, % Number of 30-day readmissions 30-day readmissions within 7 days, % Number of 30-day readmissions 30-day readmissions within 7 days, %
Medicare 155,652 35.5 142,967 31.7 36,015 38.8
Medicaid 32,408 37.1 22,464 31.8 37,762 39.7
Private 25,848 36.3 12,685 32.3 5,625 39.2
Uninsured 5,102 41.4 3,738 30.5 4,087 42.7
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD), 2014

  • The percentage of 30-day readmissions that occurred within 7 days was higher for index stays with septicemia or schizophrenia than for those with CHF.

HCUP Statistical Briefs provide basic descriptive statistics on a variety of topics using HCUP administrative healthcare data. Topics include hospital inpatient, ambulatory surgery, and emergency department use and costs, quality of care, access to care, medical conditions, procedures, and patient populations, among other topics. The reports are intended to generate hypotheses that can be further explored in other research the reports are not designed to answer in-depth research questions using multivariate methods.

Data Source

The estimates in this Statistical Brief are based upon data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD).

Definitions

Diagnoses and Clinical Classifications Software (CCS)
The principal diagnosis is that condition established after study to be chiefly responsible for the patient's admission to the hospital.

CCS categorizes ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes into a manageable number of clinically meaningful categories. 10 This clinical grouper makes it easier to quickly understand patterns of diagnoses use. CCS categories identified as Other typically are not reported these categories include miscellaneous, otherwise unclassifiable diagnoses that may be difficult to interpret as a group.

Readmissions
The 30-day readmission rate is defined as the number of admissions for each condition for which there was at least one subsequent hospital admission within 7 or 30 days, divided by the total number of admissions from January through November of the same year. That is, when patients are discharged from the hospital, they are followed for 7 or 30 days in the data. If any readmission to the same or different hospital occurs during the specified time period, the admission is counted as having a readmission. No more than one readmission is counted within the 7- or 30-day period, because the outcome measure assessed is "percentage of admissions that are readmitted." If a patient was transferred to a different hospital on the same day or was transferred within the same hospital, the two events were combined as a single stay and the second event was not counted as a readmission that is, transfers were not considered a readmission.

Every qualifying inpatient stay is counted as a separate initial (starting point) admission, called an index stay. Thus, a single patient can be counted multiple times during the course of the January through November observation period. In addition, index stays do not require a prior "clean period" with no hospitalizations that is, a hospital stay may be a readmission for a prior stay and the initial admission for a subsequent readmission. Admissions were disqualified from the analysis as index stays if they could not be followed for 7 or 30 days for one of the following reasons: (1) the patient died in the hospital, (2) information on length of stay was missing, or (3) the patient was discharged in December.

Types of hospitals included in the HCUP Nationwide Readmissions Database
The Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) is based on data from community hospitals, which are defined as short-term, non-Federal, general, and other hospitals, excluding hospital units of other institutions (e.g., prisons). The NRD includes obstetrics and gynecology, otolaryngology, orthopedic, cancer, pediatric, public, and academic medical hospitals. Excluded are long-term care facilities such as rehabilitation, long-term acute care, psychiatric, and alcoholism and chemical dependency hospitals. However, if a patient received long-term care, rehabilitation, or treatment for a psychiatric or chemical dependency condition in a community hospital, the discharge record for that stay will be included in the NRD.

Unit of analysis
The unit of analysis is the hospital discharge (i.e., the hospital stay), not a person or patient. This means that a person who is admitted to the hospital multiple times in 1 year will be counted each time as a separate discharge from the hospital.

  • Medicare: includes patients covered by fee-for-service and managed care Medicare
  • Medicaid: includes patients covered by fee-for-service and managed care Medicaid
  • Private Insurance: includes Blue Cross, commercial carriers, and private health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and preferred provider organizations (PPOs)
  • Uninsured: includes an insurance status of self-pay and no charge
  • Other: includes Workers' Compensation, TRICARE/CHAMPUS, CHAMPVA, Title V, and other government programs
  • If the primary or secondary expected payer indicates Medicare, then the payer category is assigned to Medicare. This categorization includes patients who are dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid under Medicare.
  • If not Medicare and the primary or secondary expected payer indicates Medicaid, then the payer category is Medicaid.
  • If not Medicare or Medicaid and the primary or secondary expected payer indicates private insurance, then the payer category is private.
  • If not Medicare, Medicaid, or private and the primary expected payer indicates self-pay or no charge, then the payer category is uninsured.
  • Stays for other types of payers are not reported in this Statistical Brief because this is a small group of mixed payers such as State and local programs.

The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP, pronounced "H-Cup") is a family of healthcare databases and related software tools and products developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). HCUP databases bring together the data collection efforts of State data organizations, hospital associations, and private data organizations (HCUP Partners) and the Federal government to create a national information resource of encounter-level healthcare data. HCUP includes the largest collection of longitudinal hospital care data in the United States, with all-payer, encounter-level information beginning in 1988. These databases enable research on a broad range of health policy issues, including cost and quality of health services, medical practice patterns, access to healthcare programs, and outcomes of treatments at the national, State, and local market levels.

HCUP would not be possible without the contributions of the following data collection Partners from across the United States:

Alaska Department of Health and Social Services
Alaska State Hospital and Nursing Home Association
Arizona Department of Health Services
Arkansas Department of Health
California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development
Colorado Hospital Association
Connecticut Hospital Association
District of Columbia Hospital Association
Florida Agency for Health Care Administration
Georgia Hospital Association
Hawaii Health Information Corporation
Illinois Department of Public Health
Indiana Hospital Association
Iowa Hospital Association
Kansas Hospital Association
Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services
Louisiana Department of Health
Maine Health Data Organization
Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission
Massachusetts Center for Health Information and Analysis
Michigan Health & Hospital Association
Minnesota Hospital Association
Mississippi State Department of Health
Missouri Hospital Industry Data Institute
Montana Hospital Association
Nebraska Hospital Association
Nevada Department of Health and Human Services
New Hampshire Department of Health & Human Services
New Jersey Department of Health
New Mexico Department of Health
New York State Department of Health
North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services
North Dakota (data provided by the Minnesota Hospital Association)
Ohio Hospital Association
Oklahoma State Department of Health
Oregon Association of Hospitals and Health Systems
Oregon Office of Health Analytics
Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council
Rhode Island Department of Health
South Carolina Revenue and Fiscal Affairs Office
South Dakota Association of Healthcare Organizations
Tennessee Hospital Association
Texas Department of State Health Services
Utah Department of Health
Vermont Association of Hospitals and Health Systems
Virginia Health Information
Washington State Department of Health
West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources, West Virginia Health Care Authority
Wisconsin Department of Health Services
Wyoming Hospital Association

About the NRD

The HCUP Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) is a calendar-year, discharge-level database constructed from the HCUP State Inpatient Databases (SID) with verified patient linkage numbers that can be used to track a person across hospitals within a State. The 2010-2014 NRD is available for purchase through the HCUP Central Distributor. The NRD is designed to support various types of analyses of national readmission rates. The database includes discharges for patients with and without repeat hospital visits in a year and those who have died in the hospital. Repeat stays may or may not be related. The criteria to determine the relationship between hospital admissions are left to the analyst using the NRD. The NRD was constructed as a sample of convenience consisting of 100 percent of the eligible discharges. Discharge weights for national estimates are developed using the target universe of community hospitals (excluding rehabilitation and long-term acute care hospitals) in the United States. Over time, the sampling frame for the NRD will change thus, the number of States contributing to the NRD will vary from year to year. The NRD is intended for national estimates only no regional, State-, or hospital-specific estimates can be produced.

For More Information

  • HCUP Fast Stats at www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/faststats/landing.jsp for easy access to the latest HCUP-based statistics for health information topics
  • HCUPnet, HCUP's interactive query system, at hcupnet.ahrq.gov/

For a detailed description of HCUP and more information on the design of the Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD), please refer to the following database documentation:

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Overview of the Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Updated December 2016. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/nrdoverview.jsp. Accessed January 31, 2017.

Suggested Citation

Fingar KR (IBM Watson Health), Barrett ML (M.L. Barrett, Inc.), Jiang HJ (AHRQ). A Comparison of All-Cause 7-Day and 30-Day Readmissions, 2014. HCUP Statistical Brief #230. October 2017. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb230-7-Day-Versus-30-Day-Readmissions.pdf.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of Minya Sheng of IBM Watson Health.

AHRQ welcomes questions and comments from readers of this publication who are interested in obtaining more information about access, cost, use, financing, and quality of healthcare in the United States. We also invite you to tell us how you are using this Statistical Brief and other HCUP data and tools, and to share suggestions on how HCUP products might be enhanced to further meet your needs. Please e-mail us at [email protected] or send a letter to the address below:

Sharon B. Arnold, Ph.D., Acting Director
Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857


This Statistical Brief was posted online on October 31, 2017.


1 Colorado Medical Association. Inpatient/Outpatient Billing Manual. February 2014. www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/IP%20and%20OP%20Hospital%20Billing%20Manual%20(February%202014).pdf. Accessed September 15, 2017.
2 Chin DL, Bang H, Manickam RN, Romano PS. Rethinking Thirty-Day Hospital Readmissions: Shorter Intervals Might Be Better Indicators of Quality of Care. Health Affairs (Millwood). 201635(10):1867-75.
3 Michigan Department of Health and Human Services. Medicaid Provider Manual. July 2017. www.mdch.state.mi.us/dch-medicaid/manuals/MedicaidProviderManual.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2017.
4 Texas External Quality Review Organization. Potentially Preventable Readmissions in Texas Medicaid and CHIP Programs. December 2014. hhs.texas.gov/sites/default/files/documents/about-hhs/process-improvement/medicaid-chip-qei/PPR-Statewide-Report-FY2013.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2017.
5 Ibid.
6 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP). April 2016. www.cms.gov/Medicare/Medicare-Fee-for-Service-Payment/AcuteInpatientPPS/Readmissions-Reduction-Program.html. Accessed June 6, 2017.
7 Washington State Health Care Authority. Potentially Preventable Readmissions (PPR) Policy. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) - CY 2016. February 2016. www.wsha.org/wp-content/uploads/WA-PPR-FAQ-Final.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2017.
8 Chin et al., 2016. Op. cit.
9 Herrin J, St Andre J, Kenward K, Joshi MS, Audet AM, Hines SC. Community factors and hospital readmission rates. Health Services Research. 201550(1):20-39.
10 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. HCUP Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) for ICD-9-CM. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Updated October 2016. www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/toolssoftware/ccs/ccs.jsp. Accessed January 31, 2017.
11 The 2013 NRD available for purchase through the HCUP Central Distributor includes the data element for the primary expected payer but not the data element for the secondary expected payer.


The Heat Waves Of The 1930&rsquos

A Washington, D.C. heat wave cartoon from July 28, 1930. The heat wave is pictured trying to break a "sitting record," imitating the popular flagpole sitters of the day. The summer of 1930 set the record in Washington for number of days that temperatures reached or exceeded 100°F, at 11 days. The hottest temperature of 106°F occurred on July 20. Pulitzer Prize winner Clifford Berryman drew the cartoon. Source: The book "Washington Weather."

The heat waves of 1934 and 1936 in Mid West and Great Plains are well known. But, perhaps, what is less well appreciated is that record breaking heat waves were both more extensive geographically and were not just confined to these two years.

The Capital Weather Gang, who write for the Washington Post, wrote this article back in 2010, showing how the heat waves affected Washington DC.

Before there was global warming, there were the dust bowl years of the 1930s, also known as "The Dirty Thirties." The record-setting heat waves and drought of the 1930s occurred during the middle of the Great Depression and contributed to the economic hardship felt throughout the nation. They also occurred when most people did not have the comfort of air conditioning and many heat-related deaths were reported. Two years during that decade were particularly hot for our region, 1930 and 1936. Those two years set heat records in Washington which still stand today.

Keep reading to learn more about the heat waves of 1930 and 1936.

The summer of 1930 made headlines due to unprecedented heat and drought that caused disastrous crop failures throughout the United States. The summer of 1930 ushered in the "Dust Bowl" era of unusually hot, dry summers that plagued the U.S. during much of the 1930s.

Washington area farmers were certainly not spared in 1930, as intense, prolonged hot spells gripped the region during late July and early August. The official temperature recorded on July 20 was 106°F, which holds the record as the highest temperature ever recorded in Washington. Unofficially, 110°F was recorded that same day on Pennsylvania Avenue and 108°F at the National Cathedral. The summer of 1930 also set the record for number of days where temperatures reached or exceeded 100°F at 11 days.

High temperatures of over 100°F were recorded during two heat waves that occurred in late July and early August of 1930. The July heat wave high temperatures are as follows:

July 19 – 102°F
July 20 – 106°F
July 21 – 103°F
July 22 – 100°F
July 23 – 94°F
July 24 – 93°F
July 25 – 100°F
July 26 – 100°F

The August heat wave high temperatures are as follows:

August 2 – 94°F
August 3 – 100°F
August 4 – 102°F
August 5 – 102°F
August 6 – 88°F
August 7 – 97°F
August 8 – 104°F
August 9 – 102°F

By the end of the summer of 1930, approximately 30 deaths in Washington were blamed on the heat and thousands more had died nationwide. In Washington, there has never been another summer with a heat wave that has equalled the summer of 1930.


The Heat Chaser hostess gives a Washington policeman a cold drink, August 4, 1936. Temperatures reached 95°F that day. The hottest day of that summer was July 10 when the temperature reached 105°F.Source: The book "Washington Weather."

The summer of 1936 stands out as one of the hottest summers felt across the entire United States. The heat wave began in early summer, with the Midwest experiencing June temperatures exceeding 100°F in some locations. The heat peaked in July, with all-time records set in many cities. Steele, North Dakota recorded a high temperature of 121°F and portions of Canada saw high temperatures exceed 110°F. In Washington, the temperature reached 104°F on July 9 and 105°F on July 10. More than 5,000 heat-related deaths were reported across the United States. The heat wave and drought of 1936 finally eased in September.

For you snow-lovers, how do you think the winters that followed the heat waves of 1930 and 1936 fared for Washingtonians? I can sum it up in one word, depressing. Of course, if you like tennis weather or afternoon strolls without an overcoat, the winters of 1930/31 and 1936/37 were awesome.

During the winter that followed the 1930 heat wave, there were only 3 days which had temperatures below freezing all day and only 2.5" of snow fell during the entire winter season. Temperatures in the 40’s and 50’s were common during the winter months, with 67°F recorded on January 27.

The winter that followed the heat wave of 1936 was even milder than 1930 for Washington. During that winter, there was only 1 day which had temperatures below freezing all day and temperatures in the 60’s were common throughout the winter months. An amazing high temperature of 76°F was recorded on January 9. A few late season wet snowstorms salvaged the winter for snow in Washington, with a little over 15" reported for the season.

As I mentioned, the article was written in 2010, so how does the summer of 1930 compare with 2012?

The monthly meteorological observations at Laurel MD, the nearest USHCN station to Washington, 50km away suggest that 2012 does not even come close. The monthly reports for July/August are copied below, but can be summarised. (The quality of the 1930 sheets is a bit rough, but the numbers are also confirmed via the Maryland State Climatological Reports).

  1930 2012
No of Days >= 100F 12 2
No of Days >= 95F 21 10
Top Temperature 106F 102F

It is also worth noting that the all-time maximum temperature record for Maryland is 109F, originally set in 1898 and subsequently tied in 1918 and 1936.

 That Speech

We all no doubt remember Obama’s famous “It’s hot today, it must be global warming” speech, delivered last year in Washington. On that day, 25th June, the temperature reached 82F, down the road at Laurel.

It will probably come as no great surprise to learn that the average maximum temperature in June there is 83.8F. Or that the record temperature for June is 101F, set as long ago as 1899.

Or that a temperature of 82F has been exceeded or tied in June on no less than 1992 occasions out a total 3204 days at Laurel.


What Objects Tell the Story of Your Life?

Questions about issues in the news for students 13 and older.

Carefully curating a limited set of objects has lately become a popular way for museums and historians to tell vast histories (e.g., the history of the world, or of New York City). After all, artifacts can help us visualize the past and see complex events as something tangible or relatable.

We can use the same approach to tell our personal histories as well. A sentimental T-shirt, a kindergarten drawing or a dog-eared book? What objects tell the story of your life?

In the Sunday Review essay “Object Lessons in History,” Sam Roberts discusses how telling history through objects is 𠇎merging as history’s lingua franca”:

Five years ago, the BBC and the British Museum collaborated on a hugely successful radio series and book called 𠇊 History of the World in 100 Objects.” Last week, the Smithsonian followed up with its “History of the World in 1,000 Objects.”

It’s not that 900 more transformational artifacts suddenly materialized since 2009. Instead, think of the two histories as 3.2-pound bookends flanking a welter of similar collections that showcase the mesmerizing and metamorphic power of artifacts, from a 230,000-year-old female figurine to a jar of dust collected in Lower Manhattan after 9/11.

Thanks in part to a recent proliferation of best-selling biographies of major political and military figures, history is hot. And objects seem to be emerging as history’s lingua franca. The � Objects” book has been reprinted in 10 languages. Downloads of its companion 15-minute podcasts have topped 35 million. This summer, when the Smithsonian polled the public on the “most iconic” object in its collection, more than 90,000 people weighed in.

That success has not gone unnoticed. The Victoria and Albert Museum in London is currently displaying 99 𠇍isobedient objects” representing movements for social change, including a “Silence = Death” poster created in response to the AIDS epidemic. The Israel Museum is curating 12 objects that define humankind for display next spring.

“It is only in the world of objects that we have time and space,” T. S. Eliot wrote. Think of the marks that things — the wheel, the crucifix, the credit card or the computer chip — have made on civilization.

Students: Read the entire essay, then tell us …

— What objects tell the story of your life? Can you identify five or 10 objects that you would include in an exhibit or book about your life?

— Why did you select each of those objects?

— Do you think telling history through objects is a 𠇊 clever way to hook people on history”? Do objects tell a story that words or images aren’t able to convey quite as effectively?

Students 13 and older are invited to comment below. Please use only your first name. For privacy policy reasons, we will not publish student comments that include a last name.

Comments are no longer being accepted.

I have a few items that share that share the story of my life. It ranges from a childhood stuffed animal to my favorite rabbit hat. I have a massive collection of old mechanical pencils, paints, note books, sketch books, and broken computers and a broken drawing tablet. These all share my love for computers and art. Also, I have a collection of old dog toys and some collars that are from old pets of mine, who sadly, have passed. I even have the skull of a deer with a full pair of antlers, the first deer my grandfather had shot, this shows my love of hunting. I have many other objects, but let’s leave it at that.

I would choose a football, a fishing pole, a dirt bike, a photo of my family, and a math book. These are what I chose because football represents the games of football with friends, the fishing pole is my favorite sport, the dirt bike is my family fun, the photo is so I will always know my family, and the math book is my love of school and education. I do think it was clever but the different objects tell a different story for different people, and they can convoy things can’t.

I have objects that tell my life as well. Lets start with the CD of Backyard Baseball 2003. This game was incredible, especially hitting homers with Griffey and Pablo. But this game had an impact when it really introduced me to the world of sports. Also, I don’t remember how but, I received a Lion’s teddy bear and I soon came to love the Detroit Lions.

My gold crucifix was given to me by my grandmother and it reminds me of my family and the tradition of giving with my ancestors.

Belongings such as pictures are some of the most important because the demonstrate the joy in life and the people you spent it with. Pictures help us reflect on the past and let us remember the highlights of a lifetime.

There are many objects a man can use to tell a story about themselves. If i would to pick some objects, I would pick very mixed story objects to describe myself. My first object would be my watch. A viewer would just see a watch but the viewer needs to think of what the watch really means. It could be I like time, It could be I don’t like to be late, or It could just a fashion statement. Another object I would pick would be my headphones. Me wearing headphones could symbolize two things. 1. I like music or 2. i don’t want you to talk to me at that moment. One more object I would pick is my toothbrush. I like to brush my teeth. I think telling history through objects is not a clever way to “hook” people to history. It could be a helpful way to study lessons in the history class. Someone will get hooked to any idea or objects only if they care. A wise man once said that. That wise man is Coach Trongone.

I have several objects that tell the story of my life. If there were to be a film or novel about me I would include my mobile phone, my first soccerball, my first wrestling shoes, my glasses, and a bracelet my friend gave. My mobile has everything, photos from the day I was born to my sixteenth birthday so that can certainly be included. My first soccerball which I got as a present 8 years ago is still usable and tells the love I have had for the �utiful game”. My first wrestling shoes which I got recently tells a new chapter in my life as I have never wrestled prior to the start of the 2014-2015 school year. My glasses which I got four years ago reminds me the time in my life where my eyesight began to get worse. The bracelet is memorable as it’s a gift from my former best friend, and memories of me and her will live on forever even though we’re not in contact today. Yes, objects are a very clever way of linking people to history. One artifact is a way of reminding us of a certain event in history. Whether it be a time of depression or a “golden age”, there’s always an artifact to show and prove it happened.

I think that objects play a huge role in peoples lives. I know personally I have many objects around my room that bring me back to better days, the majority of them having to do with my summers at sleepaway camp. Every time I look at them, I am transported to the memory, the exact moment where I received whatever that object. I can relive it if only for a second.
The first object may seem strange, but I will explain. There is a tradition at my camp, and theres no name, but we do this quite often. Whenever there is a bunk or people that will bond, they take a spool of yarn and have people go around a circle saying something they like or admire about them or a great memory they had together. Then that person tosses it to the next person while holding the string. Eventually it makes a web. The first yarn, which is green, is from the time Morry’s Camp, a camp for inner city kids that my camp sponsors and raises money for, came to ours and took tours. They experienced gymnastics, UBUILDIT, and both camps climbed an 11 foot wall with no support, just each other. It wasn’t hard because the guys had huge muscles and our guys weren’t so bad either. At the end we did the yarn tradition and I remember feeling very happy that we got to show them how we do things after going to their camp prior. Only CIT’s get to do this. The other piece, which is yellow, was done by only the CIT girls. As it being our last night of camp, we wanted to do this to cheer ourselves up. But when we got the string, our group leader surprised us with MASSIVE amounts of food. The food at camp stinks, and since it is kosher, we only eat chicken as a protein. We made a mess and ate until we were sick, and never ended up doing the tradition, but I wear this anyway because I remember being so safe and content, all of us squished together on the floor of the bunk, eating junk food and remembering the times we had in the last decade we have spent together. It makes me happy, but also melancholy, knowing that I will never see them all again.
The next object is a little peculiar. It is a small wooden arrow, that fits in the hand, and the top and bottom is sawed off. Every year for color war, the camp storyteller affectionately called Lah hides this arrow in a spot in camp then gives clues as to where it is. If you find it, you are a camp legend. The clues get easier every day,and many find it on the third or fourth day. I found it on the second. CITs are allowed to look by themselves. Campers must take a counselor. I was looking under a building called Lakeview and two boys WITHOUT (and I use shouty capitals because some people say I stole it or found it unfairly) a counselor picked it up and we saw and they tried to hide it. One of them dropped it on the ground( a very poor decision, for if it was in his hands, I wouldn’t have taken it) and the other ran for a counselor. The two boys I was with were saying “take it take it!” and the other boy on the other team pleaded with me, but in a decision I don’t remember making, I scooped it up and ran to the office, where I was congratulated by the team leaders and got to show it to Lah. I split the arrow with the two boys who found it, because they were grateful for me being there because they didn’t have a counselor either. I also found the winter arrow, which is the same concept but in the winter over newsletter, and you send in your answer by email. Now I know people won’t forget me when I have to take a year off before I become a full counselor.
The last object is two magazines under the name “Teenink”. It is a collection of teen writing- poetry, short stories, etc. To be published is really, really, hard. They take 150,000 submissions in a year. 60,000 of them are poetry. I was published for my poems, “There is Sweet Music Here” and 𠇎leven Minutes”. I didn’t think they would get published when I sent them, but they did and I had a mini heart attack when I found out I was a published author. I am so grateful for that and I will keep them forever.
Objects play a huge role in my life as described above. There are so many that I wish I could write a whole book, but I can’t.It’s easy to write what I’m passionate about, especially when readers don’t know the experiences at sleepaway camp or know what Teenink is. It might take a small dissertation, but it is so worth it.

What objects would accurately depict my life? To sum up my entire being in a mere 5 things seems like it would be a challenge. However, the list became apparent very quickly. It is who I am. The 5 objects that represent my life include drumsticks, headphones, a folder, two chain links, and a magnifying glass. First, the drumsticks: drumming is embedded deep within my DNA and it is simply what I was born to do. I have been playing drums for over 8 years. It took me the other eight years of my life to realize that drumming made sense to me and went along perfectly with my personality. The reasons that I play drums relate directly to the other four objects that describe my life. A drummer needs to always be listening. This is where the headphones come in. I am always listening, not just hearing. By doing this, I understand things at a deeper level and I am able to be a better person. Whether listening to other people talk or listening to music, having a better understanding of what you’re being exposed to allows you to effectively use your resources and learn. As a drummer, listening allows me to adjust to the music and hold the band together similar to how listening allows me to fully adapt to the world around me. The folder symbolizes organization, which is also essential for a drummer to have. I am extremely obsessive, compulsive, and picky when it comes to staying organized. My bedroom is always spotless so that I am better able to function throughout the day. The same goes for drums. By having my musical ideas organized, I fill my place in any musical setting without overdoing it. For the purpose of both playing drums and being able to function as a human, organization enables me to be efficient and fulfill my responsibilities, no matter what I’m doing. Next are the two chain links. These represent my love for social interaction and connecting with people. I enjoy getting to know interesting people and making new friends in unfamiliar situations. One of the ways I connect with people is through drumming. Music is a universal language that helps draw people together. When I play in front of people, there is a profound energy that fills me up as I see people bob theirs heads and tap their heels on the ground. Lastly, the magnifying glass is a symbol of my curiosity. In the future I plan on traveling to exotic places, discovering new things, and being exposed to all the amazing things our planet has to offer. I strive to constantly be learning and experimenting on drums, as well. I try to expose myself to all types of music so that I can be exposed to the infinite amounts of wonderful sounds. Drumming is a direct metaphor for my life as a whole and I often use it to help me get through difficult times. The same is true the other way around. When I am challenged with a new musical endeavor, I see it as any other challenge in life.

There are many objects that tell a story in my life. For example, my golf clubs, my money, and my books are very important to me and they say who I am today. Each object has a story behind it. My golf clubs are very important to me. My dad started me on golf and ever since I started, I can’t stop. We have spent most of our quality time together while playing golf. If it wasn’t for golf, I wouldn’t be as close to my dad as I am today. I can speak to my dad about anything and that’s mostly because of golf. While playing golf with my dad, I can get anything off of my chest. I feel as if golf is my safe haven and when I’m with my dad, I look at him like my best friend. If it weren’t for my golf clubs I wouldn’t have the special connection with my dad like I do today. Money is a very important object in my life. I work as much as I can so I can get the most amount of money that’s possible. I don’t use money for me. I save up a lot of my money so I can get a present for someone in my family for their birthday. They are always surprised when I get them a present but by now they should know what’s coming. I work a lot for them. They truly deserve it because of all the things they did. They supported me through everything and they were there when I needed them most. They deserve the money more than I do. I appreciate everything they did for me and I will never forget what they went through for me. The most important object that tells my story are my books. My studies and books for school are the most important things in my life. They really show who I am. The books show who I am because I put a lot of effort into my schoolwork. I am determined to do well in school because I want everybody in my family to be proud of what I’ve become. The best way to make them proud is to do well in school and make something of myself that makes a difference in the world. If I do well in school then everyone will be proud of me, and if everyone is proud of me then I am proud of myself. If I am proud of myself then I will feel accomplished in what I have done. I am more determined in my schoolwork than with anything else. I really want to make something out of myself. The best way of making something out of myself is from doing well in my books. My books and studies are the most important things in my life.

I have several items that give a clear representation of my life. It ranges from my mobile cellular smart phone to my pair of awesome bronze Adidas wrestling shoes. Every object I have that represents me, represents me because of the experience i went through with it. Each item that i treasure expresses me for who i am. My smart phone, which is a galaxy s Three, represents me clearly because it shows that im a social person and that im very modern, it also helped me a lot through out my life like studying for a test or communicating with friends and family . I also own a very colorful clothing, my colorful clothing express’s me because it shows that i can i have fun, because being colorful means that your not afraid of being different and like to combine, and people who are not afraid of being different often has fun. I also own a bench and weights, I adore my workout equipment, because fitness is my life and I love to workout, it is a good way to be in shape and a good way to feel good, I also love my bench and weight set because it helps me not to procrastinate and make something out of myself. All of my workout equipment represents me because it shows my determination to become stronger. Out of everything I own in this world, my most prize possession would probably be my wrestling shoes, its not the shoes that I like, its the story and principle my shoes tell. That pair of wrestling shoes tells the story of my first varsity wrestling match, which i won of course. Also the shoes are a little wear and tear, and people told me to go fix it but i rather not because that pair of shoes tells the story of my hardship that had to go through, every scratch and rip on that pair of wrestling shoes means something, something special that can’t be replaced. I do believe that certain objects can tell a lot about a person, but its not the object that can tell a persons story, its the experience that, that one person went through with that object. A piece of paper that says “Korean” can describe me, because i am Korean, but it can`t tell my story unless i went through a hard experience with it. An object is only good if you go through an experience with it, if not its just an object or thing.

Everybody has objects that tell about them, about their attitude, past, and who they really are. I personally think I have a lot of objects that tell the story of my life, from my old teddy bears to prizes I earned by singing and art, etc. But something that is really important to me and plays a big role in my life, is art. From messy paint brushes to broken color pencils, everything I ever used to make art and continue to do so, will forever be with me, the biggest treasure box of all time! Messy shirts and crayon flakes, there’s nothing more than I would prefer keeping with me.
Objects do definitely tell a story that words can not. When I paint and draw, I reflect who I am as a person, what I think like, what I feel. From a very young age I have been the shy type, I did not open up about my feelings and emotions toward different things. But the one way I have learnt to open up is through the beauty of art, just drawing what I feel, when I used to be stressed out or angry, I just take out a piece of paper and just start drawing, or get a canvas and start to paint. Bundles of messy art work by me when I was five is still kept safe. My parents have many times tried sending me to drawing classes, but it never really worked out. Why? because art classes are classes that have rules, there are boundaries, their system is to tell us what to draw, how to do it, in a particular way, and I did not like that, I had my own style, I found who I really was as a person. And I really enjoyed just doing my own thing. Sometimes my drawings could be a little scary, dark, sometimes really bright and happy, this shows my emotions and efforts and time put into something I am really passionate about.
Another object that tells the story of my life would be pictures. My family is a family full of photographers, I have been having cameras snapping me for as long as I can remember. I own two hard drives with lots and lots of pictures from years ago until today. Every single one will be saved twice incase I lose a hard drive. Pictures play such a big role in my life as much as art does. This is because even though the people in pictures change, the memories never do. I capture so many special moments from my trips to India, my vacation to my home place Dubai, to different places and with special people. Looking through them when I have the time, laughing at funny images, just brings me pure joy. Because each time I draw, click pictures, see what I’ve done each minute of my life, I am truly proud of who I have become, and this happiness shows who I really am.

I have many objects that tell the story of my life(my mother calls it junk, but I disagree).Some of the objects are souvenirs that I’ve gotten such as a giant NASA pencil that I got from visiting a space center in Mississippi when I was younger.The pencil represents how much I used to love science, although now I don’t care for it as much.I also have a bunch of Disney character pins that i bought and collected on a trip to Florida.The pins show my love for Disney.Another object is a large coin that has facts about a ship called the Intrepid,which has a bunch of different planes on it , that i went to one summer.It shows how much I used to love the idea of becoming a pilot, although now it’s clear that I definitely cannot fly a plane.Another object of mine(actually it’s more than one) is the dance recital outfits and dance shoes that I’ve kept over the years.They show my love for dancing.The shoes represent what type of dance I’ve taken.I have tap shoes(obviously for tap dancing), and ballet shoes for when I took ballet, jazz, and then hip hop.I selected these items because I think they tell more about my personal history than most of the objects that I have.I think that telling history through objects would definitely attract or “hook” more people on history because it’s more interesting.I think that objects definitely tell a story that words and images wouldn’t convey as effectively.I believe that words are good for explanations but explanations are boring and not as captivating.And images are a good visual tool but they can also have many different interpretations.Also objects can be more hands on which captivates most people.I remember going to a children’ s museum where everything was hands on or objects on display and I thought that it was so much fun and so much more interesting than a regular museum or listening to a presentation.

I have a few objects that tell the story of my life. If I wanted to write a book or movie about my life i feel like I could write/film forever. My life consists of many memories and ideas because I have a really good memory. If I had an object to put in a book I𠆝 put my large family, since I come from an indian background I have many cousins. Another item that is important to me is my ipod and headphones, the headphones are to hear the music from the iPod. After I began taking music technology and began composing music on a computer listening to music becomes different. I start to listen to the little things rather than the little and then you can actually judge how good or bad the song is because of how the song is put together and how it flows. I am obsessed with flashy Nikes or Jordans and anyone that actually knows me would say that I like collecting shoes and would like to work at Footlocker because I could get all the newest shoes. I also love basketball and have been playing it since I was almost 6, I grew up with people that also liked basketball so I just began playing with them whenever I could, so i𠆝 include a basketball in my book. My favorite basketball player is Allen Iverson i’ve learned that from him even though he’s not as tall as the other basketball players in the NBA he still made an impact on the NBA and showed people that it takes heart to play the game. So yes, I do agree that telling history through objects is a clever way to represent the past because it’s easier to understand something from the past that is tangible.

I like the idea of using objects to represent the history of the world. This tells different stories to make up the entire existence of culture during those times. There are certain objects I have that tell my story. An example is a Yankee jersey my dad bought me when I was about eight. This reminds me of the days my dad and I would go to the baseball games and have wonderful times, it later had a part of why I played softball for seven years. Another example is a necklace that used to belong to my uncle before he passed away. My uncle died of cancer when I was thirteen. He spent about four months with when he was sick until the day he passed. His necklace is something I hold on to. It reminds me of him. I became stronger since then, the necklace represents my new growth and maturity in that situation. My next example would be my dance shoes. Dance became one of my passions over the last four years. I love the feeling of using movement to express my feelings. Dance is also demanding I learned how to keep myself scheduled. It makes me determined as a person, it taught me that I must have the right attitude and perspective on any situation. Whether it be a new dance turn to learn or class material I know in order to do my best I must want it. Objects have many stories to them that are most likely untold. Our history is in these objects and we must embrace it.

I have some objects that can represent my life. My sport shoes first show that I really love sport and it has a big place in my life. I have had those shoes since I was 9 and I want to keep them.
My watch is very important too because I don’t feel good when I don’t wear it. I hate being late and I always want to check what time is it.
In my computer, there’s all my photos and some things really important for me, like my phone. If I lost them, I lost a part of my life.
There’s other objects that can represent my life but those are the most important.

I have lots of objects which represent something that happened in my life !
First, my flute, it’s soooo important to me, I’ve done it for six years and I loooove it so much !
Second, my scuba diving log because it represents all the diving I’ve done and for a long time : seven years like half my life …
Finally I love my equipment of scuba diving because it’s represent the dinving and when i see them, I feel good again even in winter.

I have keep a lot of child souvenirs.
I keep my books from preschool and they are very imporant for me. They symbolise my earthly childhood. Sometimes I read them. The first draw was particurly missed. Also i have a collections of plane
ticket like that i remenber my holidays destinations.
When i was in Marroco by example, i keep money (yem).

I have some objects that tell the story of my life.
First, my TV. I can’t live without my tv. I watch movies and series every time I have the chance do it.
Second, my books. My books. I love to read so much. It’s one of my charateristic. It’s bound with my passion of movies: I read the books and than I see the movie adaptation or, sometimes, the serie ( like Game of Thrones).

The objects that tell the story of my life have to be my books and my CDs. From Of Mice and Men to the Fault in Our Stars. Or from Mozart to Panic! At The Disco. The display is varied and diverse. We choose objects that tell a story about ourselves based on how they make us feel and what they stand for. For me, music is a symbol of emotion, work, and energy. I wouldn’t be me without my music and I’m not trying to be a stereotypical teenager by saying that. Objects are an amazing way of telling history. They capture emotions and spark thoughts that words can’t ever manage. Think about the remains from 9/11. Seeing it makes it almost more real. Seeing someone in person is WAY different from talking on the phone or texting. In our lives, objects create symbols or memories in our lives that are important to us.

I would have to choose a mechanical pencil (0.5), a note pad, a camera, a notebook, a pen, a good book, my favorite video game, a lego ship, my sweatshirt, and my scrapbook.
These objects are what I think define my the most, they make me happy.
I think objects would help people want to learn about history. They would wonder where the objects came from or how they were used.

First of all, at least a few of my notebooks. Despite the horrible quality of my handwriting, before I got a phone or an iPad, my writings had to stay in little books. I would generally dedicate one notebook to each project, subsequently forgetting the previous project, to the exasperation of my parents. They held the stories I wrote up until about the sixth grade, where my writing evolved into my iPad and was lost when it was taken away.
Second, my cellphone and some of the pictures on it. One of my favorite pastimes is to take photographs of the world around me. Therefore, my phone is filled with photos and screenshots of things I have enjoyed over the year or so I’ve owned it.
Third, the contents of my bookshelf. Books have been my everything since I became able to read. Reading has always been important to me. Also, I rarely get rid of books so my shelves are full of books I’ve owned for years. They are central to my life and show how my tastes have evolved over time.
Fourth, my t-shirt collection. As all who have known me well have noticed, my t-shirts tend to be witty or belong to a fandom of mine. They are things I have selected carefully to fit me and my personality. They represent my interests and loves throughout my life.
Finally, a small sampling of artifacts, too small to be displayed by themselves. These include:
My grey converses, which I have worn almost every day.
A yellow and blue bracelet, which I made last year in summer camp to always remind me of a friend who wore a hat of those colors.
A red bracelet, formerly adorned with a Harley Quinn design, which I have worn everyday and was part of a pair with a green Joker bracelet until I gave the green one to a camp counselor I really liked.
My blue beanie, a prized possession I would be lost without.
And a pencil, one of which I keep behind my ear always.

Objects that tell the story of my life range from my Blackhawks jersey, to my lucky sweatshirt that I got at a Notre Dame hockey game! I chose the jersey because my favorite NHL team is, and always will be, the Chicago Blackhakws. Also, the jersey represents my love for hockey. My lucky sweatshirt is pretty self explanatory, I have been very lucky while wearing it. For example, my brother won his toughest game of the season while I was wearing the sweatshirt. It just brings me good luck!

What a few objects that can tell a story in my life from a museum/exhibit or a book. I would include my family, soccer, shopping, friendly, fun. I selected these certain objects is because I can’t live without my family and the rest of the objects are things I like yo do and that describe me. I don’t really think that by using objects it can help hook many people but I think it will hook more than they already have wanting to learn about history. Yes objects can tell a picture or a story, objects can give a person a hint about what they are talking about even if they have no clue what the topic is. Objects can draw a picture in your head and make you understand something that maybe you don’t understand or if you do understand it will make you conclude what the main idea of the story/object better. Why I decided to pick these certain objects is because family I can not live without, soccer I play and I really love it! Shopping is because I really enjoy to shop. Friendly, because I love seeing my friends and meeting new people. Of course Fun, I love to have fun and make me and others happy by laughing, joking around and many more. I have many more but here are just a few.

The objects that tell the story of my life are dance shoes, picture of my dog, and a Spanish book. Objects that I would put in an exhibit or book would be dance shoes, a picture of my dog, a copy of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets in Spanish, headphones, and a smiley face sticker.
I selected all of these objects because they are my life. I wear my dance shoes every day because I dance so much and I love them, a picture of my dog because once we got her my life has never been the same as it use to, she always makes me happy. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets is important to my life because it was the first chapter book that I read in Spanish and it was a big accomplishment. I would put headphones as an object because I listen to music so much. I would have a smiley face sticker because they make me happy and my dad always tells me to put a smile on my face.
I think that using objects is 𠇊 clever way to hook people on history” but it might be very confusing because you don’t know what the objects mean to the person if it is not clear enough. Also words that describe what it means to you. They help so that people looking at the object can then know what it means to you.

There are a small amount of objects that could be used to define my life so far. A few are my cedar point wristband, my gymnastics mat, and my Missouri tiger ears. My cedar point wristband shows my extreme love for roller coasters and reveals my dare-devilish personality. My gymnastics mat represents my long history as a gymnast and my many hours of practice and dedication to the sport. My Missouri tiger ears show that I am a Missouri fan and my past of visiting Missouri to watch their games which shows my love for their team. I think these objects reveal more pieces of my life but does not show the entire puzzle. There is so much more information about me that is not based off of an object.

The 10 objects that I would include in an exhibit or book about my life is a basketball, an iPod, beats headphones, basketball shoes, basketball clothes, meat, a cross, homework, movies. I selected these objects because I love basketball, I am on my iPod a lot, I said my beats because I love listening to music with them, I love basketball shoes and I have a lot of pairs, basketball clothes because I wear them a lot, meat because I love every type of meat such as steak, chicken, fried chicken, salmon, tilapia, and many others, a cross for peace, homework because we have a lot of homework each day, and movies because I watch a ton of movies. Yes, objects is a clever way to hook people on history.


Watch the video: HISTORY IN HINDSIGHT: JANUARY 30 (June 2022).


Comments:

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